The ZHOU DYNASTY (Chinese : 周朝; pinyin : Zhōu cháo ) was a
Chinese dynasty that followed the
Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin
dynasty . The
Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in
Chinese history . The military control of
China by the royal house,
surnamed Ji (Chinese : 姬), lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC
for a period known as the
Western Zhou and the political sphere of
influence it created continued well into
Eastern Zhou for another 500
During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the
Spring and Autumn Period until the
Warring States Period in the last
two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had
little control over its constituent states that were at war with each
other until the
Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin
Dynasty in 221 BC. The Zhou Dynasty had formally collapsed only 35
years earlier, although the dynasty had had only nominal power at that
This period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith
of Chinese bronze -ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in
which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the
use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring
States period .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Foundation
* 1.1.1 Traditional myth
* 1.1.2 Culture
* 2 Culture and society
Mandate of Heaven
Fēngjiàn system and bureaucracy
* 126.96.36.199 Agriculture
* 2.2.2 Military
* 2.3 Philosophy
* 2.3.1 Li
* 3 Kings
* 4 Later tradition
* 4.1 Claimed descendants
* 4.2 Astrology
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 7.1 Citations
* 7.2 Works cited
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
According to Chinese mythology , the Zhou lineage began when Jiang
Yuan , a consort of the legendary
Emperor Ku , miraculously conceived
a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine
Shangdi . Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving
three abandonments by his mother and with greatly improving Xia
agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and
the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a later posthumous name , Houji
Millet ", by the
Tang of Shang . He even received sacrifice
as a harvest god . The term Hòujì was probably an hereditary title
attached to a lineage.
Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì,
Buzhu is said to have
abandoned his position as Agrarian Master (Chinese : 農師; pinyin :
Nóngshī) in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned
agriculture entirely, living a nomadic life in the manner of the
Xirong and Rongdi (see
Hua–Yi distinction ). Ju's son Liu ,
however, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and
settling them at a place called Bin , which his descendants ruled for
generations . Tai later led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the
Wei River valley of modern-day
Qishan County .
The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor
Jili , a warrior who conquered several
Xirong tribes as a vassal of
the Shang kings Wu Yi and
Wen Ding before being treacherously killed.
Taibo and Zhongyong had supposedly already fled to the Yangtze delta,
where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's
son Wen bribed his way out of imprisonment and moved the Zhou capital
to Feng (within present-day Xi\'an ). Around 1046 BCE, Wen's son Wu
and his ally
Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots
Yellow River and defeated
King Zhou of Shang at the Battle
of Muye , marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou
enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of
Song , which was held by descendants of the Shang royal family until
its end. This practice was referred to as Two Kings, Three Reverences.
According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a
language not basically different in vocabulary and syntax from that of
the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics,
reached the same conclusion. The Zhou emulated extensively Shang
cultural practices, perhaps to legitimize their own rule, and became
the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may also
have been connected to the
Xirong , a broadly defined cultural group
to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries.
According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western
Zhou period was likely used to designate political and military
adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic 'others.'
The proto-Zhou were first located in the
where they absorbed elements from the Guangshe culture and from the
steppe dwellers. King Liu moved his people to the lower Fen River
Valley and to the western bank of the Yellow River, where they resumed
agriculture. His son Qing Jie, led the Zhou to the upper valley of the
Jing River. They stayed there until Dan Fu (or Tai Wang) moved again
Wei River valley in order to avoid incursion by the Rongdi
nomads. During this period, the Zhou mingled with the
Qiang people ,
who provided them with a cultural inheritance from the Siwa and Anguo
peoples and formed a political alliance with them. In all these
stages, the advanced Shang bronze culture constantly imparted its
influence on the Zhou. The Qi area was the region in which all these
influences would come to fruition. The contact among the proto-Zhou,
Shaanxi Longshan , the Qiang, and the northern steppe
traditions, plus the tradition of the Shang produced the momentum for
change and development.
Western Zhou States of the
Western Zhou dynasty
King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but
constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao
. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the
Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal
power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three
Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in
rebellion against his regency. Even though they garnered the support
of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi
Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, and further expanded
the Zhou kingdom into the east. To maintain Zhou authority over its
greatly expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the
fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of
legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the
Mandate of Heaven while
accommodating important Shang rituals at
Wangcheng and Chengzhou .
Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial
relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties
thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local
power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou. When King You
demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner
Bao Si , the disgraced queen's father the
Marquis of Shen joined with
Zeng and the
Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern
scholars have surmised that the sack of
Haojing might have been
connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward
expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles met at Shen and
declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping . The capital was moved
Wangcheng , marking the end of the "Western Zhou"
(西周, p Xī Zhōu) and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty
(東周, p Dōng Zhōu).
