EDGAR ALLAN POE (/poʊ/ ; born EDGAR POE; January 19, 1809 –
October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic .
Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his
tales of mystery and the macabre . He is widely regarded as a central
Romanticism in the United States and American literature as
a whole, and he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the
short story. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the detective
fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the
emerging genre of science fiction . He was the first well-known
American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone,
resulting in a financially difficult life and career.
Poe was born in
Boston , the second child of two actors. His father
abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year.
Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of
Richmond, Virginia . They never formally adopted him, but Poe was with
them well into young adulthood. Tension developed later as John Allan
and Edgar repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by
gambling, and the cost of secondary education for the young man. Poe
University of Virginia for one semester but left due to
lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his
education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It
was at this time that his publishing career began, albeit humbly, with
the anonymous collection of poems _
Tamerlane and Other Poems _ (1827),
credited only to "a Bostonian". With the death of Frances Allan in
1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement. However, Poe
later failed as an officer cadet at
West Point , declaring a firm wish
to be a poet and writer, and he ultimately parted ways with John
Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years
working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his
own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among
several cities, including
Philadelphia , and New York City
. In Richmond in 1836, he married Virginia Clemm , his 13-year-old
cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "
The Raven " to
instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its
publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own
journal _The Penn_ (later renamed _
The Stylus _), though he died
before it could be produced. Poe died in
Baltimore on October 7, 1849,
at age 40; the cause of his death is unknown and has been variously
attributed to alcohol, brain congestion, cholera , drugs, heart
disease, rabies , suicide, tuberculosis, and other agents.
Poe and his works influenced literature in the United States and
around the world, as well as in specialized fields such as cosmology
and cryptography . Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture
in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are
dedicated museums today. The
Mystery Writers of America present an
annual award known as the
Edgar Award for distinguished work in the
* 1 Life and career
* 1.1 Early life
* 1.2 Military career
* 1.3 Publishing career
* 2 Death
* 2.1 Griswold\'s "Memoir"
* 3 Literary style and themes
* 3.1 Genres
* 3.2 Literary theory
* 4 Legacy
* 4.1 Literary influence
* 4.2 Physics and cosmology
* 5 In popular culture
* 5.1 As a character
* 5.2 Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums
* 6 Selected list of works
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 8.1 Sources
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
LIFE AND CAREER
_ This plaque in
Boston marks the approximate_ location where
Edgar Poe was born.
He was born Edgar Poe in
Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child
of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David
Poe, Jr. . He had an elder brother
William Henry Leonard Poe , and a
younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had
emigrated from Cavan , Ireland to America around the year 1750. Edgar
may have been named after a character in
William Shakespeare 's _King
Lear _, a play that the couple were performing in 1809. His father
abandoned their family in 1810, and his mother died a year later from
consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis ). Poe was then taken into the
home of John Allan, a successful Scottish merchant in Richmond,
Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, cloth,
wheat, tombstones, and slaves . The Allans served as a foster family
and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally
The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812.
John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster
son. The family sailed to Britain in 1815, and Poe attended the
grammar school for a short period in Irvine , Scotland (where John
Allan was born) before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There
he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817. He was
subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School
Stoke Newington , then a suburb 4 miles (6.4 km) north of London.
Poe moved with the Allans back to
Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In
1824, Poe served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard
as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette . In
March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt,
said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, died, leaving Allan
several acres of real estate. The inheritance was estimated at
$750,000. By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by
purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia.
Poe may have become engaged to
Sarah Elmira Royster before he
registered at the one-year-old
University of Virginia in February 1826
to study ancient and modern languages. The university, in its
infancy, was established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson
. It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco, and
alcohol, but these rules were generally ignored. Jefferson had enacted
a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their
own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and report all
wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos, and
there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch
with Royster and also became estranged from his foster father over
gambling debts. Poe claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient
money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish
a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe's
debts increased. Poe gave up on the university after a year, not
feeling welcome in Richmond, especially when he learned that his
sweetheart Royster had married Alexander Shelton. He traveled to
Boston in April 1827, sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and
newspaper writer. At some point, he started using the pseudonym Henri
Poe was first stationed at Boston's Fort Independence while in
Poe was unable to support himself, so he enlisted in the United
States Army as a private on May 27, 1827, using the name "Edgar A.
Perry". He claimed that he was 22 years old even though he was 18. He
first served at Fort Independence in
Boston Harbor for five dollars a
month. That same year, he released his first book, a 40-page
collection of poetry titled _
Tamerlane and Other Poems _, attributed
with the byline "by a Bostonian". Only 50 copies were printed, and the
book received virtually no attention. Poe's regiment was posted to
Fort Moultrie in
Charleston, South Carolina and traveled by ship on
the brig _Waltham_ on November 8, 1827. Poe was promoted to
"artificer", an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for artillery ,
and had his monthly pay doubled. He served for two years and attained
the rank of Sergeant Major for
Artillery (the highest rank that a
noncommissioned officer could achieve); he then sought to end his
five-year enlistment early. He revealed his real name and his
circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard. Howard
would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with John Allan
and wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic. Several months
passed and pleas to Allan were ignored; Allan may not have written to
Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother's illness. Frances
Allan died on February 28, 1829, and Poe visited the day after her
burial. Perhaps softened by his wife's death, John Allan agreed to
support Poe's attempt to be discharged in order to receive an
appointment to the
United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy at West Point.
