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Easter,[nb 1] also called Pascha (Greek, Latin)[nb 2] or Resurrection Sunday,[3][4] is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
from the dead, described in the New Testament
New Testament
as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary
Calvary
c. 30 AD.[5][6] It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent
Lent
(or Great Lent), a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter
Easter
as "Holy Week"—it contains the days of the Easter
Easter
Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper,[7][8] as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus.[9] In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter
Easter
Season, begins on Easter
Easter
Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost
Pentecost
Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter
Easter
and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun; rather, its date is determined on a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter
Easter
explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified; these were worked out in practice, a process that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. It has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March,[10] but calculations vary. Easter
Easter
is linked to the Jewish Passover
Passover
by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast called Easter
Easter
in English is termed by the words for passover in those languages and in the older English versions of the Bible
Bible
the term Easter
Easter
was the term used to translate passover.[11] Easter customs vary across the Christian
Christian
world, and include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church,[12] and decorating Easter eggs
Easter eggs
(symbols of the empty tomb).[13][14][15] The Easter
Easter
lily, a symbol of the resurrection,[16][17] traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide.[18] Additional customs that have become associated with Easter
Easter
and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter
Easter
Bunny, and Easter
Easter
parades.[19][20][21] There are also various traditional Easter
Easter
foods that vary regionally.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Theological significance 3 Early Christianity 4 Date

4.1 Computations 4.2 Controversies over the date 4.3 First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325 AD) 4.4 Reform of the date 4.5 Table of the dates of Easter

5 Position in the church year

5.1 Western Christianity 5.2 Eastern Christianity

6 Religious observance

6.1 Western Christianity 6.2 Eastern Christianity

7 Non-observing Christian
Christian
groups 8 Easter
Easter
celebrations around the world

8.1 Easter
Easter
eggs

9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 References 12 External links

Etymology Main article: Names of Easter The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that usually appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; but also as Ēastru, -o; and Ēastre or Ēostre.[nb 3] The most widely accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ (Old English 'Month of Ēostre', translated in Bede's time as "Paschal month") was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month".[22] In Latin
Latin
and Greek, the Christian
Christian
celebration was, and still is, called Pascha (Greek: Πάσχα), a word derived from Aramaic פסחא (Paskha), cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח (Pesach). The word originally denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt.[23][24] As early as the 50s of the 1st century, Paul, writing from Ephesus
Ephesus
to the Christians in Corinth,[25] applied the term to Christ, and it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover
Passover
ritual.[26] In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin
Latin
Pascha.[2][27] Pascha is also a name by which Jesus
Jesus
himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church, especially in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration.[28] Theological significance

One of the earliest known depictions of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
(Rabbula Gospel
Gospel
illuminated manuscript, 6th century)

The New Testament
New Testament
states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is a foundation of the Christian
Christian
faith.[29] The resurrection established Jesus
Jesus
as the powerful Son of God[30] and is cited as proof that God will judge the world in righteousness.[31][32] For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory."[33] Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ from the dead".[34] Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus
Jesus
are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation.[32][35][36] Easter
Easter
is linked to Passover
Passover
and the Exodus from Egypt
Exodus from Egypt
recorded in the Old Testament
Old Testament
through the Last Supper, sufferings, and crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
that preceded the resurrection.[27] According to the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
gave the Passover
Passover
meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper
Last Supper
he prepared himself and his disciples for his death.[27] He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover
Passover
lamb, has been sacrificed";[37] this refers to the Passover
Passover
requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus
Jesus
as the Paschal lamb.[38] One interpretation of the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
is that Jesus, as the Passover
Passover
lamb, was crucified at roughly the same time as the Passover lambs were being slain in the temple, on the afternoon of Nisan 14.[39] The scriptural instructions specify that the lamb is to be slain "between the two evenings", that is, at twilight. By the Roman period, however, the sacrifices were performed in the mid-afternoon. Josephus, Jewish War 6.10.1/423 ("They sacrifice from the ninth to the eleventh hour"). Philo, Special
Special
Laws 2.27/145 ("Many myriads of victims from noon till eventide are offered by the whole people"). This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with the chronology in the Synoptic Gospels. It assumes that text literally translated "the preparation of the passover" in John 19:14 refers to Nisan
Nisan
14 (Preparation Day for the Passover) and not necessarily to Yom Shishi (Friday, Preparation Day for the Passover
Passover
week Sabbath)[40] and that the priests' desire to be ritually pure in order to "eat the passover"[41] refers to eating the Passover
Passover
lamb, not to the public offerings made during the days of Unleavened Bread.[42] Early Christianity

The Last Supper
Last Supper
celebrated by Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples. The early Christians, too, would have celebrated this meal to commemorate Jesus' death and subsequent resurrection.

The first Christians, Jewish and Gentile, were certainly aware of the Hebrew calendar.[nb 4] Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more fully formed Christian
Christian
festival of Pascha (Easter) begins to appear in the mid-2nd century. Perhaps the earliest extant primary source referring to Easter
Easter
is a mid-2nd-century Paschal homily attributed to Melito of Sardis, which characterizes the celebration as a well-established one.[43] Evidence for another kind of annual Christian
Christian
festival, the commemoration of martyrs, begins to appear at about the same time as evidence for the celebration of Easter.[44] While martyrs' days (usually the individual dates of martyrdom) were celebrated on fixed dates in the local solar calendar, the date of Easter
Easter
was fixed by means of the local Jewish[citation needed] lunisolar calendar. This is consistent with the celebration of Easter having entered Christianity
Christianity
during its earliest, Jewish, period, but does not leave the question free of doubt.[45] The ecclesiastical historian Socrates Scholasticus attributes the observance of Easter
Easter
by the church to the perpetuation of its custom, "just as many other customs have been established", stating that neither Jesus
Jesus
nor his Apostles
Apostles
enjoined the keeping of this or any other festival. Although he describes the details of the Easter celebration as deriving from local custom, he insists the feast itself is universally observed.[46] Date

A stained-glass window depicting the Passover
Passover
Lamb, a concept integral to the foundation of Easter[27][47]

