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Vedic philosophy

Agastya Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Vashistha Yajnavalkya

Mimamsa

Jaimini

Vedanta

Advaita

Badarayana Gaudapada Adi Shankara

Dvaita

Madhvacharya

Sri Vaishnavism

Ramanuja

Neo-Vedanta

Vivekananda Aurobindo

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Nyaya

Gotama

Navya-Nyāya

Gangesha Upadhyaya

Vaisheshika

Kanada

Nāstika (heterodox)

Ājīvika Charvaka Kashmir Shaivism

Abhinavagupta

Pratyabhijna Tantra

Tamil

Valluvam Valluvar

Other

Chanakya

General topics

Ahimsa Atomism Atman

Ātman (Hinduism) Ātman (Buddhism) Ātman (Jainism)

Artha Anekantavada Brahman Dharma Indian logic Karma Kama Maya Metta Moksha Nondualism Samadhi Pramana Yoga

Jainism

Haribhadra Umaswati

Buddhism

Buddha

Traditions

Madhyamika

Nagarjuna

Yogacara

Vasubandhu Dharmakirti

Indian logic

Dignaga

Topics

Dukkha Anatta Anicca Nirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Emptiness

China

Confucianism Persons

Confucius Mencius

Topics

Face Filial piety Guanxi Ren Li

New Confucianism

Han Yu Wang Yangming Xiong Shili Zhu Xi

Daoism Persons

Laozi

Topics

Tao Yin yang Wu wei

Legalism

Shang Yang

Chinese Buddhism

Tientai

Zhiyi

Huayan
Huayan
school

Fazang Guifeng Zongmi

East Asian Mādhyamaka

Jizang

Chinese Chan

Hundred Schools of Thought

Mozi Zhuangzi

Maoism

Mao

Other

Sun Tzu

General topics

De Qi

Japan

Traditions

Japanese Zen

Sōtō

Dogen

Shingon

Kukai

Kyoto School

Kitaro Nishida

Korea

Yi Hwang Yi I

Tibet

Traditions

Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita

Nyingma

Longchenpa

Gelug

Tsongkhapa

Topics

Four Tenets system Rangtong-Shentong Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction

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Eastern philosophy
Eastern philosophy
or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies of East Asia
East Asia
(Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy), South Asia
South Asia
(Indian philosophy), and Buddhist philosophy (dominant in Tibet, Bhutan, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Southeast Asia).[1][2] According to the British philosopher Victoria S. Harrison, the category of "Eastern philosophy", and similarly "Asian philosophy" and "Oriental philosophy" is a product of 19th-century Western scholarship and did not exist in East Asia
East Asia
or India. This is because in Asia
Asia
there is no single unified philosophical tradition with a single root,[3] but various autochthonous traditions which have come into contact with each other over time.

