[[National Highway -16 ( KOLKATTA - CHENNAI ) & NH -214(between
East Godavari &
Pamarru of Krishna ) ]]
16°57′N 82°15′E / 16.950°N 82.250°E / 16.950;
82.250Coordinates: 16°57′N 82°15′E / 16.950°N
82.250°E / 16.950; 82.250
East Godavari district or Toorpu Godavari jilla is a district in
Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Its district
headquarters is at Kakinada. As of Census 2011, it became the most
populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549.
Kakinada are the two largest cities in the Godavari
districts in terms of population.
East Godavari district montage
The district of
Rajahmundry (present name Rajamahendravaram) was
reorganised in 1859 into two districts of Godavari and Krishna.
Godavari District was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari
districts in 1925. After Nov 1956's
Andhra Pradesh was formed by
combining parts of Naizam, Ceded and Circars, in 1959, the
Bhadrachalam revenue division, consisting of
Bhadrachalam and Naguru
Taluqs (2 Taluqas in 1959 but later subdivided into Wajedu,
Venkatapruram, Charla, Dummugudem, Bhadrachalam, Nellipaka, Chinturu,
Kunavaram, and Vara Rama Chandra Puram mandals) of East Godavari
district were merged into the Khammam district. After June 2014's
reorganisation and division of Andhra Pradesh, the Mandals of
Bhadrachalam (with the exception of
Bhadrachalam Temple), Nellipaka,
Kunavaram and Vara Rama Chandra Puram were re-added back to
East Godavari District.
1 Buddhist shrines in district
1.1 Early kingdoms
1.2 Chalukyas and Cholas
1.3 Kakatiyas and Delhi Sultanate
Reddi and other Kingdoms
1.5 Muslim Kingdoms
1.6 British rule, 1768–1947
1.7 Post Independence
2 Geography and climate
10 See also
12 External links
Buddhist shrines in district
East Godavari district has many important Buddhist sites
The district, like the rest of the Deccan was under the Nandas and
Mauryas in its early history. After the fall of the Mauryan Empire,
the district was under the Satavahanas until the 3rd century under the
famous poet king Haala. Coins found during excavations have revealed
the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vaasisthi-puttra Pulumaavi and
Yajna Sri Satakarni. Gupta emperor
Samudragupta invaded during the
rule of both Pishtapura and Avamukta in the district in 350 A.D.
Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of the Mathara
dynasty from 375 to 500. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was
The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundinas during the rule
of Vikramendra Varma I during the 5th century. The records indicate
that their domain extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna
Guntur Districts in addition to
East Godavari District. Indra
Bhattaraka defeated the rulers of Vasistha Kula and re-established
Vihsnukundina authority, but was shortly defeated by Kalinga armies.
Indra Bhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others, including
Madhava Varma III and Manchana Bhattaraka, who tried to restore their
kingdom. Madhava Varma III was the last important ruler of this
Chalukyas and Cholas
Pulakesi II of Badami Chalukyas and his brother Kubja Vishnu
Vardhana acquired Pishtapura in the 7th century. The Eastern Chalukya
dynasty, founded by Kubja Vishnu Vardhana, ruled at first form
Pishtapura, then from Vengi, and later from Raja Mahendra Varam. Many
rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is at times
largely a record of disputes over succession. Chalukya Bhima I of this
dynasty built a
Shiva temple at Draksha Ramam. Jata Choda Bhima of
Kurnool District) killed Daanaarnava of this dynasty and
Vengi in 973 A.D. Daanaarnava's two sons, Sakti Varma I
and Vimala Aditya, fled from the kingdom and took refuge in the court
Chola king Rajaraja
Chola I. Rajaraja invaded
Vengi on behalf
of the sons of Daanaarnava and killed Jata Choda Bhima. Satya Raya of
Western Chalukyas of Kalyani did not like the
Chola influence in
Vengi and the area witnessed many wars between the
Chalukyas. After the death of Vijaya Aditya VII in 0175 A.D., the
Eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
Chola I (Rajendra Chalukya), rival of Vijay Aditya VII,
fought along the sides of
Cholas and established the Chalukya Cholas
province. The district along with the rest of the
Vengi kingdom became
part of their empire. Major portions of the district were under
Velanati Chodas, trustworthy chieftains to his. Rulers of this dynasty
included Gonka I, Rajendra Choda I,
Gonka II and Rajendra Choda II.
Vikram Aditya vii of
Western Chalukyas occupied this region for short
period, but it was recovered by
Chalukya Cholas and Velanati Chodas.
Velanati chiefs also suppressed rebellions from
Haihayas of Kona,
Gonka II and Rudra of the Kakatiya dynasty.
Kakatiyas and Delhi Sultanate
Inscriptions at this region including the ones at Draksha Ramam in
13th century throw light on their history. Prola II of the Kakatiya
dynasty declared independence from the western Chalukyas and became a
subject of Chalukya Cholas. His son Rudra obtained the Godavari delta
as gift from the Rajaraja II of Chalukya Cholas. Rudra's authority
over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Chodas. The
Rajendra Choda II sent an army under his minister Davana
Preggada against Rudra. Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother
Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri. His son
Ganapati succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. Ganapati defeated Kalinga
armies on the north, Pandyas of
Cholas with the help of
Nellooru Chodas. The Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the
Godavari region throughout the reign of Ganapati and her daughter
Rudrama devi. Pratapa Rudra ascended the throne in 1295 and faced many
attacks from Sultans of Delhi. After his defeat by
Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1323, the district came under the rule of the
Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq divided South
India into five
provinces and appointed governors.