Easter
Easter
and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts, in that they do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars (both of which follow the cycle of the sun and the seasons). Instead, the date for Easter
Easter
is determined on a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. The First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325) established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter
Easter
explicitly laid down by the Council. No details for the computation were specified; these were worked out in practice, a process that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. (See also Computus and Reform of the date of Easter.) In particular, the Council did not decree that Easter
Easter
must fall on Sunday. This was already the practice almost everywhere.[48][incomplete short citation] In Western Christianity, using the Gregorian calendar, Easter
Easter
always falls on a Sunday between 22 March and 25 April[49] inclusive, within about seven days after the astronomical full moon.[50] The following day, Easter
Easter
Monday, is a legal holiday in many countries with predominantly Christian
Christian
traditions. Eastern Christianity
Christianity
bases its calculations on the Julian Calendar. Because of the 13-day difference between the calendars between 1900 and 2099, 21 March corresponds, during the 21st century, to 3 April in the Gregorian Calendar. Easter
Easter
therefore varies between 4 April and 8 May in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
is no longer used as the civil calendar of the countries where Eastern Christian traditions predominate). Also, because the Julian "full moon" is always several days after the astronomical full moon, the eastern Easter
Easter
is often later, relative to the visible moon's phases, than western Easter. Among the Oriental Orthodox some churches have changed from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the date for Easter
Easter
as for other fixed and moveable feasts is the same as in the Western church.[51] Computations Main article: Computus In 725, Bede
Bede
succinctly wrote, "The Sunday following the full Moon which falls on or after the equinox will give the lawful Easter."[52] However, this does not precisely reflect the ecclesiastical rules. The full moon referred to (called the Paschal full moon) is not an astronomical full moon, but the 14th day of a calendar lunar month. Another difference is that the astronomical equinox is a natural astronomical phenomenon, which can fall on 19, 20 or 21 March, while the ecclesiastical date is fixed by convention on 21 March.[53] In applying the ecclesiastical rules, Christian
Christian
churches use 21 March as the starting point in determining the date of Easter, from which they find the next full moon, etc. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox Churches continue to use the Julian calendar. Their starting point in determining the date of Orthodox Easter
Easter
is also 21 March but according to the Julian reckoning, which in the current century corresponds to 3 April in the Gregorian calendar. In addition, the lunar tables of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
are four days (sometimes five days) behind those of the Gregorian calendar. The 14th day of the lunar month according to the Gregorian system is figured as the ninth or tenth day according to the Julian. The result of this combination of solar and lunar discrepancies is divergence in the date of Easter
Easter
in most years (see table). Easter
Easter
is determined on the basis of lunisolar cycles. The lunar year consists of 30-day and 29-day lunar months, generally alternating, with an embolismic month added periodically to bring the lunar cycle into line with the solar cycle. In each solar year (1 January to 31 December inclusive), the lunar month beginning with an ecclesiastical new moon falling in the 29-day period from 8 March to 5 April inclusive is designated as the paschal lunar month for that year.[54] Easter
Easter
is the third Sunday in the paschal lunar month, or, in other words, the Sunday after the paschal lunar month's 14th day. The 14th of the paschal lunar month is designated by convention as the Paschal full moon, although the 14th of the lunar month may differ from the date of the astronomical full moon by up to two days.[54] Since the ecclesiastical new moon falls on a date from 8 March to 5 April inclusive, the paschal full moon (the 14th of that lunar month) must fall on a date from 21 March to 18 April inclusive. The Gregorian calculation of Easter
Easter
was based on a method devised by the Calabrian doctor Aloysius Lilius
Aloysius Lilius
(or Lilio) for adjusting the epacts of the moon,[55] and has been adopted by almost all Western Christians and by Western countries which celebrate national holidays at Easter. For the British Empire and colonies, a determination of the date of Easter
Easter
Sunday using Golden Numbers and Sunday letters was defined by the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750
Calendar (New Style) Act 1750
with its Annexe. This was designed to match exactly the Gregorian calculation. Controversies over the date Main article: Easter
Easter
controversy

A five-part Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
icon depicting the Easter
Easter
story. Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christians use a different computation for the date of Easter
Easter
than the Western churches.

The precise date of Easter
Easter
has at times been a matter of contention. By the later 2nd century, it was widely accepted that the celebration of the holiday was a practice of the disciples and an undisputed tradition. The Quartodeciman controversy, the first of several Easter controversies, arose concerning the date on which the holiday should be celebrated. The term "Quartodeciman" refers to the practice of celebrating Easter on Nisan
Nisan
14 of the Hebrew calendar, "the LORD's passover" (Leviticus 23:5). According to the church historian Eusebius, the Quartodeciman Polycarp
Polycarp
(bishop of Smyrna, by tradition a disciple of John the Apostle) debated the question with Anicetus (bishop of Rome). The Roman province of Asia was Quartodeciman, while the Roman and Alexandrian churches continued the fast until the Sunday following (the Sunday of Unleavened Bread), wishing to associate Easter
Easter
with Sunday. Neither Polycarp
Polycarp
nor Anicetus persuaded the other, but they did not consider the matter schismatic either, parting in peace and leaving the question unsettled. Controversy arose when Victor, bishop of Rome a generation after Anicetus, attempted to excommunicate Polycrates of Ephesus
Ephesus
and all other bishops of Asia for their Quartodecimanism. According to Eusebius, a number of synods were convened to deal with the controversy, which he regarded as all ruling in support of Easter
Easter
on Sunday.[56] Polycrates (circa 190), however, wrote to Victor defending the antiquity of Asian Quartodecimanism. Victor's attempted excommunication was apparently rescinded, and the two sides reconciled upon the intervention of bishop Irenaeus
Irenaeus
and others, who reminded Victor of the tolerant precedent of Anicetus. Quartodecimanism seems to have lingered into the 4th century, when Socrates of Constantinople recorded that some Quartodecimans were deprived of their churches by John Chrysostom[57] and that some were harassed by Nestorius.[58] It is not known how long the Nisan
Nisan
14 practice continued. But both those who followed the Nisan
Nisan
14 custom, and those who set Easter
Easter
to the following Sunday had in common the custom of consulting their Jewish neighbors to learn when the month of Nisan
Nisan
would fall, and setting their festival accordingly. By the later 3rd century, however, some Christians began to express dissatisfaction with the custom of relying on the Jewish community to determine the date of Easter. The chief complaint was that the Jewish communities sometimes erred in setting Passover
Passover
to fall before the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
spring equinox.[59][60] The Sardica paschal table[61] confirms these complaints, for it indicates that the Jews of some eastern Mediterranean city (possibly Antioch) fixed Nisan
Nisan
14 on dates well before the spring equinox on multiple occasions.[62] Because of this dissatisfaction with reliance on the Jewish calendar, some Christians began to experiment with independent computations.[nb 5] Others, however, believed that the customary practice of consulting Jews should continue, even if the Jewish computations were in error. First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325 AD) Main article: First Council of Nicaea This controversy between those who advocated independent computations, and those who wished to continue the custom of relying on the Jewish calendar, was formally resolved by the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325, which endorsed changing to an independent computation by the Christian community in order to celebrate in common. This effectively required the abandonment of the old custom of consulting the Jewish community in those places where it was still used. Epiphanius of Salamis
Epiphanius of Salamis
wrote in the mid-4th century:

the emperor ... convened a council of 318 bishops ... in the city of Nicea ... They passed certain ecclesiastical canons at the council besides, and at the same time decreed in regard to the Passover
Passover
that there must be one unanimous concord on the celebration of God's holy and supremely excellent day. For it was variously observed by people[65]

That the older custom (called "protopaschite" by historians) did not at once die out, but persisted for a time, is indicated by the existence of canons[66] and sermons[67] against it. Dionysius Exiguus, and others following him, maintained that the 318 Bishops assembled at the Nicene Council had specified a particular method of determining the date of Easter; subsequent scholarship has refuted this tradition.[68] In any case, in the years following the council, the computational system that was worked out by the church of Alexandria came to be normative. It took a while for the Alexandrian rules to be adopted throughout Christian
Christian
Europe, however. The 8-year cycle originally employed was replaced by (or by the time of) Augustalis's treatise on the measurement of Easter, after which Rome used his 84-year lunisolar calendar cycle until 457. It then switched to an adaptation by Victorius of the Alexandrian rules.[69][70] Because this Victorian cycle differed from the Alexandrian cycle in the dates of some of the Paschal Full Moons, and because it tried to respect the Roman custom of fixing Easter
Easter
to the Sunday in the week of the 16th to the 22nd of the lunar month (rather than the 15th to the 21st as at Alexandria), by providing alternative "Latin" and "Greek" dates in some years, occasional differences in the date of Easter
Easter
as fixed by Alexandrian rules continued.[69][70] The Alexandrian rules were adopted in the West following the tables of Dionysius Exiguus in 525. From this time, therefore, all discrepancies between Alexandria and Rome as to the correct date for Easter
Easter
cease, as both churches were using identical tables. Early Christians in Britain and Ireland also used an 84-year cycle. From the 5th century onward this cycle set its equinox to 25 March and fixed Easter
Easter
to the Sunday falling in the 14th to the 20th of the lunar month inclusive.[71][72] This 84-year cycle was replaced by the Alexandrian method in the course of the 7th and 8th centuries. Churches in western continental Europe used a late Roman method until the late 8th century during the reign of Charlemagne, when they finally adopted the Alexandrian method. Since 1582, when the Catholic Church adopted the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
while the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and most Oriental Orthodox Churches
Oriental Orthodox Churches
retained the Julian calendar, the date on which Easter
Easter
is celebrated has again differed. The Greek island of Syros, whose population is divided almost equally between Catholics and Orthodox, is one of the few places where the two Churches share a common date for Easter, with the Catholics accepting the Orthodox date—a practice helping considerably in maintaining good relations between the two communities.[73] Reform of the date See also: Reform of the date of Easter

The congregation lighting their candles from the new flame, just as the priest has retrieved it from the altar—note that the picture is flash-illuminated; all electric lighting is off, and only the oil lamps in front of the Iconostasis
Iconostasis
remain lit. (St. George Greek Orthodox Church, Adelaide).

