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EASTERN PHILOSOPHY or ASIAN PHILOSOPHY includes the various philosophies of South and East Asia
East Asia
, including Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
, Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
, Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
(dominant in Tibet
Tibet
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
), Korean philosophy , and Japanese philosophy .

According to Victoria S. Harrison, the category of "Eastern philosophy", and similarly "Asian philosophy" and "Oriental philosophy" is a product of 19th-century Western scholarship and did not exist in East Asia
East Asia
or India. This is because in Asia
Asia
there is no single unified philosophical tradition with a single root.

CONTENTS

* 1 South Asian philosophies

* 1.1 Hindu
Hindu
philosophies * 1.2 Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
* 1.3 Buddhist philosophies * 1.4 Cārvāka * 1.5 Sikh
Sikh
philosophy

* 2 East Asian philosophies

* 2.1 Confucianism
Confucianism
* 2.2 Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
* 2.3 Taoism
Taoism
* 2.4 Legalism * 2.5 Shinto
Shinto

* 3 Modern developments

* 3.1 Neo- Hinduism
Hinduism
and Hindu
Hindu
modernism * 3.2 Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
* 3.3 New Confucianism
Confucianism
* 3.4 Maoism
Maoism
* 3.5 Juche
Juche
* 3.6 Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy
Western philosophy

* 4 Controversy * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links

SOUTH ASIAN PHILOSOPHIES

Further information: Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy

HINDU PHILOSOPHIES

Main articles: Hinduism
Hinduism
and Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
the main exponent of Advaita
Advaita

Hinduism
Hinduism
is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia
South Asia
. It includes Shaivism
Shaivism
, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism
Shaktism
among numerous other traditions , and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma , dharma , and societal norms. Hinduism
Hinduism
is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion followers is the world\'s third largest religion , after Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
.

Hinduism
Hinduism
has been called the "oldest religion " in the world, and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma
Dharma
, "the eternal law " or the "eternal way"; beyond human origins. Western scholars regard Hinduism
Hinduism
as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder. It prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings (ahimsa ), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others.

In the early medieval times, after the rise of Muslim powers, Hindu philosophy was classified by Hindu
Hindu
tradition into six āstika (Sanskrit : आस्तिक "orthodox") schools of thought, or darśanam (दर्शनम्, "view"), which accept the Vedas
Vedas
as authoritative texts, and four nāstika (नास्तिक "heterodox") schools which don't draw upon the Vedas
Vedas
as authoritative texts, and developed independent traditions of thought. Nevertheless, the various schools are in many ways related, and share various strands of though. The āstika schools are:

* Samkhya
Samkhya
, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter . * Yoga
Yoga
, a school emphasising meditation , contemplation and liberation . * Nyaya
Nyaya
or logic , explores sources of knowledge . Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
. * Vaisheshika , an empiricist school of atomism * Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy * Vedānta , the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or the 'Jnan' (knowledge) 'Kanda' (section). Vedanta
Vedanta
came to be the dominant current of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the post-medieval period.

The nāstika schools are (in chronological order):

* Cārvāka , a materialism school that accepted free will exists * Ājīvika
Ājīvika
, a materialism school that denied free will exists * Jainism
Jainism
, based on the belief in ahimsa or non-violence towards all living beings * Buddhism
Buddhism
, based on the teachings and enlightenment of Siddhartha Gautama

Each school of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
has extensive epistemological literature called Pramana
Pramana
-sastras.

In Hindu
Hindu
history , the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period
Gupta period
"golden age" of Hinduism. With the disappearance of Vaisheshika and Mīmāṃsā, it became obsolete by the later Middle Ages, when the various sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
(Dvaita "dualism", Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
"non-dualism" and others) began to rise to prominence as the main divisions of religious philosophy. Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya
Nyaya
"Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya
Samkhya
gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta.

JAIN PHILOSOPHY

Main article: Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
Umaswati codified Jain philosophical thought in the Tattvartha Sutra , which is accepted by all Jains.

JAIN PHILOSOPHY deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics , reality , cosmology , ontology , epistemology and divinity . Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. :182 It continues the ancient Śramaṇa tradition, which co-existed with the Vedic tradition since ancient times. The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
are its belief on independent existence of soul and matter, denial of creative and omnipotent God, potency of karma , eternal and uncreated universe , a strong emphasis on non-violence , accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth , and morality and ethics based on liberation of soul. Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation. It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on self-control, austerities and renunciation. It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies. Jainism
Jainism
strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions; and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.

