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Coordinates: 41°9′13″N 27°22′0″E / 41.15361°N 27.36667°E / 41.15361; 27.36667 "European Turkey" redirects here. For the Ottoman lands historically known as " Turkey
Turkey
in Europe", see Rumelia.

East Thrace
Thrace
(blue) within Thrace

East Thrace
Thrace
(blue) within the Marmara Region
Marmara Region
of Turkey

East Thrace
Thrace
landscape in Edirne
Edirne
Province, Turkey.

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace
Thrace
(Turkish: Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Greek: Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Bulgarian: Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace
Thrace
or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey
Turkey
that is geographically part of Southeast Europe. It accounts for 3% of Turkey's land area and comprises 14% of Turkey's total population.[1] The rest of the country is located on the Anatolian peninsula, geographically in Western Asia. East Thrace
Thrace
is of historic importance as it is next to a major sea-based trade corridor. It is currently also of specific geostrategic importance because the sea corridor, that includes two narrow straits, provides access to the Mediterranean from the Black Sea
Black Sea
for the navies of five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, and Georgia. The region also serves as a future connector of existing Turkish and European high speed rail networks.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Climate 3 Geography 4 History 5 See also 6 References

Definition[edit] East Thrace
Thrace
includes all in the eastern part of the historical region of Thrace. The area includes all the territories of the Turkish provinces of Edirne, Tekirdağ
Tekirdağ
and Kırklareli, as well as those territories on the European Continent of the provinces of Çanakkale and Istanbul. Climate[edit] Due to the moderating effect of the surrounding seas, the climate tends to be Mediterranean in character. It can descend down to about 12°C and can rise to about 32°C, similar to Asian Turkey. Geography[edit] East Thrace
Thrace
has an area of 23,764 km2 (3 percent of the country) and a population of about 11 million people or about 14 percent of the total population (in 2015); the population density is around 430 people/km2, compared to about 80 people/km2 for Asiatic Turkey, which is also called Anatolia
Anatolia
or Asia Minor. However, densities are skewed by the metropolis of Istanbul. The two are separated by the Dardanelles, the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
(collectively known as the Turkish Straits) and the Sea of Marmara, a route of about 361 km. The southernmost part of Eastern Thrace
Thrace
is called the Gallipoli
Gallipoli
peninsula. European Turkey
Turkey
is bordered on the west by Greece
Greece
for 212 km and on the north by Bulgaria
Bulgaria
for 269 km, with the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south-west and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north-east.[2][3]

River Maritsa
Maritsa
(Turkish: Meriç), which forms the land border between Greece
Greece
and Turkey, also forms the natural border between West Thrace and East Thrace.

Province (part) Area (km2) Population (2009 Est) Population (2012 census)[4] Density (2012C pop/km2) Population (2015 Est)

Istanbul Province
Istanbul Province
(European) 3,421 8,375,000 8,963,431 2620.1 9,492,000**

Tekirdağ 6,218 783,310 852,321 137.1 937,910**

Kırklareli 6,550 333,179 341,218 52.1 346,973

Edirne 6,279 395,463 399,708 63.7 402,537

Çanakkale (European) 1,296 62,000 64,061 49.4 62,000

East Thrace
Thrace
(sum) 23,764 9,948,000 10,620,739 446.9 11,241,000**

% of national 3.09% 13.7% 14.2% 461% 14.3%**

** Disclaimer: Sources may modify and/or release updated data, this will not be automatically reflected in these tables, additionally the refugee crisis' vast floating migrants have seriously complicated data collection, especially since 2013. Estimates and Census use different methodology and are not directly comparable. Source: Citypopulation.de mirroring data from: State Institute of Statistics, Republic of Turkey (web).

History[edit] See also: History of Thrace
Thrace
and History of Western Thrace East Thrace
Thrace
was the setting for several important events in history and legend.