In the 20th century, some individuals and institutions have propounded a fixed date for Easter, the most prominent proposal being the Sunday after the second Saturday in April. Despite having some support, proposals to reform the date have not been implemented.[74] An Orthodox congress of Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
bishops, which included representatives mostly from the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Serbian Patriarch, met in Constantinople in 1923, where the bishops agreed to the Revised Julian calendar.[75] The original form of this calendar would have determined Easter
Easter
using precise astronomical calculations based on the meridian of Jerusalem.[76][77] However, all the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
countries that subsequently adopted the Revised Julian calendar
Julian calendar
adopted only that part of the revised calendar that applied to festivals falling on fixed dates in the Julian calendar. The revised Easter
Easter
computation that had been part of the original 1923 agreement was never permanently implemented in any Orthodox diocese.[75] In the United Kingdom, the Easter Act 1928
Easter Act 1928
set out legislation to allow the date of Easter
Easter
to be fixed as the first Sunday after the second Saturday in April (or, in other words, the Sunday in the period from 9 to 15 April). However, the legislation has not been implemented, although it remains on the Statute book and could be implemented subject to approval by the various Christian
Christian
churches.[78] At a summit in Aleppo, Syria, in 1997, the World Council of Churches (WCC) proposed a reform in the calculation of Easter
Easter
which would have replaced the present divergent practices of calculating Easter
Easter
with modern scientific knowledge taking into account actual astronomical instances of the spring equinox and full moon based on the meridian of Jerusalem, while also following the Council of Nicea position of Easter
Easter
being on the Sunday following the full moon.[79] The recommended World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
changes would have sidestepped the calendar issues and eliminated the difference in date between the Eastern and Western churches. The reform was proposed for implementation starting in 2001, but it was not ultimately adopted by any member body. In January 2016, Christian
Christian
churches again considered the idea of a fixed and unified date of Easter, probably either the second or third Sunday in April.[80] Table of the dates of Easter

See also: Western vs Eastern dates, in a wider timeframe (1998 - 2038)

The WCC presented comparative data of the relationships:

Table of dates of Easter
Easter
2001–2025 (in Gregorian dates)[81]

Year Full Moon Jewish Passover Astronomical Easter Gregorian Easter Julian Easter

2001 8 April 15 April

2002 28 March 31 March 5 May

2003 16 April 17 April 20 April 27 April

2004 5 April 6 April 11 April

2005 25 March 24 April 27 March 1 May

2006 13 April 16 April 23 April

2007 2 April 3 April 8 April

2008 21 March 20 April 23 March 27 April

2009 9 April 12 April 19 April

2010 30 March 4 April

2011 18 April 19 April 24 April

2012 6 April 7 April 8 April 15 April

2013 27 March 26 March 31 March 5 May

2014 15 April 20 April

2015 4 April 5 April 12 April

2016 23 March 23 April 27 March 1 May

2017 11 April 16 April

2018 31 March 1 April 8 April

2019 21 March 20 April 24 March 21 April 28 April

2020 8 April 9 April 12 April 19 April

2021 28 March 4 April 2 May

2022 16 April 17 April 24 April

2023 6 April 9 April 16 April

2024 25 March 23 April 31 March 5 May

2025 13 April 20 April

Notes: 1. Astronomical Easter
Easter
is the first Sunday after the Astronomical full moon. In the Eastern reckoning, that full moon is derived from the Metonic cycle
Metonic cycle
while in the West it is referred to the meridian of Jerusalem. 2. Passover
Passover
commences at sunset preceding the date indicated (as does Easter
Easter
in many traditions). Position in the church year Further information: Liturgical year

Liturgical year

Western

Advent Christmastide Epiphanytide Ordinary Time Pre- Lent
Lent
/ Shrovetide Lent Holy Week Paschal Triduum Eastertide Pentecost Ordinary Time
Ordinary Time
/ Kingdomtide

Eastern

Nativity Fast Christmastide Ordinary Time Pre-Great Lent Great Lent Eastertide Apostles' Fast Ordinary Time

East Syriac Rite

Weeks of Annunciation Weeks of Epiphany Weeks of Great Fast Weeks of Resurrection Slihe or Weeks of Apostles Qaita or Weeks of Summer Eliya-Sliba-Muse or Weeks of Eliyah, Cross and Muse Qudas Edta or Weeks of Dedication of Church

v t e

Western Christianity In Western Christianity, Easter
Easter
is preceded by Lent, a period of fasting and penitence in preparation for Easter, which begins on Ash Wednesday and lasts forty days (not counting Sundays). The week before Easter, known as Holy Week, is very special in the Christian tradition. The Sunday before Easter
Easter
is Palm Sunday, with the Wednesday before Easter
Easter
being known as Spy Wednesday. The last three days before Easter
Easter
are Maundy Thursday, Good Friday
Good Friday
and Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
(sometimes referred to as Silent Saturday). Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
and Good Friday
Good Friday
respectively commemorate Jesus' entry in Jerusalem, the Last Supper
Last Supper
and the Crucifixion. Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
are sometimes referred to as the Easter Triduum
Easter Triduum
( Latin
Latin
for "Three Days"). Many churches begin celebrating Easter
Easter
late in the evening of Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
at a service called the Easter
Easter
Vigil. The week beginning with Easter
Easter
Sunday is called Easter Week
Easter Week
or the Octave of Easter, and each day is prefaced with "Easter", e.g. Easter Monday (a public holiday in many countries), Easter Tuesday (a much less widespread public holiday), etc. Easter Saturday
Easter Saturday
is therefore the Saturday after Easter
Easter
Sunday. The day before Easter
Easter
is properly called Holy Saturday. Eastertide, or Paschaltide, the season of Easter, begins on Easter
Easter
Sunday and lasts until the day of Pentecost, seven weeks later. Eastern Christianity In Eastern Christianity, the spiritual preparation for Easter
Easter
begins with Great Lent, which starts on Clean Monday
Clean Monday
and lasts for 40 continuous days (including Sundays). The last week of Great Lent (following the fifth Sunday of Great Lent) is called Palm Week, and ends with Lazarus Saturday. The Vespers
Vespers
which begins Lazarus Saturday officially brings Great Lent
Lent
to a close, although the fast continues through the following week. After Lazarus Saturday
Lazarus Saturday
comes Palm Sunday, Holy Week, and finally Easter
Easter
itself, and the fast is broken immediately after the Paschal Divine Liturgy. The Paschal Vigil
Paschal Vigil
begins with the Midnight Office, which is the last service of the Lenten Triodion and is timed so that it ends a little before midnight on Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
night. At the stroke of midnight the Paschal celebration itself begins, consisting of Paschal Matins, Paschal Hours, and Paschal Divine Liturgy.[82] Placing the Paschal Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
at midnight guarantees that no Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
will come earlier in the morning, ensuring its place as the pre-eminent "Feast of Feasts" in the liturgical year. The liturgical season from Easter
Easter
to the Sunday of All Saints (the Sunday after Pentecost) is known as the Pentecostarion
Pentecostarion
(the "fifty days"). The week which begins on Easter
Easter
Sunday is called Bright Week, during which there is no fasting, even on Wednesday and Friday. The Afterfeast of Easter
Easter
lasts 39 days, with its Apodosis (leave-taking) on the day before Ascension. Pentecost
Pentecost
Sunday is the fiftieth day from Easter
Easter
(counted inclusively).[83] Religious observance

Depiction of The Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus
Christ, by Piero della Francesca.