Eastern Zhou Period Map showing major states of
Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of
royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over
five more centuries of rule. The Confucian chronicle of the early
years of this process led to its title of the "Spring and Autumn "
period. The partition of Jin in the mid-5th century BC initiated a
second phase, the "Warring States" . In 403 BC, the Zhou court
recognized Han , Zhao , and Wei as fully independent states. Duke Hui
of Wei , in 344 BC, was the first to claim the royal title of king
(Chinese: 王) for himself. Others followed, marking a turning point,
as rulers did not even entertain the pretence of being vassals of the
Zhou court, instead proclaiming themselves fully independent kingdoms.
A series of states rose to prominence before each falling in turn, and
Zhou was a minor player most of these conflicts.
The last Zhou king is traditionally taken to be Nan , who was killed
when Qin captured the capital
Wangcheng in 256 BC. A "King Hui " was
declared, but his splinter state was fully removed by 249 BC. Qin's
China concluded in 221 BC with
Qin Shihuang 's
annexation of Qi .
The Eastern Zhou, however, is also remembered as the golden age of
Chinese philosophy: the
Hundred Schools of Thought which flourished as
rival lords patronized itinerant shi scholars is led by the example of
Jixia Academy . The
Nine Schools of Thought which came to
dominate the others were
Confucianism (as interpreted by
others), Legalism ,
Mohism , the utopian communalist
Agriculturalism , two strains of Diplomatists , the sophistic
Sun-tzu 's Militarists , and the Naturalists . Although
only the first three of these went on to receive imperial patronage in
later dynasties, doctrines from each influenced the others and Chinese
society in sometimes unusual ways. The Mohists , for instance, found
little interest in their praise of meritocracy but much acceptance for
their mastery of siege warfare; much later, however, their arguments
against nepotism were used in favor of establishing the imperial
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon
Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon , painting on silk
, dated to 5th-3rd century BC, from Zidanku Tomb no. 1 in
Hunan Province A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen Tomb
(Chinese: 荊門楚墓; Pinyin: Jīngmén chǔ mù) of the State of
Chu (704–223 BC), depicting men wearing precursors to
traditional silk dress) and riding in a two-horsed chariot
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
Western Zhou bronze gui vessel, c. 1000 BC
In the Chinese historical tradition, the Zhou defeated the Shang and
oriented the Shang system of ancestor worship towards a universalized
worship, away from the worship of
Shangdi and to that of
"heaven". They legitimized their rule by invoking the "Mandate of
Heaven ", the notion that the ruler (the "Son of Heaven ") governed by
divine right and that his dethronement would prove that he had lost
the Mandate. The mandate of heaven was based on rules. In return, the
ruler was duty-bound to uphold heaven's principles and honor.
Disasters and successful rebellions would thus show that the ruling
family had lost this Mandate. The mandate asserted that Zhou moral
superiority justified taking over Shang territories and that heaven
had imposed a moral mandate on them to replace the Shang, whom they
saw as evil men whose policies brought pain to the people through
The doctrine explained and justified the demise of the Xia and Shang
dynasties and, at the same time, supported the legitimacy of present
and future rulers. Before conquering Shang, Zhou was a state in
Shaanxi . Gernet (1996 :51) describes the Zhou state as a "city" which
was in contact with the barbarian peoples of the western regions and
more warlike than the Shang. The
Zhou dynasty was founded by the Ji
family and operated from four capitals throughout its history.
Sharing the language and culture of the Shang, the early Zhou rulers,
through conquest and colonization, established a large imperial
territory wherein states as far as
Shandong acknowledged Zhou rule and
took part in elite culture. The spread of Zhou bronzes, though, was
concurrent with the continued use of Shang-style pottery in the
distant regions, and these states were the last to secede during the
late Western war.
Western Zhou ceremonial bronze of cooking-vessel form
inscribed to record that the King of Zhou gave a fiefdom to Shi You,
ordering that he inherit the title as well as the land and people
Western writers often describe the Zhou period as "feudal " because
the Zhou's fēngjiàn (封建) system invites comparison with medieval
rule in Europe .
There were many similarities between the decentralized systems. When
the dynasty was established, the conquered land was divided into
hereditary fiefs (諸侯, zhūhóu) that eventually became powerful in
their own right. In matters of inheritance, the Zhou dynasty
recognized only patrilineal primogeniture as legal. According to Tao
(1934: 17–31), "the Tsung-fa or descent line system has the
following characteristics: patrilineal descent, patrilineal
succession, patriarchate, sib-exogamy, and primogeniture"
The system, also called "extensive stratified patrilineage", was
defined by the anthropologist
Kwang-chih Chang as "characterized by
the fact that the eldest son of each generation formed the main of
line descent and political authority, whereas the younger brothers
were moved out to establish new lineages of lesser authority. The
farther removed, the lesser the political authority". Ebrey defines
the descent-line system as follows: "A great line (ta-tsung) is the
line of eldest sons continuing indefinitely from a founding ancestor.