Poe finally was discharged on April 15, 1829, after securing a
replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. Before entering West
Point, Poe moved back to
Baltimore for a time to stay with his widowed
aunt Maria Clemm, her daughter Virginia Eliza Clemm (Poe's first
cousin), his brother Henry, and his invalid grandmother Elizabeth
Cairnes Poe. Meanwhile, Poe published his second book _Al Aaraaf,
Tamerlane and Minor Poems_ in
Baltimore in 1829.
Poe traveled to
West Point and matriculated as a cadet on July 1,
1830. In October 1830, John Allan married his second wife Louisa
Patterson. The marriage and bitter quarrels with Poe over the
children born to Allan out of affairs led to the foster father finally
disowning Poe. Poe decided to leave
West Point by purposely getting
court-martialed . On February 8, 1831, he was tried for gross neglect
of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations,
classes, or church. Poe tactically pleaded not guilty to induce
dismissal, knowing that he would be found guilty.
He left for New York in February 1831 and released a third volume of
poems, simply titled _Poems._ The book was financed with help from his
fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the
cause, raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses
similar to the satirical ones that Poe had been writing about
commanding officers. It was printed by Elam Bliss of New York,
labeled as "Second Edition," and including a page saying, "To the U.S.
Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated". The book once
again reprinted the long poems "Tamerlane" and "Al Aaraaf" but also
six previously unpublished poems, including early versions of "To
Helen ", "Israfel ", and "
The City in the Sea ". He returned to
Baltimore to his aunt, brother, and cousin in March 1831. His elder
brother Henry had been in ill health, in part due to problems with
alcoholism, and he died on August 1, 1831.
After his brother's death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start
his career as a writer. He chose a difficult time in American
publishing to do so. He was the first well-known American to try to
live by writing alone and was hampered by the lack of an
international copyright law. Publishers often produced unauthorized
copies of British works rather than paying for new work by Americans.
The industry was also particularly hurt by the
Panic of 1837 . There
was a booming growth in American periodicals around this time period,
fueled in part by new technology, but many did not last beyond a few
issues and publishers often refused to pay their writers, or paid
them much later than they promised. Throughout his attempts to live
as a writer, Poe repeatedly had to resort to humiliating pleas for
money and other assistance. In 1835, Poe, then 26, obtained a
license to marry his 13-year-old cousin Virginia Clemm . They were
married for eleven years until her early death, which may have
inspired some of his writing.
After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to
prose. He placed a few stories with a
Philadelphia publication and
began work on his only drama _Politian _. The _
Visiter _ awarded Poe a prize in October 1833 for his short story "MS.
Found in a Bottle ". The story brought him to the attention of John
P. Kennedy , a Baltimorean of considerable means. He helped Poe place
some of his stories, and introduced him to Thomas W. White, editor of
Southern Literary Messenger _ in Richmond . Poe became assistant
editor of the periodical in August 1835, but was discharged within a
few weeks for having been caught drunk by his boss. Returning to
Baltimore, Poe obtained a license to marry his cousin Virginia on
September 22, 1835, though it is unknown if they were married at that
time. He was 26 and she was 13.
He was reinstated by White after promising good behavior, and went
back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the
_Messenger_ until January 1837. During this period, Poe claimed that
its circulation increased from 700 to 3,500. He published several
poems, book reviews, critiques, and stories in the paper. On May 16,
1836, he and Virginia Clemm held a Presbyterian wedding ceremony at
their Richmond boarding house, with a witness falsely attesting
Clemm's age as 21.
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket _ was published and
widely reviewed in 1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant
editor of _Burton\'s Gentleman\'s Magazine _. He published numerous
articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a
trenchant critic which he had established at the _Southern Literary
Messenger_. Also in 1839, the collection _Tales of the Grotesque and
Arabesque _ was published in two volumes, though he made little money
from it and it received mixed reviews. Poe left _Burton's_ after
about a year and found a position as assistant at _Graham\'s Magazine
In June 1840, Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to
start his own journal called _
The Stylus _. Originally, Poe intended
to call the journal _The Penn_, as it would have been based in
Philadelphia. In the June 6, 1840 issue of Philadelphia's _Saturday
Evening Post _, Poe bought advertising space for his prospectus:
_"Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary journal to be
edited and published in the city of
Philadelphia by Edgar A. Poe."_
The journal was never produced before Poe's death.