Western Christianity

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The Easter
Easter
festival is kept in many different ways among Western Christians. The traditional, liturgical observation of Easter, as practised among Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and some Anglicans begins on the night of Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
with the Easter
Easter
Vigil. This, the most important liturgy of the year, begins in total darkness with the blessing of the Easter
Easter
fire, the lighting of the large Paschal candle (symbolic of the Risen Christ) and the chanting of the Exultet
Exultet
or Easter
Easter
Proclamation attributed to Saint Ambrose of Milan.

Epistle
Epistle
reading, I Corinthians
I Corinthians
5:7–8 (in Latin), for the Solemn Mass of Easter
Easter
Day

After this service of light, a number of readings from the Old Testament are read. These tell the stories of creation, the sacrifice of Isaac, the crossing of the Red Sea, and the foretold coming of the Messiah. This part of the service climaxes with the singing of the Gloria and the Alleluia
Alleluia
and the proclamation of the Gospel
Gospel
of the resurrection. At this time, the lights are brought up and the church bells are rung, according to local custom. A sermon may be preached after the gospel. The focus then moves from the lectern to the font. Anciently, Easter was considered the ideal time for converts to receive baptism, and this practice continues within Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion. Whether there are baptisms at this point or not, it is traditional for the congregation to renew the vows of their baptismal faith. This act is often sealed by the sprinkling of the congregation with holy water from the font. The Catholic sacrament of Confirmation is also celebrated at the Vigil. The Easter Vigil
Easter Vigil
concludes with the celebration of the Eucharist (known in some traditions as Holy Communion). Certain variations in the Easter Vigil
Easter Vigil
exist: Some churches read the Old Testament
Old Testament
lessons before the procession of the Paschal candle, and then read the gospel immediately after the Exsultet.

Sunrise service
Sunrise service
in Rockland, Maine, United States

Some churches prefer to keep this vigil very early on the Sunday morning instead of the Saturday night to reflect the gospel account of the women coming to the tomb at dawn on the first day of the week. These services are known as the Sunrise service
Sunrise service
and often occur in outdoor setting such as the church cemetery, yard, or a nearby park. The first recorded "Sunrise Service" took place in 1732 among the Single Brethren in the Moravian congregation at Herrnhut, Saxony, in what is now Germany. Following an all-night vigil they went before dawn to the town graveyard, God's Acre, on the hill above the town, to celebrate the Resurrection
Resurrection
among the graves of the departed. This service was repeated the following year by the whole congregation and subsequently spread with the Moravian Missionaries around the world, including Old Salem
Old Salem
in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Additional celebrations are usually offered on Easter
Easter
Sunday itself. Typically these services follow the usual order of Sunday services in a congregation, but also typically incorporate more highly festive elements. The music of the service, in particular, often displays a highly festive tone; the incorporation of brass instruments (trumpets, etc.) to supplement a congregation's usual instrumentation is common. Often a congregation's worship space is decorated with special banners and flowers (such as Easter
Easter
lilies).

Celtic cross draped for Easter
Easter
at Bon Air Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church, Virginia

In predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines, the morning of Easter (known in the national language as "Pasko ng Muling Pagkabuhay" or the Pasch of the Resurrection) is marked with joyous celebration, the first being the dawn "Salubong", wherein large statues of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary are brought together to meet, imagining the first reunion of Jesus
Jesus
and his mother Mary after Jesus' Resurrection. This is followed by the joyous Easter
Easter
Mass. In Polish culture, the Rezurekcja ( Resurrection
Resurrection
Procession) is the joyous Easter
Easter
morning Mass at daybreak when church bells ring out and explosions resound to commemorate Christ rising from the dead. Before the Mass begins at dawn, a festive procession with the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
carried beneath a canopy encircles the church. As church bells ring out, handbells are vigorously shaken by altar boys, the air is filled with incense and the faithful raise their voices heavenward in a triumphant rendering of age-old Easter
Easter
hymns. After the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
is carried around the church and Adoration is complete, the Easter
Easter
Mass begins. Another Polish Easter
Easter
tradition is Święconka, the blessing of Easter
Easter
baskets by the parish priest on Holy Saturday. This custom is celebrated not only in Poland, but also in the United States by Polish-Americans. Eastern Christianity

Icon
Icon
of the Resurrection
Resurrection
by an unknown 17th-century Bulgarian artist

Easter
Easter
is the fundamental and most important festival of the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches:

This is the Expected and Holy Day, the One among the Sabbaths, the Sovereign and Lady of days, Feast of feasts, Celebration of celebrations, on which we praise Christ for all eternity!

Boris Kustodiev's Pascha Greetings (1912) shows traditional Russian khristosovanie (exchanging a triple kiss), with such foods as red eggs, kulich and paskha in the background.

Every other religious festival in their calendar, including Christmas, is secondary in importance to the celebration of the Resurrection
Resurrection
of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. This is reflected in rich Paschal customs in the cultures of countries that have traditionally had an Orthodox Christian
Christian
majority. Eastern Catholics have similar emphasis in their calendars, and many of their liturgical customs are very similar. This is not to say that Christmas
Christmas
and other elements of the Christian liturgical calendar are ignored. Instead, these events are all seen as necessary but preliminary to, and illuminated by, the full climax of the Resurrection, in which all that has come before reaches fulfillment and fruition. They shine only in the light of the Resurrection. Easter
Easter
is the primary act that fulfills the purpose of Christ's ministry on earth—to defeat death by dying and to purify and exalt humanity by voluntarily assuming and overcoming human frailty. This is succinctly summarized by the Paschal troparion, sung repeatedly for forty days, through the Apodosis of Easter, which is the day before Ascension:

Χριστὸς ἀνέστη ἐκ νεκρῶν, θανάτῳ θάνατον πατήσας, καὶ τοῖς ἐν τοῖς μνήμασι ζωὴν χαρισάμενος.

Christ is risen from the dead, Trampling down death by death, And upon those in the tombs Bestowing life!

Preparation for Easter
Easter
begins with the season of Great Lent. In addition to fasting, almsgiving, and prayer, Orthodox Christians cut down on all entertainment and non-essential worldly activities, gradually eliminating them until Great and Holy Friday, the most austere day of the year. On the evening of Great and Holy Saturday, the Midnight Office commences an hour or two before midnight (see paschal vigil).

Religious Procession in Kursk Province, a controversial painting by Ilya Repin
Ilya Repin
(1880–83), depicting a Bright Week
Bright Week
outdoor procession.

At its completion all light in the church building is extinguished, and all wait in darkness and silence for the stroke of midnight. Then, a new flame is struck in the altar, or the priest lights his candle from the perpetual lamp kept burning there, and he then lights candles held by deacons or other assistants, who then go to light candles held by the congregation (this practice has its origin in the reception of the Holy Fire
Holy Fire
at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
in Jerusalem). Then the priest and congregation go in a procession around the temple, holding lit candles, chanting:

By Thy Resurrection
Resurrection
O Christ our savior, the angels in Heaven sing, enable us who are on Earth, to glorify thee in purity of heart.

This procession reenacts the journey of the Myrrhbearers
Myrrhbearers
to the Tomb of Jesus
Jesus
"very early in the morning".[84] After circling around the temple once or three times, the procession halts in front of the closed doors. In the Greek practice the priest reads a selection from the Gospel
Gospel
Book.[85] Then, in all traditions, the priest makes the sign of the cross with the censer in front of the closed doors (which represent the sealed tomb).

Traditional Paschal Outdoor Procession during Bright Week
Bright Week
by Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church.