A lesser line is the line of younger sons going back no more than five
generations. Great lines and lesser lines continually spin off new
lesser lines, founded by younger sons".
K.E. Brashier writes in his book "Ancestral Memory in Early China"
about the tsung-fa system of patrilineal primogeniture: "The greater
lineage, if it has survived, is the direct succession from father to
eldest son and is not defined via the collateral shifts of the lesser
lineages. In discussions that demarcate between trunk and collateral
lines, the former is called a zong and the latter a zu, whereas the
whole lineage is dubbed the shi. On one hand every son who is not the
eldest and hence not heir to the lineage territory has the potential
of becoming a progenitor and fostering a new trunk lineage (Ideally he
would strike out to cultivate new lineage territory). According to
the Zou commentary, the son of heaven divided land among his feudal
lords, his feudal lords divided land among their dependent families
and so forth down the pecking order to the officers who had their
dependent kin and the commoners who "each had his apportioned
relations and all had their graded precedence""
This type of unilineal descent-group later became the model of the
Korean family through the influence of Neo-
Confucianism , as Zhu Xi
and others advocated its re-establishment in China.
Fēngjiàn System And Bureaucracy
There were five peerage ranks below the royal ranks, in descending
order with common English translations: gōng 公 "duke", hóu 侯
"marquis", bó 伯 "count", zǐ 子 "viscount", and nán 男 "baron".
At times, a vigorous duke would take power from his nobles and
centralize the state. Centralization became more necessary as the
states began to war among themselves and decentralization encouraged
more war. If a duke took power from his nobles, the state would have
to be administered bureaucratically by appointed officials.
Despite these similarities, there are a number of important
differences from medieval Europe. One obvious difference is that the
Zhou ruled from walled cities rather than castles. Another was China's
distinct class system, which lacked an organized clergy but saw the
Shang Zi -clan yeomen become masters of ritual and ceremony known as
Shi (士). When a dukedom was centralized, these people would find
employment as government officials or officers. These hereditary
classes were similar to Western knights in status and breeding, but
like Western clergy were expected to be something of a scholar instead
of a warrior. Being appointed, they could move from one state to
another. Some would travel from state to state peddling schemes of
administrative or military reform. Those who could not find employment
would often end up teaching young men who aspired to official status.
The most famous of these was
Confucius , who taught a system of mutual
duty between superiors and inferiors. In contrast, the Legalists had
no time for Confucian virtue and advocated a system of strict laws and
harsh punishments. The wars of the
Warring States were finally ended
by the most legalist state of all, Qin. When the
Qin dynasty fell and
was replaced by the
Han dynasty , many Chinese were relieved to return
to the more humane virtues of Confucius.
Shi Qiang pan , inscribed with the accomplishments of the
earliest Zhou kings, circa 10th century BC
Agriculture in the
Zhou dynasty was very intensive and, in many
cases, directed by the government. All farming lands were owned by
nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs, a situation similar
to European feudalism . For example, a piece of land was divided into
nine squares in the well-field system , with the grain from the middle
square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by
individual farmers. This way, the government was able to store surplus
food and distribute it in times of famine or bad harvest. Some
important manufacturing sectors during this period included bronze
smelting, which was integral to making weapons and farming tools.
Again, these industries were dominated by the nobility who directed
the production of such materials.
China's first projects of hydraulic engineering were initiated during
the Zhou dynasty, ultimately as a means to aid agricultural irrigation
. The chancellor of Wei ,
Sunshu Ao , who served
King Zhuang of Chu ,
dammed a river to create an enormous irrigation reservoir in
Anhui province. For this, Sunshu is credited as
China's first hydraulic engineer. The later Wei statesman
Ximen Bao ,
Marquis Wen of Wei (445-396 BC), was the first hydraulic
China to have created a large irrigation canal system. As
the main focus of his grandiose project, his canal work eventually
diverted the waters of the entire
Zhang River to a spot further up the
Yellow River .