Around this time, he attempted to secure a position with the Tyler
administration, claiming that he was a member of the Whig Party . He
hoped to be appointed to the
Custom House in
Philadelphia with help
from President Tyler's son Robert, an acquaintance of Poe's friend
Frederick Thomas. Poe failed to show up for a meeting with Thomas to
discuss the appointment in mid-September 1842, claiming to have been
sick, though Thomas believed that he had been drunk. Though he was
promised an appointment, all positions were filled by others.
Poe spent the last few years of his life in this small cottage in
Fordham , in what is now the Bronx .
One evening in January 1842, Virginia showed the first signs of
consumption, now known as tuberculosis , while singing and playing the
piano. Poe described it as breaking a blood vessel in her throat. She
only partially recovered. Poe began to drink more heavily under the
stress of Virginia's illness. He left _Graham's_ and attempted to find
a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned
to New York where he worked briefly at the _Evening Mirror_ before
becoming editor of the _
Broadway Journal _ and, later, sole owner.
There he alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of plagiarism , though Longfellow never
responded. On January 29, 1845, his poem "
The Raven " appeared in the
_Evening Mirror_ and became a popular sensation. It made Poe a
household name almost instantly, though he was paid only $9 for its
publication. It was concurrently published in _The American Review: A
Whig Journal _ under the pseudonym "Quarles".
The _Broadway Journal_ failed in 1846. Poe moved to a cottage in
Fordham , New York , in what is now the Bronx . That home is known
today as the "Poe Cottage" on the southeast corner of the Grand
Concourse and Kingsbridge Road, where he befriended the
Jesuits at St.
John's College nearby (now
Fordham University ). Virginia died there
on January 30, 1847. Biographers and critics often suggest that Poe's
frequent theme of the "death of a beautiful woman" stems from the
repeated loss of women throughout his life, including his wife.
Poe was increasingly unstable after his wife's death. He attempted to
Sarah Helen Whitman who lived in
Providence, Rhode Island .
Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and
erratic behavior. There is also strong evidence that Whitman's mother
intervened and did much to derail their relationship. Poe then
returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with his childhood
sweetheart Sarah Elmira Royster.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe is buried at Westminster Hall in Baltimore,
Maryland (Lat: 39.29027; Long: -76.62333). The circumstances and cause
of his death remain uncertain. Main article: Death of Edgar Allan
On October 3, 1849, Poe was found delirious on the streets of
Baltimore, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate
assistance", according to Joseph W. Walker who found him. He was
taken to the Washington Medical College where he died on Sunday,
October 7, 1849 at 5:00 in the morning. Poe was never coherent long
enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition and, oddly,
was wearing clothes that were not his own. He is said to have
repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his
death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say
that Poe's final words were "Lord help my poor soul". All medical
records have been lost, including his death certificate.
Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the
brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common euphemisms for deaths from
disreputable causes such as alcoholism. The actual cause of death
remains a mystery. Speculation has included _delirium tremens _,
heart disease , epilepsy , syphilis , meningeal inflammation ,
cholera , and rabies . One theory dating from 1872 suggests that
cooping was the cause of Poe's death, a form of electoral fraud in
which citizens were forced to vote for a particular candidate,
sometimes leading to violence and even murder.
The day that
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was buried, a long obituary appeared in
New York Tribune _ signed "Ludwig". It was soon published
throughout the country. The piece began, "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He
Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will
startle many, but few will be grieved by it." "Ludwig" was soon
Rufus Wilmot Griswold , an editor, critic, and
anthologist who had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold
somehow became Poe's literary executor and attempted to destroy his
enemy's reputation after his death.
Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of
the Author", which he included in an 1850 volume of the collected
works. Griswold depicted Poe as a depraved, drunken, drug-addled
madman and included Poe's letters as evidence. Many of his claims
were either lies or distorted half-truths. For example, it is now
known that Poe was not a drug addict. Griswold's book was denounced
by those who knew Poe well, but it became a popularly accepted one.
This occurred in part because it was the only full biography available
and was widely reprinted, and in part because readers thrilled at the
thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Letters that Griswold
presented as proof of this depiction of Poe were later revealed as
LITERARY STYLE AND THEMES
1845 portrait by
Samuel Stillman Osgood
Poe's best known fiction works are Gothic , a genre that he followed
to appease the public taste. His most recurring themes deal with
questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of
decomposition, concerns of premature burial , the reanimation of the
dead, and mourning . Many of his works are generally considered part
of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to
transcendentalism which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to
followers of the transcendental movement as "Frog-Pondians", after the
Boston Common , and ridiculed their writings as "metaphor
—run mad," lapsing into "obscurity for obscurity's sake" or
"mysticism for mysticism's sake". Poe once wrote in a letter to
Thomas Holley Chivers that he did not dislike Transcendentalists,
"only the pretenders and sophists among them".
Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires, humor tales, and hoaxes . For
comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an
attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity.
Metzengerstein " is the first story that Poe is known to have
published and his first foray into horror, but it was originally
intended as a burlesque satirizing the popular genre. Poe also
reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging
technologies such as hot air balloons in "The Balloon-
Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at
mass-market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements
of popular pseudosciences , such as phrenology and physiognomy .
Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in
his criticism and also in essays such as "
The Poetic Principle ". He
disliked didacticism and allegory , though he believed that meaning
in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface.
Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed
that work of quality should be brief and focus on a specific single
effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully
calculate every sentiment and idea.
Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven" in the essay "The
Philosophy of Composition ", and he claims to have strictly followed
this method. It has been questioned whether he really followed this
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read
that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with
such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the
result hardly does credit to the method." Biographer Joseph Wood
Krutch described the essay as "a rather highly ingenious exercise in
the art of rationalization".
Illustration by French impressionist
Édouard Manet for the
Stéphane Mallarmé translation of "
The Raven ", 1875. Digitally
During his lifetime, Poe was mostly recognized as a literary critic.
James Russell Lowell called him "the most
discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative
works who has written in America", suggesting—rhetorically—that he
occasionally used prussic acid instead of ink. Poe's caustic reviews
earned him the reputation of being a "tomahawk man". A favorite
target of Poe's criticism was Boston's acclaimed poet Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow , who was often defended by his literary friends in what
was later called "The Longfellow War". Poe accused Longfellow of "the
heresy of the didactic", writing poetry that was preachy, derivative,
and thematically plagiarized. Poe correctly predicted that
Longfellow's reputation and style of poetry would decline, concluding,
"We grant him high qualities, but deny him the Future".
Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first
American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe
than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France,
in part due to early translations by
Charles Baudelaire . Baudelaire's
translations became definitive renditions of Poe's work throughout
Poe's early detective fiction tales featuring
C. Auguste Dupin laid
the groundwork for future detectives in literature. Sir Arthur Conan
Doyle said, "Each is a root from which a whole literature has
developed.... Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the
breath of life into it?" The
Mystery Writers of America have named
their awards for excellence in the genre the "Edgars ". Poe's work
also influenced science fiction, notably
Jules Verne , who wrote a
sequel to Poe's novel _The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
_ called _
An Antarctic Mystery _, also known as _The Sphinx of the Ice
Science fiction author
H. G. Wells noted, "_Pym_ tells what
a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a
century ago." In 2013, _
The Guardian _ cited _The Narrative of Arthur
Gordon Pym of Nantucket_ as one of the greatest novels ever written in
the English language, and noted its influence on later authors such as
Henry James ,
Arthur Conan Doyle ,
B. Traven , and
David Morrell .
Like many famous artists, Poe's works have spawned imitators. One
trend among imitators of Poe has been claims by clairvoyants or
psychics to be "channeling" poems from Poe's spirit. One of the most
notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who published _Poems from the Inner
Life_ in 1863, in which she claimed to have "received" new
compositions by Poe's spirit. The compositions were re-workings of
famous Poe poems such as "The Bells ", but which reflected a new,
positive outlook. 1848 "Ultima Thule" daguerreotype of Poe
Even so, Poe has received not only praise, but criticism as well.
This is partly because of the negative perception of his personal
character and its influence upon his reputation. William Butler Yeats
was occasionally critical of Poe and once called him "vulgar".
Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to "The Raven" by
saying, "I see nothing in it", and derisively referred to Poe as "the
Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe's writing "falls into
vulgarity" by being "too poetical"—the equivalent of wearing a
diamond ring on every finger.
It is believed that only 12 copies have survived of Poe's first book
_Tamerlane and Other Poems_. In December 2009, one copy sold at
Christie\'s , New York for $662,500, a record price paid for a work of
PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY
_Eureka: A Prose Poem _, an essay written in 1848, included a
cosmological theory that presaged the
Big Bang theory by 80 years,
as well as the first plausible solution to Olbers\' paradox . Poe
eschewed the scientific method in _Eureka_ and instead wrote from pure
intuition . For this reason, he considered it a work of art, not
science, but insisted that it was still true and considered it to be
his career masterpiece. Even so, _Eureka_ is full of scientific
errors. In particular, Poe's suggestions ignored Newtonian principles
regarding the density and rotation of planets.
Poe had a keen interest in cryptography . He had placed a notice of
his abilities in the
Philadelphia paper _Alexander's Weekly (Express)
Messenger_, inviting submissions of ciphers which he proceeded to
solve. In July 1841, Poe had published an essay called "A Few Words
on Secret Writing" in _Graham\'s Magazine _. Capitalizing on public
interest in the topic, he wrote "
The Gold-Bug " incorporating ciphers
as an essential part of the story. Poe's success with cryptography
relied not so much on his deep knowledge of that field (his method was
limited to the simple substitution cryptogram ) as on his knowledge of
the magazine and newspaper culture. His keen analytical abilities,
which were so evident in his detective stories, allowed him to see
that the general public was largely ignorant of the methods by which a
simple substitution cryptogram can be solved, and he used this to his
advantage. The sensation that Poe created with his cryptography
stunts played a major role in popularizing cryptograms in newspapers
Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public
interest during his lifetime.