Throughout its history, the Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
remained unified and single, although as a religion, Jainism
Jainism
was divided into various sects and traditions. The contribution of Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
in developing the Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
has been significant. Jain philosophical concepts like Ahimsa
Ahimsa
, Karma
Karma
, Moksa , Samsara and the like are common with other Indian religions
Indian religions
like Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in various forms. While Jainism
Jainism
traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira
Mahavira
and other Tirthankaras , various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda
Kundakunda
and Umasvati
Umasvati
in ancient times to Yaśovijaya Gaṇi in recent times have contributed greatly in developing and refining the Jain and Indian philosophical concepts.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHIES

Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
(4-5th century CE) was a central figure of Yogacara as well as writing an influential work on Abhidharma
Abhidharma
, the Abhidharmakosa . Main article: Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy

Buddhism
Buddhism
is a system of religious beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama . Buddhism
Buddhism
is a non-theistic religion, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of a God
God
or gods. The Buddha
Buddha
himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration, and said that anyone, anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. The question of God
God
is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems yet this practice has taken on different meanings and has become a skillful mean within the Tibetan Buddhist practice.

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
has its foundations in the doctrines of:

* Anatta
Anatta
, which specifies that all is without substantial metaphysical identity * Pratitya-samutpada , which delineates the Buddhist concept of causality * Buddhist phenomenological analysis of dharmas , or phenomenological constituents

Most Buddhist sects believe in karma , a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. One effect of karma is rebirth. At death, the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering, and attain Nirvana
Nirvana
, usually translated as awakening or enlightenment.

See also: Buddhism
Buddhism
— Outline of Buddhism
Buddhism
— Schools of Buddhism
Buddhism

CāRVāKA

Main article: Cārvāka

Cārvāka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, was a materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. It proposed a system of ethics based on rational thought. However, this school has been dead for more than a thousand years.

SIKH PHILOSOPHY

Main article: Sikh religious philosophy
Sikh religious philosophy
Diagram showing some of the important Sikh
Sikh
beliefs.

* Simran and Sewa - These are the Foundation of Sikhism
Sikhism
. It is the duty of every Sikh
Sikh
to practise Naam Simran (meditation on the Lord's name) daily and engage in Sewa (Selfless Service) whenever there is a possibility, in Gurdwara
Gurdwara
( Sikh
Sikh
place of worship), in community centres, old people's homes, care centres, major world disasters, etc. "Ek ong kar Satanam" and "Waheguru" are some mantras used for this purpose. "Ek ong kar Satanam" roughly translates to "there is one God un-separate from nature and truth is its name". "Waheguru" is used as a meditative practice on the Lord's name.

* The Three Pillars of Sikhism
Sikhism
- Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
formalised these three important pillars of Sikhism.

* Naam Japna – A Sikh
Sikh
is to engage in a daily practise of meditation and Nitnem (a daily prayer routine) by reciting and chanting of God’s Name. * Kirat Karni - To live honestly and earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting Gods gifts and blessings. A Sikh
Sikh
has to live as a householders carrying out his or her duties and responsibilities to the full. * Vand Chakna - Sikhs are asked to share their wealth within the community and outside by giving Dasvand and practising charity (Daan). To "Share and consume together".

* Kill the Five Thieves - The Sikh
Sikh
Gurus tell us that our mind and spirit are constantly being attacked by the Five Evils – Kam
Kam
(Lust), Krodh (Rage), Lobh (Greed), Moh
Moh
(Attachment) and Ahankar (Ego). A Sikh needs to constantly attack and overcome these five vices; be always vigilant and on guard to tackle these five thieves all the time. * Positive Human Qualities - The Sikh
Sikh
Gurus taught the Sikhs to develop and harness positive human qualities that lead the soul closer to God
God
and away from evil. These are Sat (Truth), Daya (Compassion), Santokh (Contentment), Nimrata (Humility) and Pyare (Love).