Western Zhou supported a strong army, split into two major
units: "the Six Armies of the west" and "the Eight Armies of
Chengzhou". The armies campaigned in the northern
Loess Plateau ,
Ningxia and the
Yellow River floodplain. The military prowess
of Zhou peaked during the 19th year of King Zhao 's reign, when the
six armies were wiped out along with King Zhao on a campaign around
the Han River . Early Zhou kings were true commanders-in-chief. They
were in constant wars with barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called
guo, which at that time meant "statelet" or "principality". A
bronze figure of a charioteer from the
Warring States era of the Zhou
Dynasty, dated 4th to 3rd century BC An embroidered silk gauze
ritual garment from an Eastern-Zhou-era tomb at Mashan, Hubei
province, China, 4th century BC An Eastern-Zhou bronze sword
excavated from Changsa,
Hunan Province A drinking cup carved
from crystal , unearthed at Banshan,
Warring States period,
Hangzhou Museum . The
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng , a set
of bronze bianzhong percussion instruments from the tomb of the
aforesaid marquis in
Hubei province, China, dated 433 BC, Warring
King Zhao was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze areas and
died in his last action. Later kings' campaigns were less effective.
King Li led 14 armies against barbarians in the south, but failed to
achieve any victory. King Xuan fought the
Quanrong nomads in vain.
King You was killed by the
Haojing was sacked. Although
chariots had been introduced to
China during the
Shang dynasty from
Central Asia, the Zhou period saw the first major use of chariots in
battle. Recent archaeological finds demonstrate similarities between
horse burials of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and Indo-European
peoples in the west. Other possible cultural influences resulting
from Indo-European contact in this period may include fighting styles,
head-and-hooves burials, art motifs and myths.
During the Zhou dynasty, the origins of native Chinese philosophy
developed, its initial stages beginning in the 6th century BC. The
greatest Chinese philosophers, those who made the greatest impact on
later generations of Chinese, were
Confucius , founder of Confucianism
Laozi , founder of
Taoism . Other philosophers, theorists, and
schools of thought in this era were
Mozi , founder of
Mohism ; Mencius
, a famous Confucian who expanded upon Confucius' legacy; Shang Yang
Han Fei , responsible for the development of ancient Chinese
Legalism (the core philosophy of the
Qin dynasty ); and
Xun Zi , who
was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during
his time, even more so than iconic intellectual figures such as
Established during the Western period, the Li traditional Chinese :
禮; simplified Chinese : 礼; pinyin : lǐ) ritual system encoded an
understanding of manners as an expression of the social hierarchy,
ethics, and regulation concerning material life; the corresponding
social practices became idealized within Confucian ideology.
The system was canonized in the
Book of Rites , Zhouli , and Yili
compendiums of the
Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), thus becoming the
heart of the Chinese imperial ideology. While the system was initially
a respected body of concrete regulations, the fragmentation of the
Western Zhou period led the ritual to drift towards moralization and
formalization in regard to:
* The five orders of
Chinese nobility .
* Ancestral temples (size, legitimate number of pavilions)
* Ceremonial regulations (number of ritual vessels , musical
instruments, people in the dancing troupe)
See also: The family tree of the Zhou kings
The rulers of the
Zhou dynasty were titled Wáng (王), which is
normally translated into English as "king" and was also the Shang term
for their rulers. In addition to these rulers, King Wu's immediate
ancestors – Danfu , Jili , and Wen – are also referred to as
"Kings of Zhou", despite having been nominal vassals of the Shang
NB: Dates in Chinese history before the first year of the Gonghe
Regency in 841 BC are contentious and vary by source. Those below are
those published by
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project and Edward L.
Shaughnessy's The Absolute Chronology of the
Western Zhou Dynasty.
King Wu of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou
King Kang of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou
King Mu of Zhou
King Gong of Zhou
King Yi of Zhou
King Xiao of Zhou
King Yi of Zhou
King Li of Zhou
King Xuan of Zhou
King You of Zhou
END OF WESTERN ZHOU / BEGINNING OF EASTERN ZHOU
King Ping of Zhou
King Huan of Zhou
King Zhuang of Zhou
King Xi of Zhou
King Hui of Zhou
King Xiang of Zhou
King Qing of Zhou
King Kuang of Zhou
King Ding of Zhou
King Jian of Zhou
King Ling of Zhou
King Jing of Zhou
King Dao of Zhou
King Jing of Zhou
King Yuan of Zhou
King Zhending of Zhou
King Ai of Zhou
King Si of Zhou
King Kao of Zhou
King Weilie of Zhou
King An of Zhou
King Lie of Zhou
King Xian of Zhou
King Shenjing of Zhou
King Nan of Zhou
Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed Duke Hui of
Eastern Zhou as King
Nan's successor after their capital, Chengzhou, fell to Qin forces in
256 BC. Ji Zhao, a son of King Nan, led a resistance against Qin for
five years. The dukedom fell in 249 BC. The remaining Ji family ruled
Yan and Wei until 209 BC.
Fittings in the form of tigers, Baoji,
Shaanxi province, Middle
Western Zhou dynasty, c. 900 BC, bronze
Han dynasty bestowed the hereditary title 周子南君 upon the
Zhou dynasty royal descendant Ji Jia 姬嘉 and his descendants. This
practice was referred to as Two Kings, Three Reverences (zh).
