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The Eastern Romance languages
Romance languages
are a group of Romance languages
Romance languages
that developed in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
(specifically in the Balkans) from the local variant of Vulgar Latin. Today, the group consists of Romanian and three other related minor languages, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian. Some classifications include also the Italo-Dalmatian languages. When Italian is classified as Western Romance, Dalmatian generally remains in Eastern. However, this article is concerned only with Eastern Romance in the narrow sense, without Italian nor Dalmatian. The Eastern Romance languages, in their narrow conception, diverged from a common proto-language. They formed until recently a dialect continuum, spread across the Balkans
Balkans
and Central Europe. In the words of Latin origin, they share the same phonetic changes, with the exception of very few recent evolutions. So, their classification as separate languages is controversial and is rejected by a majority of Romanian linguists. The Eastern Romance languages
Romance languages
are sometimes known as the Vlach languages, being so designated especially by the speakers of Western and Southern Slavic languages.

Contents

1 History 2 Common features 3 References 4 See also

History[edit] An asymmetrical merger of Latin vowels, with /i/ merging with /ē/ but /u/ merging with /ū/, sets off Eastern Romance from the symmetrical merger of /u/ with /ō/ and /o/ found in Western Romance. However, while this persists today in only a few isolated dialects in western Basilicata, such as Castelmezzano dialect, as well as Dalmatian and the Romanian languages, there is evidence that it once occurred throughout southern Italy.[2] Several hundred years after the Roman Empire's dominance of the region, the local form of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into Proto-Romanian, a language which had undergone most of the phonetic and grammatical changes characteristic to modern Romanian with respect to Latin. Subsequently Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
diversified and developed into a dialect continuum. Due to foreign invasions[clarification needed] that displaced Romance speaking populations and submerged vast areas occupied by intermediate dialects (see Romania in the Dark Ages), surviving Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
eventually split into separate varieties:

North-Danubian

Romanian, including the South-Danubian Vlach language in Serbia
Vlach language in Serbia
and Bulgaria; Romanian is often called Daco-Romanian
Daco-Romanian
to distinguish it from the South-Danubian languages

South-Danubian languages

Aromanian (Vlachika in Greece), called also Macedo-Romanian Megleno-Romanian
Megleno-Romanian
(Megleniotika in Greece) Istro-Romanian (Ćićiski or Ćiribirski in former Yugoslavia)

This classification is merely geographical. So, Emanuel Vasiliu classifies Istro-Romanian with Daco-Romanian, as a North-Danubian language. And most linguists estimate that Megleno-Romanian
Megleno-Romanian
shows mixed features, being intermediate between the Daco-Romanian
Daco-Romanian
and Aromanian. As another consequence of the foreign invasions, the Proto-Romanian was influenced at various degrees by Slavic and other languages. The Slavic influence was more massive in the central part of the domain, from where originated the actual speakers of Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian, Banat sub-dialect and, in a less measure, the Wallachian sub-dialect. Here and there, and especially in this central part, the Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
became insular and eventually disappeared. Notorious examples of populations that once spoken Eastern Romance languages, entirely slavized today, are:

The Vlachs from the Balkans, founders of the Vlach-Bulgarian Empire The North-Carpathian ethno-cultural groups of Hutsuls, Lemkos, Boykos, Gorals
Gorals
and Moravian Wallachians.

This process of assimilation continues until today, the South-Danubian languages and some varieties of the Daco-Romanian
Daco-Romanian
spoken outside Romania being highly endangered. The place where Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
formed is still under debate; most historians put it to the north of the Jireček Line, separating the Latin speaking areas from the Greek speaking ones. (See: Origin of Romanians). Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
is not the only Romance idiom that would develop in the Balkan Peninsula, if the invasion of the Germans, Slavs and Hungarians wouldn't occur. According to Haralambie Mihăescu, Aquilea, Noricum and Pannonia Superior would have, as well as the Dalmatia, their own original Romance idiom, different from the Romanian. The latin loans in Greek and Albanian show phonetic changes foreign to those specific to Romanian, too. It remains to Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
only the most eastern part of the Roman domain in the Balkan Peninsula. According to Alexandru Rosetti, the Proto-Romanian formed in Dacia, Moesia Superior and Inferior, Dardania and Pannonia Inferior. What is contested by some foreign historians[citation needed] , but is fervently supported with proofs by most of their Romanian colleagues, is the fact that the Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
could have been formed in Dacia, after the retreat of the Roman army in the 3rd century. Common features[edit]