Contents

1 Indian philosophies

1.1 Orthodox schools

1.1.1 Sāmkhya and Yoga 1.1.2 Nyāya 1.1.3 Vaiśeṣika 1.1.4 Mīmāṃsā 1.1.5 Vedānta 1.1.6 Other

1.2 Heterodox or Śramaṇic schools

1.2.1 Jain philosophy 1.2.2 Cārvāka 1.2.3 Ājīvika 1.2.4 Ajñana

1.3 Sikh philosophy 1.4 Modern Indian philosophy

2 Buddhist philosophies

2.1 Buddhist modernism

3 East Asian philosophies

3.1 Chinese

3.1.1 Confucianism 3.1.2 Legalism 3.1.3 Mohism 3.1.4 Taoism

3.2 Modern East Asian philosophy

3.2.1 Chinese 3.2.2 Japanese 3.2.3 Korean

4 Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy 5 Controversy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Indian philosophies[edit] Further information: Indian philosophy Main articles: Hinduism
Hinduism
and Hindu
Hindu
philosophy Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
refers to ancient philosophical traditions (Sanskrit: darśana; 'world views', 'teachings')[4] of the Indian subcontinent. The major orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era
Common Era
and the Gupta Empire.[5] These Hindu
Hindu
schools developed what has been called the " Hindu
Hindu
synthesis" merging orthodox Brahmanical
Brahmanical
and unorthodox elements from Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
as a way to respond to the unorthodox challenges.[6] Hindu
Hindu
thought also spread east to the Indonesian Srivijaya empire
Srivijaya empire
and the Cambodian Khmer Empire. These religio-philosophical traditions were later grouped under the label Hinduism. Hinduism
Hinduism
is the dominant religion, or way of life,[note 1] in South Asia. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism[9] among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism
Hinduism
is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.[10] Hinduism, with about one billion followers[11] is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way";[12][13][14] beyond human origins.[14] Western scholars regard Hinduism
Hinduism
as a fusion[note 2] or synthesis[15][note 3][15] of various Indian cultures and traditions,[16][17][18] with diverse roots[19][note 4] and no single founder.[23] Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period
Vedic period
(1000–500 BCE). Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharma, karma, samsara, moksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning (pramana) and logic and investigated topics such as Ontology (metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics.[24][25][26] Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra
Arthashastra
c. 4th century BCE and the philosophy of love as seen in the Kama
Kama
Sutra. Later developments include the development of Tantra
Tantra
and Iranian-Islamic influences. Buddhism
Buddhism
mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India.[27] The early modern period saw the flourishing of Navya-Nyāya (the 'new reason') under philosophers such as Raghunatha Siromani (c. 1460–1540) who founded the tradition, Jayarama Pancanana, Mahadeva Punatamakara and Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
(who formulated a Jain response).[28] Orthodox schools[edit] The principal Indian philosophical schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas
Vedas
are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas.[29][30] There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Hindu
Hindu
Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions.[31][32] Each school of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
has extensive epistemological literature called Pramana-sastras.[33][34] In Hindu
Hindu
history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period
Gupta period
"golden age" of Hinduism. With the disappearance of Vaisheshika and Mīmāṃsā, it became obsolete by the later Middle Ages, when the various sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
(Dvaita "dualism", Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
"non-dualism" and others) began to rise to prominence as the main divisions of religious philosophy. Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya
Nyaya
"Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya
Samkhya
gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta. Sāmkhya and Yoga[edit]

King Amsuman and the yogic sage Kapila. The Samkhya
Samkhya
school traditionally traces itself back to sage Kapila.

Sāmkhya is a dualist philosophical tradition based on the Samkhyakarika
Samkhyakarika
(circa 320-540 CE),[35] while the Yoga
Yoga
school was a closely related tradition emphasizing meditation and liberation whose major text is the Yoga
Yoga
sutras (c. 400 CE).[36] Elements of proto- Samkhya
Samkhya
ideas can however be traced back all the way to the period of the early Upanishads.[37] One of the main differences between the two closely related schools was that Yoga
Yoga
allowed for the existence of a God, while most Sāmkhya thinkers criticized this idea.[38] Sāmkhya epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge; pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (word/testimony of reliable sources).[39] The school developed a complex theoretical exposition of the evolution of consciousness and matter. Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). As shown by the Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c. 14th century CE), Sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. Nyāya[edit] The Nyāya school of epistemology, explores sources of knowledge (Pramāṇa) and is based on the Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
(circa 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE).[40] Nyāya holds that human suffering arises out of ignorance and liberation arises through correct knowledge. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. Nyāya traditionally accepts four Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and Śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[41] Nyāya also traditionally defended a form of philosophical realism.[42] The Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
was a very influential text in Indian philosophy, laying the foundations for classical Indian epistemological debates between the different philosophical schools. It includes, for example, the classic Hindu
Hindu
rejoinders against Buddhist not-self (anatta) arguments.[43] The work also famously argues against a creator God (Ishvara),[44] a debate which became central to Hinduism
Hinduism
in the medieval period. Vaiśeṣika[edit] Vaiśeṣika is an naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception and inference.[45] This philosophy held that the universe was reducible to paramāṇu (atoms), which are indestructible (anitya), indivisible, and have a special kind of dimension, called “small” (aṇu). Whatever we experience is a composite of these atoms.[46] Vaiśeṣika organized all objects of experience into what they called padārthas (literally: 'the meaning of a word') which included six categories; dravya (substance), guṇa (quality), karma (activity), sāmānya (generality), viśeṣa (particularity) and samavāya (inherence). Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence). The first three categories are defined as artha (which can perceived) and they have real objective existence. The last three categories are defined as budhyapekṣam (product of intellectual discrimination) and they are logical categories.[47] Mīmāṃsā[edit] Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
is a school of ritual orthopraxy and is known for its hermeneutical study and interpretation of the Vedas.[48] For this tradition, the study of dharma as rituals and social duties was paramount. They also held that the Vedas
Vedas
were "eternal, authorless, [and] infallible" and that Vedic injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive actions of primary importance.[49] Because of their focus on textual study and interpretation, Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
also developed theories of philology and the philosophy of language which influenced other Indian schools.[50] They primarily held that the purpose of language was to clearly prescribe proper actions, rituals and correct dharma (duty or virtue).[51] Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
is also mainly atheistic, holding that the evidence for the existence of God
God
is insufficient and that the Gods named in the Vedas
Vedas
have no existence apart from the names, mantras and their power.[52] A key text of the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school is the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
Sūtra of Jaimini
Jaimini
and major Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
cholars include Prabhākara (c. 7th century) and Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
(fl. roughly 700). The Mīmāṃsā school strongly influenced Vedānta
Vedānta
which was also known as Uttara-Mīmāṃsā, however while Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
emphasized karmakāṇḍa, or the study of ritual actions, using the four early Vedas, the Vedānta
Vedānta
schools emphasized jñanakāṇḍa, the study of knowledge, using the later parts of Vedas
Vedas
like the Upaniṣads.[53] Vedānta[edit]