He and the people chant the Paschal Troparion, and all of the bells and semantra are sounded. Then all re-enter the temple and paschal matins begins immediately, followed by the paschal hours and then the paschal divine liturgy. The Paschal Homily of St. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
is read at matins. After the dismissal of the liturgy, the priest may bless paschal eggs and baskets brought by the faithful containing those foods which have been forbidden during the Great Fast. Immediately after the Liturgy
Liturgy
it is customary for the congregation to share a meal, essentially an agápē dinner (albeit at 2:00 am or later). In Greece the traditional meal is mageiritsa, a hearty stew of chopped lamb liver and wild greens seasoned with egg-and-lemon sauce. Traditionally, easter eggs, hard-boiled eggs dyed bright red to symbolize the spilt Blood of Christ
Blood of Christ
and the promise of eternal life, are cracked together to celebrate the opening of the Tomb of Christ. The next morning, Easter
Easter
Sunday proper, there is no Divine Liturgy, since the liturgy for that day has already been celebrated. Instead, in the afternoon "Agápē Vespers" is sung. In this service, it has become customary during the last few centuries for the priest and members of the congregation to read a portion of the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
in as many languages as they can manage, to show the universality of the Resurrection.[citation needed] For the remainder of the week, known as "Bright Week", fasting (other than before holy communion is suppressed, and the customary Paschal greeting is: "Christ is risen!", to which the response is: "Truly he is risen!" This may also be done in many different languages. The services during Bright Week
Bright Week
are nearly identical to those on Easter itself, except that they do not take place at midnight, but at their normal times during the day. The outdoor procession during Bright Week takes place either after paschal matins or the paschal divine liturgy. Non-observing Christian
Christian
groups

Nonconformist
Nonconformist
Protestant Christians prefer to use a simple Christian cross, rather than a crucifix, to emphasize the Resurrection.

Along with the celebration of Christmas
Christmas
and Advent, many Lenten and Easter
Easter
traditions were altered or even abandoned altogether by various offshoots of the Protestant Reformation, as they were deemed "pagan" or "Popish" (and therefore tainted) by many of the Reformation's Puritan
Puritan
movements.[86] However, some of the major Reformation
Reformation
Churches and movements (Lutheran, Methodist
Methodist
and Anglican
Anglican
for example), chose to retain a large proportion of the observances of the established Church Year along with many of its associated traditions. In Lutheran Churches, for example, not only were the days of Holy Week
Holy Week
observed, but also Christmas, Easter
Easter
and Pentecost
Pentecost
were observed with three-day festivals (the day itself and the two following). Other Protestant groups took a different attitude, with most Anabaptists, Quakers, Congregationalists
Congregationalists
and Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Puritans regarding such festivals as an abomination.[87] The Puritan
Puritan
rejection of Easter
Easter
traditions was (and is) based partly upon their interpretation of 2 Corinthians 6:14–16 and partly upon a more general belief that, if a religious practice or celebration is not actually written in the Christian
Christian
Bible, then that practice/celebration must be a later development and cannot be considered an authentic part of Christian
Christian
practice or belief—so at best simply unnecessary, at worst actually sinful. Groups such as the Restored Church of God reject the celebration of Easter, seeing it as originating in a pagan spring festival taken over by the "Roman" Catholic Church.[88] Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
maintain a similar view, observing a yearly commemorative service of the Last Supper
Last Supper
and the subsequent execution of Christ on the evening of Nisan
Nisan
14 (as they calculate the dates derived from the lunar Hebrew Calendar). It is commonly referred to by many Witnesses as simply "The Memorial".[89] Jehovah's Witnesses believe that such verses as Luke 22:19–20 and 1 Corinthians 11:26 constitute a commandment to remember the death of Christ though not the resurrection,[89] and they do so on a yearly basis just as Passover
Passover
is celebrated annually by the Jews. Members of the Religious Society of Friends
Religious Society of Friends
(Quakers), as part of their historic testimony against times and seasons, do not celebrate or observe Easter
Easter
or any other Christian
Christian
holidays, believing instead that "every day is the Lord's day",[90] and that elevation of one day above others suggests that it is acceptable to do un- Christian
Christian
acts on other days.[91] During the 17th and 18th centuries, Quakers
Quakers
were persecuted for this non-observance of Holy Days.[92] Some Christian
Christian
groups feel that Easter
Easter
is something to be regarded with great joy: not marking the day itself, but remembering and rejoicing in the event it commemorates—the miracle of Christ's resurrection. In this spirit, these Christians teach that each day and all Sabbaths should be kept holy, in Christ's teachings. Hebrew-Christian, Sacred Name, and Armstrong movement churches (such as the Living Church of God) usually reject Easter
Easter
in favor of Nisan 14 observance and celebration of the Christian
Christian
Passover. This is especially true of Christian
Christian
groups that celebrate the New Moons or annual High Sabbaths in addition to seventh-day Sabbath. They support this textually with reference to the letter to the Colossians: "Let no one ... pass judgment on you in matters of food and drink or with regard to a festival or new moon or sabbath. These are shadows of things to come; the reality belongs to Christ." (Col. 2:16–17, NAB) Easter
Easter
celebrations around the world Main article: Easter
Easter
customs

An Easter postcard
Easter postcard
depicting the Easter
Easter
Bunny

In countries where Christianity
Christianity
is a state religion, or where the country has large Christian
Christian
population, Easter
Easter
is often a public holiday. As Easter
Easter
is always a Sunday, many countries in the world also have Easter Monday
Easter Monday
as a public holiday. Some retail stores, shopping malls, and restaurants are closed on Easter
Easter
Sunday. Good Friday, which occurs two days before Easter
Easter
Sunday, is also a public holiday in many countries, as well as in 12 U.S. states. Even in states where Good Friday
Good Friday
is not a holiday, many financial institutions, stock markets, and public schools are closed. Few banks that are normally open on regular Sundays are closed on Easter. In the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
Good Friday, Easter
Easter
Sunday and Easter
Easter
Monday are public holidays,[93] and Good Friday
Good Friday
and Easter Monday
Easter Monday
are bank holidays.[94] In Denmark, Iceland and Norway Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
is also a public holiday. It is a holiday for most workers except some shopping malls which keep open for a half-day. Many businesses give their employees almost a week off, called Easter
Easter
break.[95] Schools are closed between Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
and Easter
Easter
Monday. According to a 2014 poll, 6 of 10 Norwegians travel during Easter, often to a countryside cottage; 3 of 10 said their typical Easter
Easter
included skiing.[96] In the Netherlands
Netherlands
both Easter
Easter
Sunday and Easter Monday
Easter Monday
are national holidays. Like first and second Christmas
Christmas
Day, they are both considered Sundays, which results in a first and a second Easter Sunday, after which the week continues to a Tuesday.[97] Even though Good Friday
Good Friday
is an official national holiday, it is not a mandatory day off for commercial companies. In Commonwealth nations Easter
Easter
Day is rarely a public holiday, as is the case for celebrations which fall on a Sunday. In the United Kingdom both Good Friday
Good Friday
and Easter Monday
Easter Monday
are bank holidays.[98] However, in Canada Easter
Easter
Sunday is a public holiday, along with Easter
Easter
Monday. In the Canadian province of Quebec, either Good Friday or Easter Monday
Easter Monday
are statutory holidays (although most companies give both). In some countries Good Friday
Good Friday
is a public holiday as well. In Australia, because of its location in the southern hemisphere, Easter
Easter
takes place in autumn. Hence, Australian Easter
Easter
is associated with harvest time, rather than with the coming of spring as in the northern hemisphere. The religious aspect of Easter
Easter
remains the same.[99] Good Friday
Good Friday
and Easter Monday
Easter Monday
are public holidays across all states and territories. " Easter
Easter
Saturday" (the Saturday before Easter Sunday) is a public holiday in every state except Tasmania and Western Australia, while Easter
Easter
Sunday itself is a public holiday only in New South Wales. Easter Tuesday is additionally a conditional public holiday in Tasmania, varying between award, and was also a public holiday in Victoria until 1994.[100] In the United States, because Easter
Easter
falls on a Sunday, which is already a non-working day for federal and state employees, it has not been designated as a federal or state holiday. Easter
Easter
parades are held in many American cities, involving festive strolling processions,[101] with the New York City parade being the best known.