According to the
New Book of Tang the
Sui dynasty Emperors were
patrilineally descended from the
Zhou dynasty Kings via Ji Boqiao
姬伯僑, who was the son of Duke Wu of Jin. Ji Boqiao's family
became known as the "sheep tongue family" 羊舌氏.
The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by
the Sui Emperors like the Longxi Li's were asserted as ancestors of
the Tang Emperors. The Li of Zhaojun and the Lu of Fanyang hailed
Shandong and were related to the Liu clan which was also linked
to the Yang of Hongnong and other clans of Guanlong. Duke Wu of Jin
was claimed as the ancestors of the Hongnong Yang. The Yang of
Hongnong, Jia of Hedong, Xiang of Henei, and Wang of Taiyuan from the
Tang dynasty were claimed as ancestors by
Song dynasty lineages.
There were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the
Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and
Tang dynasty in the Later Jin (Five
Zhou dynasty King Ling's son Prince Jin is assumed by most to be
the ancestor of the Taiyuan Wang lineage. The Longmen Wang were a
cadet line of the
Zhou dynasty descended Taiyuan Wang, and Wang Yan
and his grandson Wang Tong hailed from his cadet line. Both Buddhist
monks and scholars hailed from the Wang family of Taiyuan such as the
monk Tanqian. The Wang family of Taiyuan included Wang Huan. The
Taiyuan Wang family produced Wang Jun who served under Emperor Huai of
Jin . A Fuzhou-based section of the Taiyuan Wang produced the
Buddhist monk Baizhang. During the
Tang dynasty the Li family of
Zhaojun 趙郡李氏, the Cui family of Boling 博陵崔氏, the Cui
family of Qinghe 清河崔氏, the Lu family of Fanyang 范陽盧氏,
the Zheng family of Xingyang 滎陽鄭氏, the Wang family of Taiyuan
太原王氏, and the Li family of Longxi 隴西李氏 were the seven
noble families between whom marriage was banned by law. Moriya Mitsuo
wrote a history of the Later Han-Tang period of the Taiyuan Wang.
Among the strongest families was the Taiyuan Wang. The prohibition on
marriage between the clans issued in 659 by the Gaozong Emperor was
flouted by the seven families since a woman of the Boling Cui married
a member of the Taiyuan Wang, giving birth to the poet Wang Wei. He
was the son of Wang Chulian who in turn was the son of Wang Zhou. The
marriages between the families were performed clandestinely after the
prohibition was implemented on the seven families by Gaozong. Their
status as "Seven Great surnames" became known during Gaozong's rule.
Zhou dynasty Kings are the ancestors of the
Zhou clan of Runan .
The Linghu of Dunhuang 敦煌令狐氏 were descended from King Wen
of Zhou through his son Duke Gao of Bi 畢公高
The Zheng family of Xingyang 滎陽鄭氏 claim descent from the Zhou
dynasty Kings via the rulers of the
State of Zheng .
The Marquis of Xingyang rank was created for Zheng Xi. The Xingyang
Zheng spawned Zheng Daozhao and Zheng Xi. Zheng Wanjun was a member
of the Xingyang Zheng. The Xingyang Zheng spawned Zheng Yuzhong
(Zheng Qiao). The Xingyang Zheng spawned Zheng Jiong.
The Zheng of Xingyang may have been miswritten in the records as the
Zheng of Xingyang 滎陽鄭氏.
東野家族大宗世系 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke
of Zhou in Chinese
The main line of the Duke of Zhou's descendants came from his
firstborn son, the
State of Lu ruler
Bo Qin 's third son Yu (魚)
whose descendants adopted the surname Dongye (東野). The Duke of
Zhou 's offspring held the title of Wujing Boshi (五經博士;
五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì).
Duke Huan of Lu 's son through Qingfu (慶父) was the ancestor of
Mencius . He was descended from Duke Yang of the
State of Lu 魯煬公
Duke Yang was the son of
Bo Qin , who was the son of the Duke of Zhou
. The genealogy is found in the
Mencius family tree
(孟子世家大宗世系). Mencius's descendants were awarded the
Wujing Boshi title.
One of the Duke of Zhou's 72 generation descendants family tree was
examined and commented on by
Song Lian .
Zhou is represented by two stars,
Eta Capricorni (週一 Zhōu yī,
"the First Star of Zhou") and 21 Capricorni (週二 Zhōu èr, "the
Second Star of Zhou"), in "Twelve States" asterism. Zhou is also
represented by the star
Beta Serpentis in asterism "Right Wall",
Heavenly Market enclosure (see
Chinese constellation ).