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
(8th century CE) the main exponent of Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta.

Vedānta
Vedānta
(meaning "end of the Vedas") or Uttara-Mīmāṃsā, are a group of traditions which focus on the philosophical issues found in the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
(the three sources), which are the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
and the Bhagavad Gita.[54] Vedānta
Vedānta
sees the Vedas, particularly the Upanishads, as a reliable source of knowledge. The central concern for these schools is the nature of and relationship between Brahman
Brahman
(ultimate reality, universal consciousness), Ātman (individual soul) and Prakriti
Prakriti
(empirical world). The sub-traditions of Vedānta
Vedānta
include Advaita
Advaita
(non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
(qualified non-dualism), Dvaita
Dvaita
(dualism) and Bhedabheda (difference and non-difference).[55] Due the popularity of the bhakti movement, Vedānta
Vedānta
came to be the dominant current of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the post-medieval period. Other[edit] While the classical enumeration of Indian philosophies lists six orthodox schools, there are other schools which are sometimes seen as orthodox. These include: [56]

Paśupata, an ascetic school of Shaivism
Shaivism
founded by Lakulisha
Lakulisha
(~2nd century CE). Śaiva Siddhānta, a school of dualistic Shaivism
Shaivism
which was strongly influenced by Samkhya. Pratyabhijña (recognition) school of Utpaladeva (10th century) and Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
(975–1025 CE), a form of non-dual Shaiva tantra. Raseśvara, the mercurial school Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana, the grammarian school (which clarifies the theory of Sphoṭa)

Heterodox or Śramaṇic schools[edit] Main article: Śramaṇa The nāstika or heterodox schools are associated with the non-vedic Śramaṇic traditions that existed in India since before the 6th century BCE.[57] The Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement gave rise to diverse range of non-vedic ideas, ranging from accepting or denying the concepts of atman, atomism, materialism, atheism, agnosticism, fatalism to free will, extreme asceticism, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism.[58] Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Cārvāka, Ajñana and Ājīvika.[59] Jain philosophy[edit] Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics, reality, cosmology, ontology, epistemology and divinity. Jainism
Jainism
is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India.[60]:182 It continues the ancient Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
tradition, which co-existed with the Vedic tradition since ancient times.[61][62] The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
includes a mind-body dualism, denial of a creative and omnipotent God, karma, an eternal and uncreated universe, non-violence, the theory of the multiple facets of truth, and a morality based on liberation of the soul. Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation.[63] It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on self-control, austerities and renunciation.[64] It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies.[65] Jainism
Jainism
strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions; and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.[66] The contribution of the Jains in the development of Indian philosophy has been significant. Jain philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Moksa, Samsara
Samsara
and the like are common with other Indian religions like Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in various forms.[67] While Jainism
Jainism
traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira
Mahavira
and other Tirthankaras, various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda
Kundakunda
and Umasvati
Umasvati
in ancient times to Yasovijaya in recent times have contributed to Indian philosophical discourse in uniquely Jain ways. Cārvāka[edit] Cārvāka or Lokāyata was an atheistic philosophy of scepticism and materialism, who rejected the Vedas
Vedas
and all associated supernatural doctrines.[68] Cārvāka philosophers like Brihaspati were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. Cārvāka deemed the Vedas
Vedas
to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self-contradiction, and tautology.[69] They declared the Vedas
Vedas
to be incoherent rhapsodies invented by man whose only usefulness was to provide livelihood to priests.[70] Likewise they faulted Buddhists and Jains, mocking the concept of liberation, reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through karma.[71] They believed that, the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools".[69] Cārvāka epistemology holds perception as the primary source of knowledge, while rejecting inference which can be invalid.[72] The primary texts of Cārvāka, like the Barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 BCE) have been lost.[73] Ājīvika[edit] Ājīvika
Ājīvika
was founded by Makkhali Gosala, it was a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement and a major rival of early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.[74] Original scriptures of the Ājīvika
Ājīvika
school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Hindu
Hindu
Indian literature, particularly those of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
which polemically criticized the Ajivikas.[75] The Ājīvika
Ājīvika
school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism (fate), the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles.[76][77] Ājīvika
Ājīvika
considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy.[78] Ājīvikas were atheists[79] and rejected the authority of the Vedas, but they believed that in every living being is an ātman – a central premise of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism.[80][81] Ajñana[edit] Ajñana was a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
school of radical Indian skepticism and a rival of early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. They held that it was impossible to obtain knowledge of metaphysical nature or ascertain the truth value of philosophical propositions;[82] and even if knowledge was possible, it was useless and disadvantageous for final salvation. They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa (fl. c. 800), author of the skeptical work entitled Tattvopaplavasiṃha ("The Lion that Devours All Categories"/"The Upsetting of All Principles"), has been seen as an important Ajñana philosopher.[83] Sikh philosophy[edit] Main article: Sikh religious philosophy Sikhism
Sikhism
is an Indian religion developed by Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
(1469–1539) in the Punjab region during the Mughal Era. Their main sacred text is the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib. The fundamental beliefs include constant spiritual meditation of God's name, being guided by the Guru
Guru
instead of yielding to capriciousness, living a householder's life instead of monasticism, truthful action to dharam (righteousness, moral duty), equality of all human beings, and believing in God's grace.[84][85] Key concepts include Simran, Sewa , the Three Pillars of Sikhism, and the Five Thieves. Modern Indian philosophy[edit]