William Friedman , America's foremost
cryptologist, was heavily influenced by Poe. Friedman's initial
interest in cryptography came from reading "The Gold-Bug" as a child,
an interest that he later put to use in deciphering Japan's PURPLE
World War II
World War II .
IN POPULAR CULTURE
AS A CHARACTER
Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture and Edgar Allan Poe
in television and film
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized
character, often representing the "mad genius" or "tormented artist"
and exploiting his personal struggles. Many such depictions also
blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting that Poe and his
characters share identities. Often, fictional depictions of Poe use
his mystery-solving skills in such novels as _
The Poe Shadow _ by
Matthew Pearl .
PRESERVED HOMES, LANDMARKS, AND MUSEUMS
Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site in
one of several preserved former residences of Poe.
No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan
family's Moldavia estate. The oldest standing home in Richmond, the
Old Stone House, is in use as the
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Museum , though Poe
never lived there. The collection includes many items that Poe used
during his time with the Allan family, and also features several rare
first printings of Poe works. 13 West Range is the dorm room that Poe
is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia
in 1826; it is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now
overseen by a group of students and staff known as the
Raven Society .
The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore,
preserved as the
Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum . Poe is believed to
have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria
Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his
brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is
also the home of the
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes
that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in
Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden
home, where the author lived in 1843–1844, is today preserved by the
National Park Service
National Park Service as the
Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site .
Poe's final home is preserved as the
Edgar Allan Poe Cottage in the
In Boston, a commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is several
blocks away from the actual location of Poe's birth. The house
which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists; also,
the street has since been renamed "Charles Street South". A "square"
at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once
been named in his honor, but it disappeared when the streets were
rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets
(two blocks north of his birthplace) was designated "Edgar Allan Poe
Square". In March 2014, fundraising was completed for construction of
a permanent memorial sculpture at this location. The winning design by
Stefanie Rocknak depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind,
accompanied by a flying raven; his suitcase lid has fallen open,
leaving a "paper trail" of literary works embedded in the sidewalk
behind him. The public unveiling on October 5, 2014 was attended by
former US poet laureate
Robert Pinsky .
Other Poe landmarks include a building in the
Upper West Side where
Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque
suggests that Poe wrote "The Raven" here. The bar still stands where
legend says that Poe was last seen drinking before his death, in Fells
Baltimore . The drinking establishment is now known as "The
Horse You Came In On", and local lore insists that a ghost whom they
call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.
For decades, every January 19, a bottle of cognac and three roses
were left at Poe's original grave marker by an unknown visitor
affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster". On August 15, 2007,
Sam Porpora, a former historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore
where Poe is buried, claimed that he had started the tradition in
1949. Porpora said that the tradition began in order to raise money
and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been
confirmed, and some details which he gave to the press are factually
inaccurate. The Poe Toaster's last appearance was on January 19,
2009, the day of Poe's bicentennial.
SELECTED LIST OF WORKS
Edgar Allan Poe bibliography
* "The Black Cat "
The Cask of Amontillado "
A Descent into the Maelström "
The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar "
The Fall of the House of Usher "
The Gold-Bug "
* "The Imp of the Perverse "
The Masque of the Red Death
The Masque of the Red Death "
* "Morella "
The Murders in the Rue Morgue
The Murders in the Rue Morgue "
The Oval Portrait "
The Pit and the Pendulum "
The Premature Burial "
The Purloined Letter "
The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether "
The Tell-Tale Heart "
Al Aaraaf "
Annabel Lee "
* "The Bells "
The City in the Sea "
The Conqueror Worm "
A Dream Within a Dream "
* "Eldorado "
* "The Haunted Palace "
To Helen "
* "Tamerlane "
The Raven "
* _Politian _ (1835) – Poe's only play
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket _ (1838) –
Poe's only complete novel
* "The Balloon-
Hoax " (1844) – A journalistic hoax printed as a
The Philosophy of Composition " (1846) – Essay
* _Eureka: A Prose Poem _ (1848) – Essay
The Poetic Principle " (1848) – Essay
The Light-House " (1849) – Poe's last incomplete work
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
* Horror portal