The Greek myth of Hero and Leander
Hero and Leander
takes place in the ancient city of Sestus. Aeneas
Aeneas
founded the city of Aenus while trying to find new lands during his mythological conquests. After the death of Alexander the Great, in the period called the Diadochi, Alexander's general Lysimachus
Lysimachus
(360-281 BC) became king of Thrace
Thrace
and established his capital in Lysimachia. Çimpe Castle was the first European territory held by the Ottoman Empire. Edirne
Edirne
was the second capital of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after Bursa. The Gallipoli
Gallipoli
Campaign, one of the most important campaigns of the First World War, was fought on the Gallipoli
Gallipoli
peninsula.

Hero and Leander

Coin of Lysimachus

Selimiye Mosque, Edirne

Cape Helles
Cape Helles
during the Gallipoli
Gallipoli
Campaign

The mass killings and displacement of Thracian Bulgarians
Thracian Bulgarians
in 1913 and the 1923 population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
ethnically cleansed the Orthodox populations, although the Muslims were the dominant group at that moment. Prior to that the distribution of ethnoreligious groups in the local sanjaks was as follows:

Ottoman Official Statistics, 1910[5]

Sanjak Turks Greeks Bulgarians Others Total

Edirne 128,000 113,500 31,500 14,700 287,700

Kırk Kilise 53,000 77,000 28,500 1,150 159,650

Tekirdağ 63,500 56,000 3,000 21,800 144,300

Gallipoli 31,500 70,500 2,000 3,200 107,200

Çatalca 18,000 48,500 N/A 2,340 68,840

Istanbul 450,000 260,000 6,000 130,000 846,000

Total % 744,000 46.11% 625,500 38.76% 71,000 4.40% 173,190 10.74% 1,613,690

Ecumenical Patriarchate Statistics, 1912

Total % 604,500 36.20% 655,600 39.27% 71,800 4.30% 337,600 20.22% 1,669,500

The Muslim millet was recorded as Turkish, while the church members of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as Greek. In the past century modern East Thrace
Thrace
was the main component of the territory of the Adrianople Vilayet, which excluded the Constantinople Vilayet, but included West Thrace
Thrace
and parts of the Rhodopes
Rhodopes
and Sakar. A publication from December 21, 1912 in the Belgian magazine Ons Volk Ontwaakt (‘Our Nation Awakes’) estimated 1,006,500 inhabitants in the vilayet:[6]

Muslim Turks - 250,000 Muslim Bulgarians
Muslim Bulgarians
- 115,000 Muslim Roma people
Roma people
- 15,000 Orthodox Armenians
Armenians
- 30,000 Orthodox Greeks
Greeks
- 220,000 Orthodox Bulgarians
Bulgarians
- 370,000 Orthodox Albanians
Albanians
- 3,500 Orthodox Turks - 3,000

See also[edit]

Geography of Turkey Thrace Northern Thrace Western Thrace Upper Thracian Plain Edirne
Edirne
Vilayet

References[edit]

^ Zdanowski, Jerzy (2014). Middle Eastern Societies in the 20th Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1443869591.  ^ "Inland fisheries of Europe".  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
- Geography".  ^ "Turkish Statistical Institute. Registered population as of 2012". Archived from the original on 2012-10-10.  ^ Pentzopoulos, Dimitri (2002). The Balkan exchange of minorities and its impact on Greece. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-1-85065-702-6.  ^ Published on December 21, 1912 in the Belgian magazine Ons Volk Ontwaakt (Our Nation Awakes) - view the table of Vilajet Manastir: Skynet GodsdBalkan

v t e

Peninsulas of Turkey

Main peninsulas

Anadolu (Anatolia) Trakya (Thrace)

Peninsulas in Thrace

Çatalca Gelibolu

Peninsulas in Anatolia

Boztepe Kocaeli Armutlu Kapıdağ Biga Karaburun Güvercin Dilek Bodrum Datça Bozburun Çukurbağ

Related geographical features

Capes of Turkey Ba

.