From left to right: Virchand Gandhi, Anagarika Dharmapala, Swami Vivekananda, (possibly) G. Bonet Maury. Parliament of World Religions, 1893.

In response to colonialism and their contact with Western philosophy, 19th century Indians developed new ways of thinking now termed Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
and Hindu
Hindu
modernism. Their ideas focused on the universality of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
(particularly Vedanta) and the unity of different religions. It was during this period that Hindu modernists presented a single idealized and united "Hinduism." exemplified by the philosophy of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. [86] They were also influenced by Western ideas.[87] The first of these movements was that of the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
of Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
(1772-1833).[88] Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
(1863-1902) was very influential in developing the Hindu reform movements and in bringing the worldview to the West.[89] Through the work of Indians like Vivekananda
Vivekananda
as well as westerners such as the proponents of the Theosophical society, modern Hindu thought also had an influence on western culture.[90] The political thought of Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
is also another important current in modern Indian thought. The work of Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Aurobindo, Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
have had a large impact on modern Indian philosophy.[91] Jainism
Jainism
also had its modern interpreters and defenders, such as Virchand Gandhi, Champat Rai Jain, and Shrimad Rajchandra
Shrimad Rajchandra
(well known as a spiritual guide of Mahatma Gandhi). Buddhist philosophies[edit] Main articles: Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Buddhist ethics

The Buddhist Nalanda
Nalanda
university and monastery was a major center of learning in India from the 5th century AD to c. 1200

Play media

Monks debating at Sera monastery, Tibet, 2013.

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha
Buddha
(fl. between sixth and fourth centuries BCE) and is preserved in the early Buddhist texts. It generally refers to the philosophical investigations that developed among various Buddhist schools
Buddhist schools
in India and later spread throughout Asia
Asia
through the silk road. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. It is the dominant philosophical tradition in Tibet
Tibet
and Southeast Asian countries like Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Burma. Buddhism's main concern is soteriological, defined as freedom from dukkha (unease).[92] Because ignorance to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering, Buddhist thinkers concerned themselves with philosophical questions related to epistemology and the use of reason.[93] Key Buddhist concepts include the Four Noble Truths, Anatta
Anatta
(not-self) a critique of a fixed personal identity, the transience of all things (Anicca), and a certain skepticism about metaphysical questions. Buddhist thinkers in India and subsequently in East Asia
East Asia
have covered topics as varied as phenomenology, ethics, ontology, epistemology, logic and philosophy of time. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed 'Abhidharma'. Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
and Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
developed the theories of Shunyata
Shunyata
(emptiness of all phenomena) and Vijnapti-matra (appearance only), a form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism.[94] The Dignāga
Dignāga
(c. 480–540) school of Pramāṇa promoted a complex form of epistemology and Buddhist logic. This tradition contributed to what has been called an "epistemological turn" in Indian philosophy.[95] Through the work of Dharmakirti, this tradition of Buddhist logic
Buddhist logic
has become the major epistemological system used in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and debate.[96] After the disappearance of Buddhism
Buddhism
from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan Buddhist, East Asian Buddhist and Theravada Buddhist
Theravada Buddhist
traditions. In Tibet, the Indian tradition continued to be developed under the work of thinkers like Sakya
Sakya
Pandita, Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
and Ju Mipham. In China, new developments were led by thinkers such as Xuangzang who authored new works on Yogacara, Zhiyi
Zhiyi
who founded the Tiantai
Tiantai
school and developed a new theory of Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
and Guifeng Zongmi
Guifeng Zongmi
who wrote on Huayan
Huayan
and Zen. Buddhist modernism[edit] Main articles: Buddhist_philosophy § Modern_philosophy, and Buddhist modernism