* Poetry portal
* Biography portal
Edgar Allan Poe and music
Edgar Allan Poe in television and film
Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture
List of coupled cousins
* USS E.A. Poe_ (IX-103)
* ^ Stableford 2003 , pp. 18–19
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 138
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 256
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Poe & Boston: 2009". _
The Raven Returns: Edgar Allan
Poe Bicentennial Celebration_. The Trustees of
Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Allen 1927
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 13
* ^ Nelson 1981 , p. 65
* ^ Canada 1997
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 8
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 9
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 61
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 16–18
* ^ PoeMuseum.org 2006
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 20
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 27–28
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 29–30
* ^ University of Virginia. _A Catalogue of the Officers and
Students of the University of Virginia. Second Session, Commencing
February 1st, 1826_. Charlottesville, VA: Chronicle Steam Book
Printing House, 1880, p. 10
* ^ Meyers 1992 , pp. 21–22
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 32–34
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 32
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 41
* ^ Cornelius 2002 , p. 13
* ^ Meyers 1992 , pp. 33–34
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 35
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 43–47
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 38
* ^ Cornelius 2002 , pp. 13–14
* ^ Sova 2001 , p. 5
* ^ Krutch 1926 , p. 32
* ^ Cornelius 2002 , p. 14
* ^ Meyers 1992 , pp. 54–55
* ^ Hecker 2005 , pp. 49–51
* ^ Meyers 1992 , pp. 50–51
* ^ Hecker 2005 , pp. 53–54
* ^ Quinn 1998 , pp. 187–188
* ^ Whalen 2001 , p. 64
* ^ _A_ _B_ Quinn 1998 , p. 305
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 247
* ^ Whalen 2001 , p. 74
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 99
* ^ Whalen 2001 , p. 82
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 139
* ^ Sova 2001 , p. 162
* ^ Sova 2001 , p. 225
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 73
* ^ _A_ _B_ Silverman 1991 , p. 124
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 85
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 137
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 113
* ^ Sova 2001 , pp. 39, 99
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 119
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 159
* ^ Quinn 1998 , pp. 321–322
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 186
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 144
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 187
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 188
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 179
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sova 2001 , p. 34
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 455
* ^ Hoffman 1998 , p. 80
* ^ Ostram 1987 , p. 5
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 530
* ^ Schroth, Raymond A. _Fordham: A History and Memoir_. New York:
Fordham University Press, 2008: 22–25.
* ^ _A_ _B_ BronxHistoricalSociety.org 2007
* ^ Weekes 2002 , p. 149
* ^ Benton 1987 , p. 19
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 628
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 638
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 255
* ^ Bramsback 1970 , p. 40
* ^ Silverman 1991 , pp. 435–436
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 435
* ^ CrimeLibrary.com 2008
* ^ Benitez 1996
* ^ Walsh 2000 , pp. 32–33
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 259 To read Griswold's full obituary, see
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe obituary at Wikisource.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hoffman 1998 , p. 14
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 693
* ^ Sova 2001 , p. 101
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 263
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 699
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 64
* ^ _A_ _B_ Royot 2002 , p. 57
* ^ Kennedy 1987 , p. 3
* ^ Koster 2002 , p. 336
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ljunquist 2002 , p. 15
* ^ Royot 2002 , pp. 61–62
* ^ "(Introduction)" (Exhibition at
Boston Public Library). _The
Raven in the Frog Pond:
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe and the City of Boston_. The
Boston College. December 17, 2009 – March 31, 2010.
* ^ Hayes 2002 , p. 16
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 169
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 88
* ^ Fisher 1993 , pp. 142,149
* ^ Tresch 2002 , p. 114
* ^ Whalen 2001 , p. 67
* ^ Hungerford 1930 , pp. 209–231
* ^ Grayson 2005 , pp. 56–77
* ^ _A_ _B_ Krutch 1926 , p. 225
* ^ Kagle 1990 , p. 104
* ^ Poe 1847 , pp. 252–256
* ^ Wilbur 1967 , p. 99
* ^ Jannaccone 1974 , p. 3
* ^ Hoffman 1998 , p. 76
* ^ Krutch 1926 , p. 98
* ^ Quinn 1998 , p. 432
* ^ Zimmerman, Brett (2005). _Edgar Allan Poe: Rhetoric and Style_.
Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN
* ^ Lewis, Paul (March 6, 2011). "Quoth the detective: Edgar Allan
Poe\'s case against the
Boston literati". _boston.com_. Globe
Newspaper Company. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013.
Retrieved April 9, 2013.
* ^ "Longfellow\'s Serenity and Poe\'s Prediction" (Exhibition at
Boston Public Library and Massachusetts Historical Society).
_Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History_. The Trustees of
Boston College. March 28 – July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 258
* ^ Harner 1990 , p. 218
* ^ Frank & Magistrale 1997 , p. 103
* ^ Neimeyer 2002 , p. 206
* ^ Frank & Magistrale 1997 , p. 364
* ^ Frank & Magistrale 1997 , p. 372
* ^ McCrum, Robert (November 23, 2013). "The 100 best novels: No 10
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket by Edgar Allan Poe
The Guardian _. Archived from the original on September 11,
2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 281
* ^ Carlson 1996 , p. 476
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 274
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 265
* ^ New York Times 1894
* ^ Huxley 1967 , p. 32
* ^ New York Daily News 2009
* ^ Cappi 1994
* ^ Rombeck 2005
* ^ Harrison 1987
* ^ Smoot & Davidson 1994
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meyers 1992 , p. 214
* ^ Silverman 1991 , p. 399
* ^ Meyers 1992 , p. 219
* ^ Sova 2001 , p. 82
* ^ _A_ _B_ Silverman 1991 , p. 152
* ^ Rosenheim 1997 , pp. 2, 6
* ^ Friedman 1993 , pp. 40–41
* ^ Rosenheim 1997 , p. 15
* ^ Rosenheim 1997 , p. 146
* ^ Neimeyer 2002 , p. 209
* ^ Gargano 1967 , p. 165
* ^ Maslin 2006
The Raven Society 2014
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society 2007
* ^ Burns 2006
* ^ "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Birth Place". _Massachusetts Historical
Markers on Waymarking.com_. Groundspeak, Inc. Archived from the
original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
* ^ Van Hoy 2007
* ^ Glenn 2007
* ^ "An Interactive Map of Literary Boston: 1794–1862"
(Exhibition). _Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History_. The
Boston College. March 28 – July 30, 2012. Retrieved
* ^ Glenn, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "The house of Poe – mystery
solved!". _boston.com_. The
Boston Globe. Archived from the original
on October 26, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
* ^ "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Square". _The City Record, and Boston
News-letter_. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved
May 11, 2011.
* ^ "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Square". _Massachusetts Historical Markers on
Waymarking.com_. Groundspeak, Inc. Archived from the original on May
15, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
* ^ Fox, Jeremy C. (February 1, 2013). "Vision for an Edgar Allan
Poe memorial in
Boston comes closer to reality". _boston.com (Boston
Globe)_. Archived from the original on April 30, 2015. Retrieved April
* ^ Kaiser, Johanna (April 23, 2012). "
Boston chooses life-size
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe statue to commemorate writer\'s ties to city".
Boston Globe)_. Archived from the original on May 29,
2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
* ^ "About the project". _
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Square Public Art
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston, Inc. Archived from the
original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
* ^ Lee, M. G. (October 5, 2014). "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe immortalized in
the city he loathed". _
Boston Globe_. Archived from the original on
July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
* ^ Lake 2006 , p. 195
* ^ Hall 2007
* ^ Associated Press 2007
* ^ "
Poe Toaster tribute is \'nevermore\'". _The
Tribune Company. January 19, 2010. Archived from the original on
January 20, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
* Allen, Hervey (1927). "Introduction". _The Works of Edgar Allan
Poe_. New York: P. F. Collier & Son.
* "Man Reveals Legend of Mystery Visitor to Edgar Allan Poe\'s
Grave". _Fox News_. Associated Press. August 15, 2007. Retrieved
* Benitez, R, Michael (September 15, 1996). "Poe\'s Death Is
Rewritten as Case of Rabies, Not Telltale Alcohol". _New York Times_.
Based on "A 39-year-old man with mental status change". _Maryland
Medical Journal_. 45: 765–769. 1996.
* Benton, Richard P. (1987). "Poe's Literary Labors and Rewards". In
Benjamin Franklin IV. _Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr.
Poe_. Baltimore: The
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society. pp. 1–25. ISBN
* Bramsback, Birgit (1970). "The Final Illness and Death of Edgar
Allan Poe: An Attempt at Reassessment". _Studia Neophilologica_.
University of Uppsala. XLII: 40. doi :10.1080/00393277008587456 .
* BronxHistoricalSociety.org (2007). "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Cottage".
Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Archived from the original
* Burns, Niccole (November 15, 2006). "Poe wrote most important
works in Philadelphia". _School of Communication – University of
Miami _. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved
* Cappi, Alberto (1994). "Edgar Allan Poe's Physical Cosmology".
_Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society_. 35: 177–192.
* Canada, Mark, ed. (1997). "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Chronology". _Canada's
America_. Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. Retrieved
* CrimeLibrary.com (2008). "Death Suspicion Cholera". Retrieved
* Carlson, Eric Walter (1996). _A Companion to Poe Studies_.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26506-8 .
* Cornelius, Kay (2002). "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe". In Harold
Bloom . _Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe_. Philadelphia, PA:
Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-6173-2 .
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society (2007). "The
Baltimore Poe House and
Museum". Retrieved 2007-10-13.
Benjamin Franklin IV (1993). "Poe's 'Metzengerstein': Not
Hoax (1971)". _On Poe: The Best from American Literature_. Durham,
NC: Duke University Press. pp. 142–149. ISBN 978-0-8223-1311-3 .
* Foye, Raymond, ed. (1980). _The Unknown Poe_ (Paperback ed.). San
Francisco, CA: City Lights. ISBN 0-87286-110-4 .