See also Sikhism
Sikhism
- Sikh
Sikh
Beliefs - Basic Tenets of the Sikhism
Sikhism
- Sikhism
Sikhism
Primary Beliefs and Principles

EAST ASIAN PHILOSOPHIES

Main articles: Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
, Japanese philosophy
Japanese philosophy
, Korean philosophy , Indonesian philosophy , and Vietnamese philosophy

CONFUCIANISM

Main article: Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucius
Confucius

Confucianism(儒學), developed around the teachings of Confucius (孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts .

NEO-CONFUCIANISM

Main article: Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism

Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
is a later further development of Confucianism
Confucianism
but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism. It started developing from the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
. Its root can be found as early as Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
, often attributed to scholar Tang Xie Tian
Tian
. It has a great influence on the countries of East Asia
East Asia
including China
China
, Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
as well as Vietnam
Vietnam
. Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
is considered as the biggest master of Song where Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
and Wang Yangming is the one of Ming 's. But there are conflicts between Zhu's school and Wang's.

TAOISM

Main article: Taoism
Taoism

Taoism
Taoism
(or Daoism) is traditionally contrasted with Confucianism
Confucianism
in China
China
. Taoism's central books are the Dao De Jing
Dao De Jing
(Tao-Te-Ching), traditionally attributed to Laozi
Laozi
(Lao Tzu), and the Nan Hua Jing (Zhuang Zi/Chuang Tzu).

LEGALISM

Main article: Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Legalism advocated a strict interpretation of the law in every respect. No judgment calls. Morality was not important; adherence to the letter of the law was paramount.

SHINTO

Main article: Shinto
Shinto

Shinto
Shinto
is the indigenous religion of Japan. It is a sophisticated form of animism that holds that spirits called kami inhabit all things. Worship is at public shrines or in small shrines constructed in one's home. According to Shinto
Shinto
practice, relationship with the kami that inhabit this world is foremost in a person's duties; the kami are to be respected so that they may return our respect. Shinto further holds that the "spirit" and "mundane" worlds are one and the same. Of all of the tenets of this philosophy, purity is the most highly stressed. Pure acts are those that promote or contribute to the harmony of the universe, and impure acts are those that are deleterious in this regard. As a faith, Shinto
Shinto
is heavily influenced by Chinese religions, notably Taoism
Taoism
and Buddhism.

MODERN DEVELOPMENTS

NEO-HINDUISM AND HINDU MODERNISM

Gandhi with famous poet Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
, 1940 Main article: Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta

In response to colonialism and their contact with Western philosophy, 19th century Indians developed new ways of thinking now termed Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
and Hindu
Hindu
modernism. Their ideas focused on the universality of Indian philosophy. The first of these movements was that of the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
of Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
(1772-1833). Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
(1863-1902) was very influential in developing the Hindu reform movements and in bringing the worldview to the West. The work of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
, Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan have also had a large impact on modern Hindu
Hindu
thought.

BUDDHIST MODERNISM

Hu Shi
Hu Shi
and DT Suzuki during his visit to China
China
in 1934. Main article: Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism

Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
refers to "forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
that have emerged out of an engagement with the dominant cultural and intellectual forces of modernity." Forces which influenced modern Buddhists like Anagarika Dhammapala , Chögyam Trungpa
Chögyam Trungpa
and DT Suzuki included Enlightenment values, Western Science and Romanticism. Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
includes various movements like Humanistic Buddhism
Buddhism
, Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
, the Vipassana movement , and Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
.

NEW CONFUCIANISM

New Confucianism
Confucianism
(Chinese: 新儒家; pinyin: xīn rú jiā) is a traditionalist revival of Confucian thought in China, beginning in 20th century Republican China
China
and is associated with New Conservatism . Key New Confucians of the first generation are Xiong Shili and Feng Youlan. The second generation (1950–1979) include individuals like Tang Junyi , Mou Zongsan , and Xu Fuguan , all three students of Xiong Shili. Together with Zhang Junmai , the second generation published the New Confucian Manifesto in 1958.

MAOISM

Main article: Maoism
Maoism

Maoism
Maoism
is a Chinese Marxist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th-century Communist Party of China
China
revolutionary leader Mao Zedong . It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin, but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry, and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms.

JUCHE

Main article: Juche
Juche

Juche, usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official political ideology of North Korea
Korea
, described by the regime as Kim Il-Sung 's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". The idea states that an individual is "the master of his destiny" and that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction".