Hu Shi
Hu Shi
and DT Suzuki
DT Suzuki
during his visit to China
China
in 1934

The modern period saw the rise of Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
and Humanistic Buddhism
Buddhism
under Western influences and the development of a Western Buddhism
Buddhism
with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy. Important exponents of Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
include Anagarika Dharmapala
Anagarika Dharmapala
(1864-1933) and the American convert Henry Steel Olcott, the Chinese modernists Taixu
Taixu
(1890-1947) and Yin Shun (1906–2005), Zen
Zen
scholar DT Suzuki, and the Tibetan Gendün Chöphel (1903–1951). Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
refers to "forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
that have emerged out of an engagement with the dominant cultural and intellectual forces of modernity."[97] Forces which influenced modernists like Dhammapala, and Yin Shun
Yin Shun
included Enlightenment values, and Western Science. A Neo-Buddhist movement
Neo-Buddhist movement
was founded by the influential Indian Dalit
Dalit
leader B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
in the 1950s who emphasized social and political reform.[98] Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
includes various movements like Humanistic Buddhism, Secular Buddhism, the Vipassana movement, and Engaged Buddhism. Chinese humanistic Buddhism
Buddhism
or " Buddhism
Buddhism
for Human Life" (Chinese: 人生佛教; pinyin: rénshēng fójiào) which was to be free of supernatural beliefs has also been an influential form of modern Buddhism
Buddhism
in Asia.[99] East Asian philosophies[edit] Main articles: Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy

One of the main halls of the Guozijian
Guozijian
(Imperial College) in downtown Beijing, the highest institution of higher learning in pre-modern China

Chinese[edit] East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China, and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou
Western Zhou
Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the "Hundred Schools of Thought" flourished (6th century to 221 BCE).[100][101] This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major Chinese philosophical schools (Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism) as well as numerous less influential schools (Mohism, School of Names, School of Yin Yang). These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories which, along with Chinese Buddhism, had a direct influence on the rest of the East Asian cultural sphere. Buddhism began arriving in China
China
during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
(206 BCE–220 CE), through a gradual Silk road
Silk road
transmission and gradually developed distinct Chinese forms (such as Chan/Zen). Confucianism[edit] Main article: Confucianism