* Frank, Frederick S.; Magistrale, Anthony (1997). _The Poe
Encyclopedia_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-27768-9 .
* Friedman, William F. (1993). "Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer
(1936)". _On Poe: The Best from American Literature_. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press. pp. 40–54. ISBN 978-0-8223-1311-3 .
* Gargano, James W. (1967). "The Question of Poe's Narrators". In
Regan, Robert. _Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays_. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-13-684963-6 .
* Glenn, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "The house of Poe – mystery
* Grayson, Eric (2005). "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology
Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe". _Mode 1_: 56–77.
* Hall, Wiley (August 15, 2007). "Poe Fan Takes Credit for Grave
Legend". _USA Today_. Associated Press.
* Harner, Gary Wayne (1990). "
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe in France:
Baudelaire's Labor of Love". In Fisher,
Benjamin Franklin IV. _Poe and
His Times: The Artist and His Milieu_. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe
Society. ISBN 978-0-9616449-2-5 .
* Harrison, Edward (1987). _Darkness at Night: A Riddle of the
Universe_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN
* Harrowitz, Nancy (1984), "The Body of the Detective Model: Charles
S. Peirce and Edgar Allan Poe", in
Umberto Eco ;
Thomas Sebeok , _The
Sign of Three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce_, Bloomington, IN: _History
Workshop_, Indiana University Press, pp. 179–197, ISBN
978-0-253-35235-4 . Harrowitz discusses Poe's "tales of
ratiocination" in the light of
Charles Sanders Peirce 's logic of
making good guesses or abductive reasoning .
* Hayes, Kevin J. (2002). _The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan
Poe_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79326-1 .
* Hecker, William J. (2005), _Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West
Point Poems_, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, ISBN
* Hoffman, Daniel (1998) . _Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe_. Baton
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-2321-8 .
* Hungerford, Edward (1930). "Poe and Phrenology". _American
Literature_. 1: 209–231. doi :10.2307/2920231 .
* Huxley, Aldous (1967). "Vulgarity in Literature". In Regan,
Robert. _Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays_. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-13-684963-6 .
* Jannaccone, Pasquale (translated by Peter Mitilineos) (1974). "The
Aesthetics of Edgar Poe". _Poe Studies_. 7 (1). doi
* Kagle, Steven E. (1990). "The Corpse Within Us". In Fisher,
Benjamin Franklin IV. _Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu_.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society. ISBN 978-0-9616449-2-5 .
* Kennedy, J. Gerald (1987). _Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing_.
New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03773-9 .
* Koster, Donald N. (2002). "Influences of
American Life and Literature". In Galens, David. _Literary Movements
for Students Vol. 1_. Detroit: Thompson Gale.
* Krutch, Joseph Wood (1926). _Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius_.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf. (1992 reprint: ISBN 978-0-7812-6835-6 )
* Lake, Matt (2006). _Weird Maryland_. New York: Sterling
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4027-3906-4 .
* Ljunquist, Kent (2002). "The poet as critic". In Hayes, Kevin J.
_The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe_. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. pp. 7–20. ISBN 978-0-521-79727-6 .
* Maslin, Janet (June 6, 2006). "The Poe Shadow". _New York Times_.
* Meyers, Jeffrey (1992). _Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy_
(Paperback ed.). New York: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-0-8154-1038-6
* Neimeyer, Mark (2002). "Poe and Popular Culture". In Hayes, Kevin
J. _The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe_. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. pp. 205–224. ISBN 978-0-521-79727-6 .
* Nelson, Randy F. (1981). _The Almanac of American Letters_. Los
Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, Inc. ISBN 978-0-86576-008-0 .
* New York Daily News (December 5, 2009). "Edgar Allan Poe\'s first
book from 1827 sells for $662,500; record price for American
literature". Retrieved 2009-12-24.
* New York Times (May 20, 1894). "Emerson\'s Estimate of Poe". _The
New York Times_. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
* Ostram, John Ward (1987). "Poe's Literary Labors and Rewards". In
Benjamin Franklin IV. _Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr.
Poe_. Baltimore: The
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe Society. pp. 37–47. ISBN
* Poe, Edgar Allan (November 1847). "Tale-Writing—Nathaniel
Hawthorne". _Godey's Ladies Book_: 252–256. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
* PoeMuseum.org (2006). "Celebrate Edgar Allan Poe\'s 197th Birthday
at the Poe museum". Archived from the original on 2009-01-05.
* Quinn, Arthur Hobson (1998). _Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical
Biography_. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN
978-0-8018-5730-0 . (Originally published in 1941 by New York:
The Raven Society (2014). "History". _University of Virginia
alumni_. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
* Rombeck, Terry (January 22, 2005). "Poe\'s little-known science
book reprinted". _Lawrence Journal-World & News_.
* Rosenheim, Shawn James (1997). _The Cryptogra