SYNTHESES OF EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHY

For more details on this topic, see Buddhism
Buddhism
and Western Philosophy
Philosophy
, Perennial Philosophy
Philosophy
, and New Age
New Age
.

There have been many modern attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions.

Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism
Hinduism
with Western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu
Hindu
scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him.

Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy
Western philosophy
into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl
Husserl
with the insights of Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
. Watsuji Tetsurô , a 20th-century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
, Nietzsche, and Heidegger
Heidegger
with Eastern philosophies. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger
Heidegger
's philosophy. For the most part this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Heidegger
Heidegger
did spend time attempting to translate the Tao
Tao
Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger's later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of Being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas. There are clear parallels between Heidegger
Heidegger
and the work of Kyoto School, and ultimately, it may be read that Heidegger's philosophy is an attempt to 'turn eastwards' in response to the crisis in Western civilization. However, this is only an interpretation.

The 20th century Hindu
Hindu
guru Sri Aurobindo
Aurobindo
was influenced by German Idealism
Idealism
and his integral yoga is regarded as a synthesis of Eastern and Western thought. The German phenomenologist Jean Gebser 's writings on the history of consciousness referred to a new planetary consciousness that would bridge this gap. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought .

Swiss psychologist Carl Jung
Carl Jung
was deeply influenced by the I Ching . The I Ching ( Book
Book
of Changes) is an ancient Chinese text from the Shang Dynasty (Bronze Age 1700BC-1050BC), and uses a system of Yin and Yang, which it places into hexagrams for the purposes of divination. Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality , as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching ( Book
Book
of Changes). He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the West knows it, but on chance.

CONTROVERSY

Some Western thinkers claim that philosophy as such is only characteristic of Western cultures. Martin Heidegger
Heidegger
is even reported to have said that only Greek and German languages are suitable for philosophizing. It is still commonplace in Western universities to teach only Western philosophy
Western philosophy
and to ignore Asian philosophy altogether, or consider only newer Western-influenced Asian thought proper "philosophy". Carine Defoort , herself a specialist in Chinese thought, has offered support for such a "family" view of philosophy, while Rein Raud has presented an argument against it and offered a more flexible definition of philosophy that would include both Western and Asian thought on equal terms. In response, OuYang Min argues that philosophy proper is a Western cultural practice and essentially different from zhexue, which is what the Chinese have, even though zhexue (originally tetsugaku) is actually a neologism coined in 1873 by Nishi Amane for describing Western philosophy
Western philosophy
as opposed to traditional Asian thought.

SEE ALSO

* Hinduism
Hinduism
portal * Hindu
Hindu
Mythology portal * Spirituality portal * Religion portal * Philosophy
Philosophy
portal * Mythology portal * Confucianism
Confucianism
portal * Taoism
Taoism
portal * Shinto
Shinto
portal * Buddhism
Buddhism
portal * Sikhism
Sikhism
portal * Jainism
Jainism
portal

* Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
* Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
* Japanese philosophy
Japanese philosophy
* Korean philosophy * Middle Eastern philosophy * Indonesian philosophy

NOTES

* ^ Hinduism
Hinduism
is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition", "a way of life" ( ) etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in * ^ Lockard 2007 , p. 50: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis." Lockard 2007 , p. 52: " Hinduism
Hinduism
can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries." * ^ Hiltebeitel 2007 , p. 12: "A period of consolidation, sometimes identified as one of " Hindu
Hindu
synthesis," Brahmanic synthesis," or "orthodox synthesis," takes place between the time of the late Vedic Upanishads (c. 500 BCE) and the period of Gupta imperial ascendency" (c. 320-467 CE)." * ^ Among its roots are the Vedic religion of the late Vedic period (Flood 1996 , p. 16) and its emphasis on the status of Brahmans (Samuel 2010 , pp. 48–53), but also the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation (; Lockard 2007 , p. 52; ; ) the Sramana
Sramana
or renouncer traditions of north-east India (; ) and "popular or local traditions " ( ).