Confucius

Confucianism
Confucianism
(Kǒngjiào — "Confucius' doctrine"), also known as "Ruism" (Rújiào — "doctrine of the scholars"), is a Chinese philosophical system with ritual, moral and religious applications.[102] The tradition developed around the teachings of Confucius
Confucius
(Kǒng Fūzǐ, 孔夫子, "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE) who saw himself as transmitting the values and theology of the ancestors before him.[103] Other influential classical Confucian philosophers include Mencius
Mencius
and Xun Kuang
Xun Kuang
who famously disagreed on the innate moral nature of humans. Confucianism
Confucianism
focuses on humanistic values like familial and social harmony, filial piety (孝, xiào), Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") and Lǐ (禮/礼) which is a system of ritual norms that determines how a person should act to be in harmony with the law of Heaven. Confucianism
Confucianism
traditionally holds that these values are based on the transcendent principle known as Heaven
Heaven
(Tiān 天), and also includes the belief in spirits or gods (shén). [104] Confucianism
Confucianism
was a major ideology of the imperial state during the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) and was revived as Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907). During later Chinese dynasties like Song Dynasty (960-1297) and the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
(1368–1644) as well as in the Korean Joseon dynasty
Joseon dynasty
(1392–1897) a resurgent Neo-Confucianism led by thinkers such as Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
(1130–1200) and Wang Yangming (1472–1529) became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state. Beginning in the Song dynasty, confucian classics were the basis of the imperial exams and became the core philosophy of the scholar official class. Confucianism
Confucianism
suffered setbacks during the 20th century, but is recently undergoing a revival, which is termed New Confucianism.[105] Traditionally, East Asian cultures and countries in the cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, as well as various overseas territories settled predominantly by Overseas Chinese, such as Singapore. Legalism[edit] Legalism (pinyin: Fǎjiā; school of "methods" or "standards")[106] was a philosophical tradition which focused on laws, realpolitik and bureaucratic management.[107] Largely ignoring morality or idealized views of how society should be, they focused on pragmatic government through the power of the autocrat and state. Their goal was achieving increased order, security and stability. [108] They were initially influenced by Mohist ideas.[109] A key figure of this school was administrator and political philosopher Shen Buhai
Shen Buhai
(c. 400–337 BC). [110] Another central figure, Shang Yang
Shang Yang
(390–338 BC), was a leading statesman and reformer who transformed the Qin state into the dominant power that conquered the rest of China
China
in 221 BC.[111] Shen's successor Han Fei
Han Fei
(c. 280 – 233 BC) synthesized the thought of the other Legalists in his eponymous text, the Han Feizi, one of the most influential Legalist texts which was used by successive Chinese statesmen and rulers as a guide for statesmanship and bureaucratic organization of the imperial state.[112][113] Mohism[edit] Mohism
Mohism
(Mòjiā; "School of Mo"), was founded by Mozi
Mozi
(c. 470 BC–c. 391 BC) and his students. It was a major school of thought and rival of Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism
Taoism
during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (c. 770–221 BC). The main text of the school is the Mozi
Mozi
(book). The administrative thought of Mohism
Mohism
was later absorbed by Legalism, their ethics absorbed into Confucianism
Confucianism
and its books were also merged into the Taoist canon, as Mohism
Mohism
all but disappeared as independent school after the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
era. Mohism
Mohism
is best known for the idea of "impartial care" (Chinese: 兼愛; pinyin: jiān ài; literally: "inclusive love/care").[114] According to Master Mo, persons should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their actual relationship to them. Mo also advocated impartial meritocracy in government which should be based on talent, not blood relations. Mozi
Mozi
was against Confucian ritualism, instead emphasizing pragmatic survival through farming, fortification, and statecraft. Tradition is inconsistent, and human beings need an extra-traditional guide to identify which traditions are acceptable. The moral guide must then promote and encourage social behaviors that maximize general benefit. As motivation for his theory, Mozi
Mozi
brought in the Will of Heaven, but rather than being religious his philosophy parallels utilitarianism. Mohism
Mohism
was also associated with and influenced by a separate philosophical school known as the School of Names
School of Names
(Míngjiā; also known as 'Logicians'), which focused on philosophy of language, definition and logic. Taoism[edit]

The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, embroidery, 1860-1880

Main article: Taoist philosophy Taoism
Taoism
(or Daoism) is a term for various philosophies and religious systems which emphasize harmony with the Tao
Tao
(Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào; literally: "the Way") which is seen as the principle which is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists.[115] Taoism
Taoism
tends to emphasize virtues such as wu wei (effortless action), ziran (naturalness), pu (simplicity), and spontaneity while placing less emphasis on norms and ritual (as opposed to Confucianism). The attainment of immortality through external alchemy (waidan) and internal alchemy (neidan) was an important goal for many taoists historically.[116] Early forms of Taoism
Taoism
developed in the 4th century BCE, influenced by the cosmological theories of the School of Naturalists
School of Naturalists
and the I Ching. The School of Naturalists
School of Naturalists
or Yin-yang
Yin-yang
was another philosophical school that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements; Zou Yan is considered the founder.[117] The Dao De Jing
Dao De Jing
(Tao-Te-Ching, ca. 4th century BCE), traditionally attributed to Laozi, and the Nan Hua Jing (Zhuang Zi) are considered the key texts of the tradition. [118] The first organized form of Taoism, the Tianshi (Celestial Masters') school arose in the 2nd century CE. Xuanxue ("deep learning", also "Neo-Taoism") was a major philosophical movement influenced by Confucian scholarship, which focused on the interpretation of the Yijing, Daodejing, and Zhuangzi and which flourished during the third to sixth centuries CE.[119] The most important philosophers of this movement were He Yan, Wang Bi, the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, Ge Hong and Guo Xiang.[120] Thinkers like He Yan
He Yan
and Wang Bi focused on the deep nature of Tao, which they saw as being best exemplified by the term "Wu" (nothingness, non-being, negativity).[121] Other schools rose to prominence throughout Chinese history, such as the Shangqing school during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907), the Lingbao school during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279) and the Quanzhen School which develop during the 13th-14th centuries and during the Yuan dynasty.[122] The later Taoist traditions were also influenced by Chinese Buddhism.[123] Modern East Asian philosophy[edit] Chinese[edit]

Xiong Shili
Xiong Shili
circa 1960.