* History portal
Family tree of the Zhou dynasty
* Historical capitals of
Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
* Women in ancient and imperial
Fenghao is the modern name for the twin city formed by the
Western Zhou capitals of
Haojing and Fēngjīng.
* ^ The exact location of
Wangcheng and its relation to Chengzhou
is disputed. According to Xu Zhaofeng, "Chengzhou" and "Wangcheng"
were originally synonymous and used to name the same capital city from
771 to 510 BC. "The creation of a distinction between
Chengzhou probably occurred during the reign of King Jing ", under
whom a new capital "Chengzhou" was built to the east of the old city
"Wangcheng". Nevertheless, the new Chengzhou was still sometimes
Wangcheng and vice versa, adding to the confusion.
* ^ The exact location of Bin remains obscure, but it may have been
Linfen on the
Fen River in present-day
Sima Qian was only able to establish historical dates after the
time of the
Gonghe Regency . Earlier dates, like that of 1046 BC for
the Battle of Muye, are given in this article according to the
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project , but they remain
contentious. Various historians have offered dates for the battle
ranging between 1122 and 1027 BC.
* ^ Bodman (1980) , p. 41: "Moreover,
Shang dynasty Chinese at
least in its syntax and lexicon seems not to differ basically from
that of the
Zhou dynasty whose language is amply attested in
inscriptions on bronze vessels and which was transmitted in the early
* ^ A B C D E "Considering Chengzhou ("Completion of Zhou") and
Wangcheng ("City of the King")" (PDF). Xu Zhaofeng. Archived from the
original (PDF) on July 22, 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
* ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Tian". Retrieved 17 August 2015.
* ^ Schinz (1996) , p. 80.
* ^ A B
Shijing , Ode 245.
* ^ "Hou Ji". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Sima Qian .
Records of the Grand Historian , Annals of Zhou,
* ^ Wu (1982) , p. 235.
* ^ Shaughnessy (1999) , p. 303.
* ^ Wu (1982) , p. 273.
* ^ David McCraw (2010). "An ABC Exercise in Old Sinitic Lexical
Statistics" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (202).
* ^ Jessica Rawson, '
Western Zhou Archaeology,' in Michael Loewe,
Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China:
From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge University
Press 1999 pp.352-448 p.387.
* ^ A B Li, Feng (2006), Landscape And Power In Early China,
Cambridge University Press, p. 286.
* ^ Chiang, Po-Yi (1 Jan 2008). "Han Cultural and Political
Influences in the Transformation of the Shizhaishan Cultural Complex".
Australian National University: 1–2.
* ^ Maisel, Charles Keith (1999). Early Civilizations of the Old
World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia,
India and China. Psychology Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-4151-0975-8 .
* ^ Shaughnessy (1999) , p. 310, 311.
* ^ A B Chinn (2007) , p. 43.
* ^ Hucker (1978) , p. 32.
* ^ Hucker (1978) , p. 33.
* ^ A B Hucker (1978) , p. 37.
* ^ "The Steppe: Scythian successes". Encyclopædia Britannica
Online . Retrieved 31 December 2014.
* ^ .Carr, Brian & al. Companion Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy,
p. 466. Taylor & Francis, 2012. ISBN 041503535X , 9780415035354.
* ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. 500
Fifth Ave New York, NY: W.W. Norton& Company Inc. p. 146. ISBN
* ^ Khayutina (2003) .
* ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. W.W.
Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-92207-3 .
* ^ Brashier, K. E. (2011-01-01). Ancestral Memory in Early China.
ISBN 9780674056077 .
* ^ The ramage system in
China and Polynesia Li Hwei
* ^ Tao, Hsi-Sheng. Marriage and Family, Shanghai. 1934
* ^ Ancestral Memory in Early
China Written By K. E. Brashier
* ^ The Confucian Transformation of Korea: A Study of Society and
Ideology Written By Martina Deuchler
https://books.google.com/books?id=NQeeYOyUx64C"> Alternatively, the
sequence was translated as PRINCE, LORD, ELDER, MASTER, CHIEFTAIN:
Brooks 1997:3 n.9.
* ^ Ebrey, Walthall & Palais (2006) , p. 14.
* ^ Shaughnessy (1988) .
* ^ A B Krech & Steinicke 2011 , p. 100
* ^ Schirokauer & Brown (2006) , pp. 25–47.
* ^ Thorp, Robert L. (2005).
China in the Early
University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8122-3910-2 .
New Book of Tang , zh:s:新唐書
* ^ Howard L. Goodman (2010). Xun Xu and the Politics of Precision
in Third-Century Ad China. BRILL. pp. 81–. ISBN 90-04-18337-X .
* ^ Bulletin. The Museum. 1992. p. 154.