Easter eggs
Easter eggs
are a popular cultural symbol of Easter.

Easter
Easter
eggs Main article: Easter
Easter
egg The egg is an ancient symbol of new life and rebirth. In Christianity it became associated with Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection.[102] The custom of the Easter egg
Easter egg
originated in the early Christian community of Mesopotamia, who stained eggs red in memory of the blood of Christ, shed at his crucifixion.[103][104] As such, for Christians, the Easter egg
Easter egg
is a symbol of the empty tomb.[14][15] The oldest tradition is to use dyed chicken eggs, but a modern custom is to substitute decorated chocolate, or plastic eggs filled with candy such as jellybeans. The Easter Bunny
Easter Bunny
is a popular legendary anthropomorphic Easter gift-giving character analogous to Santa Claus
Santa Claus
in American culture. Many Americans follow the tradition of coloring hard-boiled eggs and giving baskets of candy. On Easter
Easter
Monday, the President of the United States holds an annual Easter egg
Easter egg
roll on the White House
White House
lawn for young children.[105] Since the rabbit is a pest in Australia, the Easter Bilby
Easter Bilby
is available as an alternative. Easter eggs
Easter eggs
are a widely popular symbol of new life in Poland and other Slavic countries' folk traditions. A batik-like decorating process known as pisanka produces intricate, brilliantly-colored eggs. The celebrated House of Fabergé
House of Fabergé
workshops created exquisite jewelled Easter eggs
Easter eggs
for the Russian Imperial family from 1885 to 1916.[106]

See also

Christianity
Christianity
portal Holidays portal

Divine Mercy Sunday Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Movable Eastern Christian
Christian
Observances Regina Coeli Greek words (wiktionary): Πάσχα (Easter) vs πάσχα (Passover) vs πάσχω (to suffer).

Footnotes

^ Traditional names for the feast in English are " Easter
Easter
Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, " Easter
Easter
Sunday", used by James Ussher
James Ussher
(The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4) and Samuel Pepys (The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Volume 2) and plain "Easter", as in books printed in 1575, 1584, 1586 ^ In the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.[1][2] ^ Old English pronunciation: [ˈæːɑstre, ˈeːostre] ^ Acts 2:1; 12:3; 20:6; 27:9, 1 Cor 16:8 ^ Eusebius reports that Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, proposed an 8-year Easter
Easter
cycle, and quotes a letter from Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea, that refers to a 19-year cycle.[63] An 8-year cycle has been found inscribed on a statue unearthed in Rome in the 17th century, and since dated to the 3rd century.[64]

