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Edaphology
Edaphology
(from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.[1][2] Edaphology
Edaphology
is concerned with the influence of soils on living things, particularly plants. Edaphology
Edaphology
includes the study of how soil influences humankind's use of land for plant growth[3] as well as man's overall use of the land.[4] General subfields within edaphology are agricultural soil science (known by the term agrology in some regions) and environmental soil science. ( Pedology
Pedology
deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, and soil classification.) In Russia, edaphology is considered equivalent to pedology, but is recognized to have an applied sense consistent with agrophysics and agrochemistry outside Russia.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Areas of study

2.1 Agricultural soil science 2.2 Environmental soil science

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

History[edit] Xenophon
Xenophon
(431–355 BC), and Cato (234–149 BC), were early edaphologists. Xenophon
Xenophon
noted the beneficial effect of turning a cover crop into the earth. Cato wrote De Agri Cultura
De Agri Cultura
("On Farming") which recommended tillage, crop rotation and the use of legumes in the rotation to build soil nitrogen. He also devised the first soil capability classification for specific crops. Jan Baptist van Helmont
Jan Baptist van Helmont
(1577–1644) performed a famous experiment, growing a willow tree in a pot of soil and supplying only rainwater for five years. The weight gained by the tree was greater than the weight loss of the soil. He concluded that the willow was made of water. Although only partly correct, his experiment reignited interest in edaphology.[6] Areas of study[edit] Agricultural soil science[edit] Main article: Agricultural soil science Agricultural soil science
Agricultural soil science
is the application of soil chemistry, physics, and biology dealing with the production of crops. In terms of soil chemistry, it places particular emphasis on plant nutrients of importance to farming and horticulture, especially with regard to soil fertility and fertilizer components. Physical edaphology is strongly associated with crop irrigation and drainage. Soil
Soil
husbandry is a strong tradition within agricultural soil science. Beyond preventing soil erosion and degradation in cropland, soil husbandry seeks to sustain the agricultural soil resource though the use of soil conditioners and cover crops. Environmental soil science[edit] Main article: Environmental soil science Environmental soil science
Environmental soil science
studies our interaction with the pedosphere on beyond crop production. Fundamental and applied aspects of the field address vadose zone functions, septic drain field site assessment and function, land treatment of wastewater, stormwater, erosion control, soil contamination with metals and pesticides, remediation of contaminated soils, restoration of wetlands, soil degradation, and environmental nutrient management. It also studies soil in the context of land-use planning, global warming, and acid rain. See also[edit]

Soil
Soil
zoology Edaphic Sustainable agriculture

Notes[edit]

^ Page 8 in Buckman, Harry O.; Brady, Nyle C. (1960). The Nature and Property of Soils - A College Text of Edaphology
Edaphology
(6th ed.). New York: The MacMillan Company.  ^ Gardiner, Duane T. "Lecture 1 Chapter 1 Why Study Soils?". ENV320: Soil
Soil
Science Lecture Notes. Texas A&M University-Kingsville. Retrieved 2008-01-12.  ^ Research Branch (1976). "Glossary of Terms in Soil
Soil
Science". Publication 1459. Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  ^ Whittow, John B. (1984). The Penguin Dictionary of Physical Geography. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051094-X.  ^ Tseits, M. A.; B. A. Devin (2005). " Soil
Soil
Science Web Resources: A Practical Guide to Search Procedures and Search Engines" (PDF). Eurasian Soil
Soil
Science. Translated from Pochvovedenie, no. 2, 2005, pp. 247-253. 38 (2): 223. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  ^ Xenophon, Cato and Van Helmont: see page 9-12 in Miller, Raymond W.; Gardiner, Duane T. (1998). Soils in Our Environment (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-610882-2. 

References[edit]

European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) Url last accessed 2006-01-10 SSSA Soil
Soil
Science Glossary Url last accessed 2016-01-10

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Topics in soil science

Main fields

Pedology Edaphology Soil
Soil
physics Soil
Soil
mechanics Soil
Soil
chemistry Soil
Soil
biology Soil
Soil
zoology Soil
Soil
ecology Soil
Soil
morphology Environmental soil science Agricultural soil science‎

Soil
Soil
topics

Soil Pedosphere

Pedodiversity Pedogenesis

Soil
Soil
erosion Soil
Soil
contamination Soil
Soil
retrogression and degradation Soil
Soil
compaction

Soil
Soil
compaction (agriculture)

Soil
Soil
salinity

Alkali soil

Soil
Soil
pH

Soil
Soil
acidification

Soil
Soil
health Soil
Soil
life Soil
Soil
biodiversity Soil
Soil
quality Soil
Soil
value Soil
Soil
fertility Soil
Soil
resilience Soil
Soil
color Soil
Soil
texture Soil
Soil
structure

Pore space in soil Pore water pressure

Soil
Soil
crust Soil
Soil
horizon Soil
Soil
biomantle Soil
Soil
carbon Soil
Soil
gas

Soil
Soil
respiration

Soil
Soil
organic matter Soil
Soil
moisture

Soil
Soil
water (retention)

Soil
Soil
type

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Soil
Soil
classification

USDA soil taxonomy

Alfisols Andisols Aridisols Entisols Gelisols Histosols Inceptisols Mollisols Oxisols Spodosols Ultisols Vertisols

World Reference Base for Soil
Soil
Resources (1998–)

Acrisols Albeluvisols Alisols Andosols Anthrosols Arenosols Calcisols Cambisols Chernozem Cryosols Durisols Ferralsols Fluvisols Gleysols Gypsisols Histosol Kastanozems Leptosols Lixisols Luvisols Nitisols Phaeozems Planosols Plinthosols Podzols Regosols Solonchaks Solonetz Stagnosol Technosols Umbrisols Vertisols

Other systems

FAO soil classification (1974–98) Unified Soil
Soil
Classification System AASHTO Soil
Soil
Classification System Référentiel pédologique (French classification system) Canadian system of soil classification Australian Soil
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Classification Polish Soil
Soil
Classification 1938 USDA soil taxonomy List of U.S. state soils List of vineyard soil types

Types of soil

Applications

Soil
Soil
conservation Soil
Soil
management Soil
Soil
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Soil
survey Soil
Soil
test Soil
Soil
governance Soil
Soil
value Soil
Soil
salinity control Erosion
Erosion
control Soil
Soil
policy

Soil
Soil
policy (Victoria, Australia)

Agroecology Liming (soil)

Related fields

Geology Geochemistry Petrology Geomorphology Geotechnical engineering Hydrology Hydrogeology Biogeography Earth materials Archaeology Agricultural science

Agrology

Societies, Initiatives

Canadian Society of Soil
Soil
Science International Union of Soil
Soil
Sciences Soil
Soil
and Water Conservation Society National Society of Consulting Soil
Soil
Scientists Soil
Soil
Science Society of America National Society of Consulting Soil
Soil
Scientists Australian Society of Soil
Soil
Science Incorporated International Year of Soil World Congress of Soil
Soil
Science

See also

Land use Land conversion Land management Vegetation Infiltration (hydrology) Groundwater Crust (geology) Impervious surface/Surface runoff

:WikiProject Soil   Category soil   Category soil science Index of soil-related articles List of soil scientists

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