* ^ Jo-Shui Chen (2 November 2006). Liu Tsung-yüan and
Intellectual Change in T\'ang China, 773-819. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-0-521-03010-6 .
* ^ Peter Bol (1 August 1994). "This Culture of Ours": Intellectual
Transitions in T?ang and Sung China. Stanford University Press. pp.
505–. ISBN 978-0-8047-6575-6 .
* ^ Asia Major. Institute of History and Philology of the Academia
Sinica. 1995. p. 57.
* ^ R. W. L. Guisso (December 1978). Wu Tse-T\'len and the politics
of legitimation in T\'ang China. Western Washington. p. 242. ISBN
* ^ Jo-Shui Chen (2 November 2006). Liu Tsung-yüan and
Intellectual Change in T\'ang China, 773-819. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-0-521-03010-6 .
* ^ 《氏族志》
* ^ Peter Bol (1 August 1994). "This Culture of Ours": Intellectual
Transitions in T?ang and Sung China. Stanford University Press. pp.
66–. ISBN 978-0-8047-6575-6 .
* ^ Ouyang, Xiu (5 April 2004). Historical Records of the Five
Dynasties. Richard L. Davis, translator. Columbia University Press.
pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-231-50228-3 .
* ^ Ding Xiang Warner (2003). A Wild Deer Amid Soaring Phoenixes:
The Opposition Poetics of Wang Ji. University of Hawaii Press. pp.
156–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2669-7 .
* ^ Ding Xiang Warner (15 May 2014). Transmitting Authority: Wang
Tong (ca. 584–617) and the Zhongshuo in Medieval China\'s Manuscript
Culture. BRILL. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-90-04-27633-8 .
* ^ Jinhua Chen (2002). Monks and monarchs, kinship and kingship:
Tanqian in Sui Buddhism and politics. Scuola italiana di studi
sull'Asia orientale. pp. 34, 36. ISBN 978-4-900793-21-7 .
* ^ Oliver J. Moore (1 January 2004). Rituals Of Recruitment In
Tang China: Reading An Annual Programme In The Collected Statements By
Wang Dingbao (870-940). BRILL. pp. 35–. ISBN 90-04-13937-0 .
* ^ David R. Knechtges; Taiping Chang (10 September 2010). Ancient
and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.I): A Reference Guide, Part
One. BRILL. pp. 544–. ISBN 90-04-19127-5 .
* ^ Steven Heine; Dale Wright (22 April 2010). Zen Masters. Oxford
University Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-19-971008-9 .
* ^ A Zürcher (Milchfecker): Eine nicht alltägliche Stimme aus
der Emmentaler-Käsereipraxis. Brill Archive. 1830. pp. 351–.
* ^ Wei Wang; Tony Barnstone; Willis Barnstone; Haixin Xu (1991).
Laughing Lost in the Mountains: Poems of Wang Wei. UPNE. pp.
xxvii–xxviii. ISBN 978-0-87451-564-0 .
* ^ Jingqing Yang (2007). The Chan Interpretations of Wang Wei\'s
Poetry: A Critical Review. Chinese University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN
* ^ A Study of Yuan Zhen\'s Life and Verse 809--810: Two Years that
Shaped His Politics and Prosody. ProQuest. 2008. pp. 65–. ISBN
* ^ William H. Nienhauser (2010). Tang Dynasty Tales: A Guided
Reader. World Scientific. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-981-4287-28-9 .
* ^ Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.3 & 4): A
Reference Guide, Part Three & Four. BRILL. 22 September 2014. pp.
2233–. ISBN 978-90-04-27185-2 .
* ^ Robert E. Harrist (2008). The landscape of words: stone
inscriptions from early and medieval China. University of Washington
Press. pp. 103, 117–118.
* ^ Jinhua Chen (11 May 2007). Philosopher, Practitioner,
Politician: the Many Lives of Fazang (643-712). BRILL. pp. 146–.
ISBN 978-90-474-2000-2 .
* ^ Han Si (2008). A Chinese word on image: Zheng Qiao (1104-1162)
and his thought on images. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. pp. 31,
266. ISBN 978-91-7346-607-3 .
* ^ The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
Studies. International Association of Buddhist Studies. 1999. pp. 42,
* ^ Bryan J. Cuevas; Jacqueline Ilyse Stone (2007). The Buddhist
Dead: Practices, Discourses, Representations. University of Hawaii
Press. pp. 264–. ISBN 978-0-8248-3031-1 .
* ^ James A. Benn (2007). Burning for the Buddha: Self-Immolation
in Chinese Buddhism. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 304–. ISBN
* ^ A B H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day
Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2016.
Retrieved May 20, 2016.
* ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day
Political Organization of China. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79794-2 .
* ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao)0. 1818. pp. 1084–.