References

^ Ferguson, Everett (2009). Baptism
Baptism
in the Early Church: History, Theology, and Liturgy
Liturgy
in the First Five Centuries. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 351. ISBN 9780802827487. Retrieved 23 April 2014. The practices are usually interpreted in terms of baptism at the pasch (Easter), for which compare Tertullian, but the text does not specify this season, only that it was done on Sunday, and the instructions may apply to whenever the baptism was to be performed.  ^ a b Norman Davies (20 January 1998). Europe: A History. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060974688. In most European languages Easter
Easter
is called by some variant of the late Latin
Latin
word Pascha, which in turn derives from the Hebrew pesach, passover.  ^ Gamman, Andrew; Bindon, Caroline (11 February 2014). Stations for Lent
Lent
and Easter. Kereru Publishing Limited. p. 7. ISBN 9780473276812. Easter
Easter
Day, also known as Resurrection Sunday, marks the high point of the Christian
Christian
year. It is the day that we celebrate the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ from the dead.  ^ Boda, Mark J.; Smith, Gordon T. (2006). Repentance in Christian Theology. Liturgical Press. p. 316. ISBN 9780814651759. Retrieved 19 April 2014. Orthodox, Catholic, and all Reformed churches in the Middle East celebrate Easter
Easter
according to the Eastern calendar, calling this holy day " Resurrection
Resurrection
Sunday," not Easter.  ^ Bernard Trawicky, Ruth Wilhelme Gregory (2000). Anniversaries and Holidays. American Library Association. ISBN 9780838906958. Easter
Easter
is the central celebration of the Christian
Christian
liturgical year. It is the oldest and most important Christian
Christian
feast, celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus
Christ. The date of Easter
Easter
determines the dates of all movable feasts except those of Advent.  ^ Aveni, Anthony (2004). "The Easter/ Passover
Passover
Season: Connecting Time's Broken Circle", The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays. Oxford University Press. pp. 64–78. ISBN 0-19-517154-3.  ^ Peter C. Bower (1 January 2003). The Companion to the Book of Common Worship. Geneva Press. ISBN 9780664502324. Retrieved 11 April 2009. Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
(or le mandé; Thursday of the Mandatum, Latin, commandment). The name is taken from the first few words sung at the ceremony of the washing of the feet, "I give you a new commandment" (John 13:34); also from the commandment of Christ that we should imitate His loving humility in the washing of the feet (John 13:14–17). The term mandatum (maundy), therefore, was applied to the rite of foot-washing on this day.  ^ Gail Ramshaw (2004). Three Day Feast: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter. Augsburg Books. ISBN 9781451408164. Retrieved 11 April 2009. In the liturgies of the Three Days, the service for Maundy Thursday includes both, telling the story of Jesus' last supper and enacting the footwashing.  ^ Leonard Stuart (1909). New century reference library of the world's most important knowledge: complete, thorough, practical, Volume 3. Syndicate Pub. Co. Retrieved 11 April 2009. Holy Week, or Passion Week, the week which immediately precedes Easter, and is devoted especially to commemorating the passion of our Lord. The Days more especially solemnized during it are Holy Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday.  ^ "Frequently asked questions about the date of Easter".  ^ Weiser, Francis X. (1958). Handbook of Christian
Christian
Feasts and Customs. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. p. 214. ISBN 0-15-138435-5.  ^ "clipping the church". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780198607663.001.0001. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ Anne Jordan (5 April 2000). Christianity. Nelson Thornes. ISBN 9780748753208. Retrieved 7 April 2012. Easter eggs
Easter eggs
are used as a Christian
Christian
symbol to represent the empty tomb. The outside of the egg looks dead but inside there is new life, which is going to break out. The Easter egg
Easter egg
is a reminder that Jesus
Jesus
will rise from His tomb and bring new life. Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christians dye boiled eggs red to represent the blood of Christ shed for the sins of the world.  ^ a b The Guardian, Volume 29. H. Harbaugh. 1878. Retrieved 7 April 2012. Just so, on that first Easter
Easter
morning, Jesus
Jesus
came to life and walked out of the tomb, and left it, as it were, an empty shell. Just so, too, when the Christian
Christian
dies, the body is left in the grave, an empty shell, but the soul takes wings and flies away to be with God. Thus you see that though an egg seems to be as dead as a sone, yet it really has life in it; and also it is like Christ's dead body, which was raised to life again. This is the reason we use eggs on Easter. (In olden times they used to color the eggs red, so as to show the kind of death by which Christ died,-a bloody death.)  ^ a b Gordon Geddes, Jane Griffiths (22 January 2002). Christian belief and practice. Heinemann. ISBN 9780435306915. Retrieved 7 April 2012. Red eggs are given to Orthodox Christians after the Easter Liturgy. They crack their eggs against each other's. The cracking of the eggs symbolizes a wish to break away from the bonds of sin and misery and enter the new life issuing from Christ's resurrection.  ^ Collins, Cynthia (19 April 2014). " Easter
Easter
Lily Tradition and History". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2014. The Easter
Easter
Lily is symbolic of the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Churches of all denominations, large and small, are filled with floral arrangements of these white flowers with their trumpet-like shape on Easter morning.  ^ Schell, Stanley (1916). Easter
Easter
Celebrations. Werner & Company. p. 84. We associate the lily with Easter, as pre-eminently the symbol of the Resurrection.  ^ Luther League Review: 1936–1937. Luther League of America. 1936.  ^ Vicki K. Black (1 July 2004). The Church Standard, Volume 74. Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9780819225757. Retrieved 7 April 2012. In parts of Europe, the eggs were dyed red and were then cracked together when people exchanged Easter
Easter
greetings. Many congregations today continue to have Easter egg
Easter egg
hunts for the children after the services on Easter
Easter
Day.  ^ The Church Standard, Volume 74. Walter N. Hering. 1897. Retrieved 7 April 2012. When the custom was carrierd over into Christian
Christian
practice the Easter eggs
Easter eggs
were usually sent to the priests to be blessed and sprinked with holy water. In later times the coloring and decorating of eggs was introduced, and in a royal roll of the time of Edward I., which is preserved in the Tower of London, there is an entry of 18d. for 400 eggs, to be used for Easter
Easter
gifts.  ^ Brown, Eleanor Cooper (2010). From Preparation to Passion. ISBN 9781609577650. Retrieved 7 April 2012. So what preparations do most Christians and non-Christians make? Shopping for new clothing often signifies the belief that Spring has arrived, and it is a time of renewal. Preparations for the Easter
Easter
Egg Hunts and the Easter
Easter
Ham for the Sunday dinner are high on the list too.  ^ Wallis, Faith (1999). Bede: The Reckoning of Time. Liverpool University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0853236933.  ^ "History of Easter". The History Channel website. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ Karl Gerlach (1998). The Antenicene Pascha: A Rhetorical History. Peeters Publishers. p. XVIII. ISBN 9789042905702. The second century equivalent of easter and the paschal Triduum was called by both Greek and Latin
Latin
writers "Pascha (πάσχα)", a Greek transliteration of the Aramaic
Aramaic
form of the Hebrew פֶּסַח, the Passover
Passover
feast of Ex. 12.  ^ 1 Corinthians 5:7 ^ Karl Gerlach (1998). The Antenicene Pascha: A Rhetorical History. Peters Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 9789042905702. For while it is from Ephesus
Ephesus
that Paul writes, "Christ our Pascha has been sacrificed for us," Ephesian Christians were not likely the first to hear that Ex 12 did not speak about the rituals of Pesach, but the death of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth.  ^ a b c d Vicki K. Black (1 July 2004). Welcome to the Church Year: An Introduction to the Seasons of the Episcopal Church. Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9780819219664. Easter
Easter
is still called by its older Greek name, Pascha, which means "Passover", and it is this meaning as the Christian
Christian
Passover-the celebration of Jesus' triumph over death and entrance into resurrected life-that is the heart of Easter
Easter
in the church. For the early church, Jesus
Jesus
Christ was the fulfillment of the Jewish Passover
Passover
feast: through Jesus, we have been freed from slavery of sin and granted to the Promised Land of everlasting life.  ^ Orthros of Holy Pascha, Stichera: "Today the sacred Pascha is revealed to us. The new and holy Pascha, the mystical Pascha. The all-venerable Pascha. The Pascha which is Christ the Redeemer. The spotless Pascha. The great Pascha. The Pascha of the faithful. The Pascha which has opened unto us the gates of Paradise. The Pascha which sanctifies all faithful." ^ 1 Corinthians 15:12–20 Torrey, Reuben Archer (1897). "The Resurrection
Resurrection
of Christ". Torrey's New Topical Textbook. Retrieved 31 March 2013.  (interprets primary source references in this section as applying to the Resurrection) "The Letter of Paul to the Corinthians". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ Romans 1:4 ^ Acts 17:31 ^ a b " Jesus
Jesus
Christ". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ 1 Corinthians 15:20–26, 1 Corinthians 15:54–57 ^ 1 Peter 1:3 ^ Romans 6:1–9 ^ 1 Peter 1:3–4 ^ 1 Corinthians 5:7 ^ John 1:29, Revelation 5:6, 1 Peter 1:19, 1 Peter 1:2, and the associated notes and Passion Week table in Barker, Kenneth, ed. (2002). Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 1520. ISBN 0-310-92955-5.  Karl Gerlach (1998). The Antenicene Pascha: A Rhetorical History. Peeters Publishers. pp. 32, 56. ISBN 9789042905702.  ^ Exodus 12:6 ^ Exodus 12:18, John 13:2, John 18:28, John 19:14. Barker, Kenneth, ed. (2002). Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-92955-5.  ^ John 18:28 ^ Leviticus 23:8 ^ Melito of Sardis. " Homily on the Pascha". Kerux. Northwest Theological Seminary. Retrieved 28 March 2007.  ^ Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, Edward Yarnold, and Paul Bradshaw, Eds., The Study of Liturgy, Revised Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, p. 474. ^ Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, Edward Yarnold, and Paul Bradshaw, Eds., The Study of Liturgy, Revised Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, p. 459:"[Easter] is the only feast of the Christian
Christian
Year that can plausibly claim to go back to apostolic times ... [It] must derive from a time when Jewish influence was effective ... because it depends on the lunar calendar (every other feast depends on the solar calendar)." ^ Socrates, Church History, 5.22, in Schaff, Philip (13 July 2005). "The Author's Views respecting the Celebration of Easter, Baptism, Fasting, Marriage, the Eucharist, and Other Ecclesiastical Rites". Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories. Calvin College Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 28 March 2007.  ^ Karl Gerlach (1998). The Antenicene Pascha: A Rhetorical History. Peeters Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 9789042905702. Long before this controversy, Ex 12 as a story of origins and its ritual expression had been firmly fixed in the Christian