Eastern Romance languages

Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
language Substratum Thraco-Roman
Thraco-Roman
culture

Romanian

Moldovan Vlach

Grammar Nouns Verbs Numbers Phonology Lexis

Regulating bodies

Romanian Academy Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Aromanian

Megleno-Romanian

Istro-Romanian

Grammar

v t e

Main article: Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
language The Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
branch was one of the earliest language groups to be isolated from the larger Latin family. As such, the languages contain a few words that were replaced with Germanic borrowings in Western Romance
Western Romance
languages, for example, the word for white is derived from Latin "albus" instead of Germanic "blank". They also share a few sound changes with the western Romance languages: some with Italian, such as [kl] > [kj] (Lat. clarus > Rom. chiar, Ital. chiaro) and also a few with Dalmatian, such as [gn] > [mn] (Lat. cognatus > Rom. cumnat, Dalm. comnut). However, most of them are original, see: Latin to Romanian sound changes. The languages that are part of this group have some features that differentiate them from the other Romance languages, notable being the grammatical features shared within the Balkan language area as well as some semantic peculiarities, such as lume ("world") being derived from Latin lumen ("light"), inimă ("heart") being derived from Latin anima ("soul"), etc. The languages also contain a Paleo-Balkanic substrate of a few hundreds of words, shared with Albanian. References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Romance". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Michele Loporcaro, "Phonological Processes", in Maiden et al., 2011, The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages: Volume 1, Structures

See also[edit]

Eastern Romance substratum List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin

v t e

Romance languages
Romance languages
(Classification)

Western

Ibero-Romance

Galician-Portuguese

Portuguese

dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles

Galician

Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala

Judaeo-Portuguese Caló

Astur-Leonese

Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese

Spanish

Spanish

dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles

Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló

Others

Navarro-Aragonese

Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese

Mozarabic

Occitano- Romance

Catalan

dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian

Judaeo-Catalan Caló

Occitan

Auvergnat Gascon

Aranese

Languedocien Limousin Provençal

Niçard Mentonasc

Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló

Gallo-Romance

Langues d'oïl

Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French

dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles

Gallo Lorrain Norman

Anglo-Norman

Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin

Others

Arpitan/Franco-Provençal

Valdôtain Savoyard

North Italian dialects

Gallo-Italic

Ligurian

Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque

Lombard

Western Eastern

Emilian-Romagnol

Emilian

Bolognese Parmigiano

Romagnol

Piedmontese

Judaeo-Piedmontese

Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata

Others

Venetian

Fiuman Talian Triestine

Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Rhaeto-Romance

Rhaeto-Romance

Friulian Ladin Romansh

Central, Sardinian and Eastern

Italo-Dalmatian

Central

Italian dialects

Central Tuscan

Corsican

Gallurese

Sassarese Judaeo-Italian

Southern

Neapolitan

Northern Calabrese

Sicilian

Southern Calabrese

Others

Dalmatian Istriot

Sardinian

Sardinian

Sardinian

Campidanese Logudorese

Eastern

Romanian

Romanian

Moldovan Vlach

Others

Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian

North African

North African

African Romance

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

v t e

Romanian language
Romanian language
(articles)

Subdialects

Wallachia Moldavia Banat Transylvania

Crișana Maramureș

Dialects / related languages

Daco-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Istro-Romanian

Linguistics

Grammar

nouns verbs numbers

Alphabet

Ă Â Î Ș Ț

Vocabulary

profanities

Phonology Exonyms

Historic evolution

Substratum (words) → Romanization → Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
(sound changes) → Proto-Romanian
Proto-Romanian
→ Eastern Romance

Institutions

Romanian Academy

Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române Dicționarul Limbii Române

Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Other

Romanians

origin

Name Balkan sprachbund Romanian Cyrillic alphabet Moldovan Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet Vlac

.