REFERENCES

* ^ Ram-Prasad, Chakravarthi; "Eastern philosophy" (2005) * ^ Fischer-Schreiber, Ehrhard, Friedrichs; "Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy
Philosophy
and Religion" (1994) * ^ Harrison, Victoria S; "Eastern Philosophy: The Basics, Introduction * ^ Sharma 2003 , pp. 12–13. * ^ Flood 2008 , pp. 1–17. * ^ Nath 2001 , p. 31. * ^ Georgis 2010 , p. 62. * ^ "The Global Religious Landscape - Hinduism". A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010. The pew foundation. Retrieved 31 March 2013. * ^ Bowker 2000 . * ^ Harvey 2001 , p. xiii. * ^ A B Knott 1998 , p. 5. * ^ A B Samuel 2010 , p. 193. * ^ Hiltebeitel 2007 , p. 12. * ^ A B C Flood 1996 , p. 16. * ^ Lockard 2007 , p. 50. * ^ A B Narayanan 2009 , p. 11. * ^ Hiltebeitel 2007 , p. 3. * ^ Jones Alban Widgery, The Principles of Hindu
Hindu
Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pages 232-245 * ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453–487. * ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387 , Chapter 2, page 26 * ^ Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0779-0 , pages 25-26 * ^ P Bilimoria (1993), Pramāṇa
Pramāṇa
epistemology: Some recent developments, in Asian philosophy - Volume 7 (Editor: G Floistad), Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-5107-1 , pages 137-154 * ^ Zimmer, Heinrich (1969). Joseph Campbell, ed. Philosophies of India. New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1 . * ^ Sangave, Dr. Vilas A. (2001). Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 81-7154-839-3 . , p. 14 * ^ Oldmeadow, Harry (2007). Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom for the Modern West. Indiana: World Wisdom Inc. ISBN 1-933316-22-5 . ,p. 141 * ^ Warren, Herbert (2001). Jainism. Delhi: Crest Publishing House. ISBN 81-242-0037-8 . * ^ Brodd, Jeffery; Gregory Sobolewski (2003). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 0-88489-725-7 . pp.95-96 * ^ Mohanty, Jitendranath (2000). Classical Indian Philosophy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8933-6 . * ^ Carrithers, Michael (June 1989). "Naked Ascetics in Southern Digambar Jainism". Man, New Series. UK: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 24 (2): 219–235. JSTOR 2803303 . p.220 * ^ Zydenbos, Robert J. (2006). Jainism
Jainism
Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag. * ^ Michelis, Elizabeth De (2005), A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali
Patanjali
and Western Esotericism, Continuum, ISBN 978-0-8264-8772-8 * ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002), The Yoga
Yoga
Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass * ^ McMahan, David L. (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. page 6 * ^ Paul French (2014). North Korea: State of Paranoia. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-78032-947-5 . * ^ A B North Korean Government (2014). Juche
Juche
Idea: Answers to Hundred Questions. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Democratic People's Republic of Korea. * ^ Augstein, Rudolf; Wolff, Georg; Heidegger, Martin (31 May 1976). "Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
. pp. 193–219. Retrieved 14 June 2013. English translation by William J. Richardson in Sheehan, Thomas, ed. (2010) . Heidegger: the Man and the Thinker. reprint; 1st edition. Piscataway, New Jersey
Piscataway, New Jersey
: Transaction Publishers . pp. 45–67. ISBN 978-14-1281-537-6 . * ^ Defoort, Carine. (2001). "Is There Such a Thing as Chinese Philosophy? Arguments of an Implicit Debate", Philosophy
Philosophy
East and West 51 (3) 393–413. * ^ Raud, Rein . (2006) "Philosophies versus Philosophy: In Defense of a Flexible Definition". Philosophy
Philosophy
East & West 56 (4) 618–625. * ^ OuYang Min. (2012). "There is No Need for Zhongguo Zhexue to be Philosophy" Asian Philosophy
Philosophy
22 (3) 199-223. * ^ Havens, Thomas R.H. (1970). Nishi Amane and Modern Japanese Thought Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.50.

SOURCES

Printed sources

* Bowker, John (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press * Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press * Georgis, Faris (2010), Alone in Unity: Torments of an Iraqi God-Seeker in North America, Dorrance Publishing, ISBN 1-4349-0951-4 * Gomez, Luis O. (2013), Buddhism
Buddhism
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Hindu
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Web-sources

* ^ "The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica", sanatana dharma, Encyclopædia Britannica

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Jim Fieser: Intro to Eastern Philosophy * atmajyoti.org Articles and commentaries on a wide range of topics related

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