Christian
imagination. Though before the final decades of the 2nd century only accessible as an exegetical tradition, already in the Pauline letters the Exodus saga is deeply involved with the celebration of bath and meal. Even here, this relationship does not suddenly appear, but represents developments in ritual narrative that mus have begun at the very inception of the Christian
Christian
message. Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth was crucified during Pesach-Mazzot, an event that a new covenant people of Jews and Gentiles both saw as definitive and defining. Ex 12 is thus one of the few reliable guides for tracing the synergism among ritual, text, and kerygma before the Council of Nicaea.  ^ Sozomen, Book 7, Chapter 18 ^ Caroline Wyatt (25 March 2016). "Why can't the date of Easter
Easter
be fixed". BBC. Retrieved 13 April 2017.  ^ The Date of Easter. Article from United States Naval Observatory
United States Naval Observatory
(27 March 2007). ^ "The Church in Malankara switched entirely to the Gregorian calendar in 1953, following Encyclical No. 620 from Patriarch Mor Ignatius Aphrem I, dt. December 1952." Calendars of the Syriac Orthodox Church. Retrieved 22 April 2009 ^ Wallis, Faith (1999). Bede: The Reckoning of Time. Liverpool University Press. p. 148. ISBN 0853236933.  ^ Paragraph 7 of Inter gravissimas
Inter gravissimas
ISO.org to "the vernal equinox, which was fixed by the fathers of the [first] Nicene Council at XII calends April [21 March]". This definition can be traced at least back to chapters 6 & 59 of Bede's De temporum ratione (725). ^ a b Montes, Marcos J. "Calculation of the Ecclesiastical Calendar" Archived 3 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 12 January 2008. ^ G Moyer (1983), "Aloisius Lilius and the 'Compendium novae rationis restituendi kalendarium'", pages 171–188 in G.V. Coyne (ed.). ^ Eusebius, Church History 5.23. ^ Socrates, Church History, 6.11, at Schaff, Philip (13 July 2005). "Of Severian and Antiochus: their Disagreement from John". Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories. Calvin College Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 28 March 2009.  ^ Socrates, Church History 7.29, at Schaff, Philip (13 July 2005). " Nestorius
Nestorius
of Antioch
Antioch
promoted to the See of Constantinople. His Persecution of the Heretics". Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories. Calvin College Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Librar. Retrieved 28 March 2009.  ^ Eusebius, Church History, 7.32. ^ Peter of Alexandria, quoted in the Chronicon Paschale. In Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., Ante-Nicene Christian
Christian
Library, Volume 14: The Writings of Methodius, Alexander of Lycopolis, Peter of Alexandria, And Several Fragments, Edinburgh, 1869, p. 326, at Donaldson, Alexander (1 June 2005). "That Up to the Time of the Destruction of Jerusalem, the Jews Rightly Appointed the Fourteenth Day of the First Lunar Month". Gregory Thaumaturgus, Dionysius the Great, Julius Africanus, Anatolius and Minor Writers, Methodius, Arnobius. Calvin College Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 28 March 2009.  ^ MS Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare LX(58) folios 79v–80v. ^ Sacha Stern, Calendar and Community: A History of the Jewish Calendar Second Century BCE – Tenth Century CE, Oxford, 2001, pp. 124–132. ^ Eusebius, Church History, 7.20, 7.31. ^ Allen Brent, Hippolytus and the Roman Church in the Third Century, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1995. ^ Epiphanius, Adversus Haereses, Heresy 69, 11,1, in Willams, F. (1994). The Panarion of Epiphianus of Salamis Books II and III. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 331.  ^ Apostolic Canon 7: "If any bishop, presbyter, or deacon shall celebrate the holy day of Easter
Easter
before the vernal equinox with the Jews, let him be deposed." A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian
Christian
Church, Second Series, Volume 14: The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Eerdmans, 1956, p. 594. ^ St. John Chrysostom, "Against those who keep the first Passover", in Saint John Chrysostom: Discourses against Judaizing Christians, translated by Paul W. Harkins, Washington, D.C., 1979, p. 47ff. ^ Mosshammer, Alden A. (2008). The Easter
Easter
Computus
Computus
and the Origins of the Christian
Christian
Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 50–52, 62–65. ISBN 978-0-19-954312-0.  ^ a b Mosshammer, Alden A. (2008). The Easter
Easter
Computus
Computus
and the Origins of the Christian
Christian
Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 239–244. ISBN 978-0-19-954312-0.  ^ a b Holford-Strevens, Leofranc, and Blackburn, Bonnie (1999). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 808–809. ISBN 0-19-214231-3.  ^ Mosshammer, Alden A. (2008). The Easter
Easter
Computus
Computus
and the Origins of the Christian
Christian
Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-0-19-954312-0.  ^ Holford-Strevens, Leofranc, and Blackburn, Bonnie (1999). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 870–875. ISBN 0-19-214231-3.  ^ "Easter: A date with God". The Economist. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. Only in a handful of places do Easter
Easter
celebrants alter their own arrangements to take account of their neighbours. Finland's Orthodox Christians mark Easter
Easter
on the Western date. And on the Greek island of Syros, a Papist stronghold, Catholics and Orthodox alike march to Orthodox time. The spectacular public commemorations, involving flower-strewn funeral biers on Good Friday
Good Friday
and fireworks on Saturday night, bring the islanders together, rather than highlighting division.  ^ " Easter
Easter
(holiday)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ a b Hieromonk Cassian, A Scientific Examination of the Orthodox Church Calendar, Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, 1998, p.51–52, ISBN 0-911165-31-2. ^ M. Milankovitch, "Das Ende des julianischen Kalenders und der neue Kalender der orientalischen Kirchen", Astronomische Nachrichten 200, 379–384 (1924). ^ Miriam Nancy Shields, "The new calendar of the Eastern churches", Popular Astronomy 32 (1924) 407–411 (page 411). This is a translation of M. Milankovitch, "The end of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and the new calendar of the Eastern churches", Astronomische Nachrichten No. 5279 (1924). ^ "Hansard Reports, April 2005, regarding the Easter
Easter
Act of 1928". United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament. Retrieved 14 March 2010.  ^ WCC: Towards a common date for Easter
Easter
Archived 13 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://cathnews.com/cathnews/23940-christian-churches-close-to-deal-to-fix-common-date-for-easter ^ "Towards a Common Date for Easter". Aleppo, Syria: World Council of Churches (WCC) / Middle East Council of Churches Consultation (MECC). 10 March 1997.  ^ Lash, Ephrem (Archimandrite) (25 January 2007). "On the Holy and Great Sunday of Pascha". Monastery of Saint Andrew the First Called, Manchester, England. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.  ^ " Pentecost
Pentecost
Sunday". About.com. Retrieved 28 March 2013.  ^ Luke 24:1 ^ Mark 16:1–8 ^ Otto, Diane L. (2007). Guess What I Discovered on the Way to Church?. Xulon Press. p. 413. ISBN 978-1-60266-349-7.  ^ Daniels, Bruce Colin (1995). Puritans at Play: Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England. Macmillan, p. 89, ISBN 978-0-31216124-8 ^ Pack, David. "The True Origin of Easter". The Restored Church of God. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.  ^ a b " Easter
Easter
or the Memorial—Which Should You Observe?". Watchtower Magazine. Watch Tower Bible
Bible
and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 1 April 1996. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  ^ "A Careful and Free Inquiry into the True Nature and Tendency of the ..."  ^ See Quaker Faith & practice of Britain Yearly Meeting, Paragraph 27:42 ^ Quaker life, December 2011: "Early Quaker Top 10 Ways to Celebrate (or Not) "the Day Called Christmas" by Rob Pierson Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Public holidays in Scandinavian countries, for example; "Public holidays in Sweden". VisitSweden. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  "Public holidays [in Denmark]". VisitDenmark. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ "Bank Holidays". Nordea
Nordea
Bank AB. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ "Lov om detailsalg fra butikker m.v." (in Danish). retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ Mona Langset (12 April 2014) Nordmenn tar påskeferien i Norge (in Norwegian) VG ^ "Dutch Easter
Easter
traditions – how the Dutch celebrate Easter". Dutch Community. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ "UK bank holidays". gov.uk.  ^ " Easter
Easter
2016". Public Holidays Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Public holidays, australia.gov.au ^ Duchak, Alicia (2002). An A-Z of Modern America. Rutledge. ISBN 9780415187558.  ^ " Easter
Easter
Symbols and Traditions - Holidays - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 27 April 2017.  ^ Siemaszkiewicz, Wojciech; Deyrup, Marta Mestrovic (8 May 2013). Wallington's Polish Community. Arcadia Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 9781439643303. The tradition of Easter eggs
Easter eggs
dates back to early Christians in Mesopotamia. The Easter egg
Easter egg
is a reminder that Jesus
Jesus
rose from the grave, promising an eternal life for believers.  ^ Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 5. T.B. Noonan. 1881. Retrieved 24 April 2014. The early Christians of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had the custom of dyeing and decorating eggs at Easter. They were stained red, in memory of the blood of Christ, shed at His crucifixion. The Church adopted the custom, and regarded the eggs as the emblem of the resurrection, as is evinced by the benediction of Pope Paul V., about 1610, which reads thus: "Bless, O Lord! we beseech thee, this thy creature of eggs, that it may become a wholesome sustenance to thy faithful servants, eating it in thankfulness to thee on account of the resurrection of the Lord." Thus the custom has come down from ages lost in antiquity.)  ^ " Easter
Easter
Egg Roll". The White House. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ von Solodkoff, A. (1989). Masterpieces from the House of Fabergé. Abradale Press. ISBN 9780810980891. 

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Artos Burning of Judas Cascarón Clipping the church Croatian pisanica Crucession Easter
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November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
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Eid al-Adha
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Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.

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