Modern Chinese thought is generally seen as being rooted in Classical Confucianism
Confucianism
(Jingxue), Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
(Lixue), Buddhism, Daoism, and Xixue (“Western Learning” which arose during the late Ming Dynasty).[124] The Opium war
Opium war
of 1839-42 saw the beginning of Western and Japanese invasions and exploitation of China
China
which was humiliating to Chinese thinkers. The late 19th and early 20th century saw Chinese thinkers such as Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
looking to Western practical knowledge as a way to preserve traditional Chinese culture, a doctrine that he defined as “Chinese Learning as Substance and Western Learning as Function” (Zhongti Xiyong). [125] Following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
in 1911 and the end of the Qing Dynasty, the May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
sought to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China
China
(such as the old civil service system). There were two major philosophical trends during this period. One was anti-traditional and promoted Western learning and ideas. A key figure of this anti-traditional current was Yan Fu (1853-1921) who translated various Western philosophical works including Smith's The Wealth of Nations
The Wealth of Nations
and Mill's On Liberty.[126] There were also attempts to incorporate Western ideas of democracy, and republicanism into Chinese political philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-Sen (1866-1925) at the beginning of the 20th century. Another influential modern Chinese philosopher was Hu Shi, who was a student of John Dewey
John Dewey
at Columbia University and who promoted a form of pragmatism. The traditionalists meanwhile sought to revive and fortify traditional Chinese philosophical schools. Chinese Buddhist thought was promoted by thinkers like Yang Rensan and Ou-Yang Jingwu[127] while another influential movement is New Confucianism
Confucianism
(Chinese: 新儒家; pinyin: xīn rú jiā). New Confucianism
Confucianism
is a traditionalist revival of Confucian thought in China
China
beginning in 20th century Republican China which is also associated with New Conservatism. Key New Confucians of the first generation are Xiong Shili
Xiong Shili
and Fung Youlan.[128] The second generation (1950–1979) include individuals like Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, and Xu Fuguan, all three students of Xiong Shili. Together with Zhang Junmai, the second generation published the New Confucian Manifesto in 1958. The influence of Marxism
Marxism
on modern Chinese political thought is vast, especially through the work of Mao
Mao
Zedong, the most famous thinker of Chinese Marxist Philosophy. Maoism
Maoism
is a Chinese Marxist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th-century Communist Party of China revolutionary leader Mao
Mao
Zedong. It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin, but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry, and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms. The current government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
continues to espouse a pragmatic form of socialism as its official party ideology which it calls Socialism
Socialism
with Chinese characteristics. When the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
took over the reign, previous schools of thought such as Taoism
Taoism
and Confucianism (except Legalism) were denounced as backward, and later purged during the violence of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
which saw many Taoist and Buddhist temples and institutions destroyed. Japanese[edit]

Fukuzawa Yukichi
Fukuzawa Yukichi
(1862) a key civil rights activist and liberal thinker.

Modern Japanese thought is strongly influenced by Western science and philosophy. Japan's rapid modernization was partly aided by the early study of western science (known as Rangaku) during the Edo Period (1603 – 1868). Another intellectual movement during the Edo period was Kokugaku (national study), which sought to focus on the study of ancient Japanese thought, classic texts and culture over and against foreign Chinese and Buddhist cultures.[129] A key figure of this movement is Motoori Norinaga
Motoori Norinaga
(1730 – 1801), who argued that the essence of classic Japanese literature and culture was a sense called mono no aware ("sorrow at evanescence").[130] In the Meiji period
Meiji period
(1868 – 1912), the modernist Meirokusha
Meirokusha
(Meiji 6, formed in 1874) intellectual society promoted European enlightenment thought. Meirokusha
Meirokusha
philosophers like Mori Arinori, Nishi Amane, and Fukuzawa Yukichi
Fukuzawa Yukichi
sought ways to combine Western ideas with Japanese culture and values. The Shōwa period
Shōwa period
(1926–1989) saw the rise of State Shinto
State Shinto
and Japanese nationalism. Japanese Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
was influenced by the work of the Kyoto School which drew from western philosophers (especially German philosophy) and Buddhist thought and included Kitaro Nishida, Keiji Nishitani, Hajime Tanabe and Masao Abe. The most important trend in Japanese Buddhist thought after the formation of the Kyoto school is Critical Buddhism, which argues against several Mahayana
Mahayana
concepts such as Buddha
Buddha
nature and original enlightenment.[131] Korean[edit] Main article: Juche Juche, usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official political ideology of North Korea, described by the regime as Kim Il-Sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".[132] The idea states that an individual is "the master of his destiny"[133] and that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction".[133] Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy[edit]