* ^ 不詳 (21 August 2015). 新清史. 朔雪寒. pp. –.
* ^ http://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&chapter=557587
* ^ http://www.taodabai.com/2608556.html
* ^ 王士禎 (3 September 2014). 池北偶談. 朔雪寒. pp. –.
* ^ 徐錫麟; 錢泳 (10 September 2014). 熙朝新語. 朔雪寒.
pp. –. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF.
* ^ http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_d2b9ecb50102v4vn.html
* ^ 《三遷志》，（清）孟衍泰續修
* ^ 《孟子世家譜》，（清）孟廣均主編，1824年
* ^ 《孟子與孟氏家族》，孟祥居編，2005年
* ^ Thomas H. C. Lee (January 2004). The New and the Multiple: Sung
Senses of the Past. Chinese University Press. pp. 337–. ISBN
* ^ (in Chinese)"AEEA – Astronomy Education Network
(天文教育資訊網)" (in Chinese). July 4, 2006. Retrieved
December 5, 2010.
* ^ (in Chinese) "AEEA – Astronomy Education Network
(天文教育資訊網)" (in Chinese). June 24, 2006. Retrieved
December 5, 2010.
* Beckwith, Christopher I. (16 March 2009). Empires of the Silk
Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the
Bronze Age to the Present.
Princeton University Press . ISBN 1400829941 . Retrieved 30 December
* Bodman, Nicholas C. (1980), "Proto-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan: data
towards establishing the nature of the relationship", in van Coetsem,
Frans ; Waugh, Linda R., Contributions to historical linguistics:
issues and materials, Leiden: E. J. Brill, pp. 34–199, ISBN
* Chinn, Ann-ping (2007), The Authentic Confucius, Scribner, ISBN
* Ebrey, Patricia Buckley ; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006),
East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, ISBN 0-618-13384-4
* Gernet, Jacques (1996), A History of Chinese Civilization (Second
ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-49781-7
* Hucker, Charles O. (1978),
China to 1850: A short history,
Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-0958-0
* Krech, Volkhard; Steinicke, Marian (2011). Dynamics in the History
of Religions between Asia and Europe: Encounters, Notions, and
Comparative Perspectives. Brill . ISBN 9004225358 . Retrieved 30
* Khayutina, Maria (2003), "Where Was the
Western Zhou Capital?"
Warring States Working Group, WSWG-17, Leiden, Germany:
Warring States Project , p. 14
* Kleeman, Terry F. (1998). Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity
in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN
0824818008 . Retrieved 31 December 2014.
* Schinz, Alfred (1996). Axel Menges, ed. The Magic Square: Cities
in Ancient China.
London : Daehan Printing & Publishing
* Schirokauer, Conrad; Brown, Miranda (2006), A Brief History of
Chinese Civilization (Second ed.), Wadsworth: Thomson Learning, pp.
* Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1988), "Historical Perspectives on The
Introduction of The
Chariot Into China", Harvard Journal of Asiatic
Studies , 48 (1): 189–237,
JSTOR 2719276 , doi :10.2307/2719276
* Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999), "
Western Zhou History", in Loewe,
Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L., The Cambridge History of Ancient
China, pp. 292–351, ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8
* Wu, K. C. (1982), The Chinese Heritage, New York: Crown
Publishers, ISBN 0-517-54475-X
* Fong, Wen, ed. (1980), The great bronze age of China: an
exhibition from the People\'s Republic of China, New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, ISBN 978-0-87099-226-1 .
* Lee, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Sinyan (1999), Chinese Musical Instruments,
Chinese Music Monograph Series, Chinese Music Society of North America
Press, ISBN 978-1-880464-03-8 .
* Li, Feng (2006), Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis
and Fall of the
Western Zhou 1045–771 BC, Cambridge University
Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85272-2 .
* Shen, Sinyan (1987), "Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells",
Scientific American, 256 (4): 94, doi
* Sun, Yan (2006), "Cultural and Political Control in North China:
Style and Use of the Bronzes of Yan at Liulihe during the Early
Western Zhou", in Mair, Victor H., Contact and Exchange in the Ancient
World, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, pp. 215–237, ISBN
* Wagner, Donald B. (1999), "The Earliest Use of Iron in China", in
Young, S. M. M.; Pollard, A. M.; Budd, P.; et al., Metals in
Antiquity, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 1–9, ISBN 978-1-84171-008-2 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ZHOU DYNASTY .
* Chinese Text Project, Rulers of the Zhou period – with links to
their occurrences in pre-Qin and Han texts.
Shang dynasty DYNASTIES IN CHINESE HISTORY
1046–256 BC Succeeded by
Zhou dynasty states
SPRING AND AUTUMN
Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn /
16 Kingdoms → N. & S. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties
position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from