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Further information: Buddhism
Buddhism
and Western Philosophy, Perennial philosophy, and New Age There have been many modern attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism
Hinduism
with Western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads
Upanishads
(primary Hindu
Hindu
scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him. Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy
Western philosophy
into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl
Husserl
with the insights of Zen
Zen
Buddhism. Watsuji Tetsurô, a 20th-century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger
Heidegger
with Eastern philosophies. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. For the most part this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Heidegger
Heidegger
did spend time attempting to translate the Tao
Tao
Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger's later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of Being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas. There are clear parallels between Heidegger
Heidegger
and the work of Kyoto School, and ultimately, it may be read that Heidegger's philosophy is an attempt to 'turn eastwards' in response to the crisis in Western civilization. However, this is only an interpretation. The 20th century Hindu
Hindu
guru Sri Aurobindo
Aurobindo
was influenced by German Idealism
Idealism
and his integral yoga is regarded as a synthesis of Eastern and Western thought. The German phenomenologist Jean Gebser's writings on the history of consciousness referred to a new planetary consciousness that would bridge this gap. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung
Carl Jung
was deeply influenced by the I Ching. The I Ching
I Ching
( Book
Book
of Changes) is an ancient Chinese text from the Shang Dynasty (Bronze Age 1700BC-1050BC), and uses a system of Yin and Yang, which it places into hexagrams for the purposes of divination. Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality, as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching
I Ching
( Book
Book
of Changes). He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the West knows it, but on chance. Controversy[edit] Some Western thinkers claim that philosophy as such is only characteristic of Western cultures. The German philosopher Martin Heidegger
Heidegger
is even reported to have said that only Greek and German languages are suitable for philosophizing.[134] It is still commonplace in Western universities to teach only Western philosophy and to ignore Asian philosophy altogether, or consider only newer Western-influenced Asian thought proper "philosophy". Carine Defoort, herself a specialist in Chinese thought, has offered support for such a "family" view of philosophy,[135] while Rein Raud
Rein Raud
has presented an argument[136] against it and offered a more flexible definition of philosophy that would include both Western and Asian thought on equal terms. In response, OuYang Min argues that philosophy proper is a Western cultural practice and essentially different from zhexue, which is what the Chinese have,[137] even though zhexue (originally tetsugaku) is actually a neologism coined in 1873 by Nishi Amane
Nishi Amane
for describing Western philosophy
Western philosophy
as opposed to traditional Asian thought.[138] See also[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
Mythology portal Spirituality portal Religion portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal Mythology portal Confucianism
Confucianism
portal Taoism
Taoism
portal Shinto portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Sikhism
Sikhism
portal Jainism
Jainism
portal

Middle Eastern philosophy

Notes[edit]

^ Hinduism
Hinduism
is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition", "a way of life" ([7]) etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in [8] ^ Lockard 2007, p. 50: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis." Lockard 2007, p. 52: " Hinduism
Hinduism
can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries." ^ Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12: "A period of consolidation, sometimes identified as one of " Hindu
Hindu
synthesis," Brahmanic synthesis," or "orthodox synthesis," takes place between the time of the late Vedic Upanishads
Upanishads
(c. 500 BCE) and the period of Gupta imperial ascendency" (c. 320-467 CE)." ^ Among its roots are the Vedic religion of the late Vedic period (Flood 1996, p. 16) and its emphasis on the status of Brahmans (Samuel 2010, pp. 48–53), but also the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation (;[19] Lockard 2007, p. 52; ;[20] [21]) the Sramana
Sramana
or renouncer traditions of north-east India (;[17] [22]) and "popular or local traditions" ([17]).

References[edit]

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