Reddi and other Kingdoms
Delhi sultans faced rebellions from the confederacy of local chiefs
under the authority of Prolaya of the
Musunuri Nayaks clan. The Reddis
of Addanki, Koppula Telagas of
Pithapuram and the Recharla Velamas of
Rachakonda actively helped him.
Warangal was liberated and Telugu land
enjoyed freedom for fifty years. Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka appointed his
relatives Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka and Mummadi Nayaka (Korukonda) as
governors in Godavari region. Mummadi Nayaka married the niece of
Kapaya Nayaka. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388. He had three sons who
ruled for a period of 40 years and later they were reduced to
submission by the Reddis of Kondaveedu and their principality was
merged in the kingdom of Kondaveedu. Subsequently, Narasimha Deva IV
of Kalinga succeeded in conquerring this region, but was repulsed by
Reddi of Rajahmundry. He was succeeded by Anavema
Kumaragiri of the same dynasty.
Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Recharlas of
Rachakonda and the
Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince
Anavota to conquer the eastern region. This resulted in the annexation
of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly
acquired territory was annexed to the
Reddi Kingdom and constituted
into a separate province called the eastern kingdom. Prince Anavota
ruled this province with Raja-Mahendra-Varam as his capital. He died a
premature death around 1395 and Kataya Vema, the general and
brother-in-law of Kumara Giri, was given Raja Mahendra Rajya in
appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State. Kataya
Vema's departure to Raja Mahendra Varam led to the seizure of the
throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.
Peda Komati Vema's authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema
was also involved in conflict with Eruva chief Annadeva Choda, who
managed to occupy a large portion of the Raja Mahendra Rajya. He was,
however, defeated and driven back by Kataya Vema. Later, Kataya Vema
died in a battle with Anna Deva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi
placed Kataya Vemas' son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram
and ruled the kingdom as his regent. Komarigiri died a premature
Reddi ruled this region till his death in 1420. About
1423, the Vijayanagara ruler
Deva Raya II
Deva Raya II defeated Veera Bhadra, who
was then ruling this kingdom and reduced it to subjection.
After the death of
Kapilendra Deva Gajapati in 1466, there was a fight
between his sons Hamveera Deva and
Purushottama Deva for succession.
Hamveera succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of Bahmanis
but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamveera
and tried to reconquer Rajamahendravaram and other places. But
Muhammad Shah III led the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, however,
ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. After the death of Muhammad
Shah III, Purushottama Gajapati overran the whole of the
Godavari-Krishna do-ab and drove the Bahmani forces as far south as
Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Pratapa Rudra. The
Krishna Deva Raya
Krishna Deva Raya invaded his kingdom and brought
Rajahmundry under subjugation. However, a treaty was concluded wherein
Pratapa Rudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishna Deva
Raya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by
Krishna Deva Raya.
Taking advantage of the disturbed conditions, the Qutab Shahi ruler of
Golkonda, Sultan Quli Qutab Shah, invaded the coastal region and took
Rajahmundry and the neighbouring kingdoms. Sultan Quli
was murdered and he was succeeded to the throne by his son Jamshid
Qutab Shah and then by his grand son Subhan Qutab Shah. During his
reign, Ibrahim Qutab Shah had to ward off challenges from Shitab Khan
and Vidyadhar. The last ruler of this dynasty was Abdul Hasan Tana
Shah, who ruled from 1672 to 1687.
Aurangzeb conquered the sultanate of Golaconda in 1687, and Golaconda,
East Godavari District, became one of the twenty-two
provinces of the Mughal Empire. The Nizam-ul-Mulk (viceroy of
Golaconda) looked after the administration through military officers
called Fauzdars. Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, the new Raja of Vijaya
Nagaram, invited the French to occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle
that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French
losing all possessions in
Northern Circars except Yanam.
Salabat Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan,
who leased out
Chicacole to Hasan Ali Khan. Lord
Robert Clive, entered into negotiations with the Mughal Emperor Shah
Alam, and obtained a firmana ceding the
Northern Circars to the
India Company in August 1765, but it was kept a secret
until March 1766. The fort of Kondapalli was seized by the British,
and General Cillaud was sent to
Machilipatnam to undertake military
operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for
war. War was prevented by the signing of a treaty on 12 November 1766
by which the Company, in return for occupying the Circars, undertook
to maintain troops for the Nizam's assistance.
British rule, 1768–1947
By a second treaty, signed on 1 March 1768 the Nizam acknowledged the
validity of Shah Alam's grant and resigned the Circars to the Company,
receiving as a mark of friendship an annuity of 50,000. Finally, in
1823, the claims of the Nizam over the
Northern Circars were bought
outright by the Company, and they became a British possession. The
Circars were incorporated into Madras Presidency, and Godavari
District was constituted, which included present-day
East Godavari and
West Godavari districts.
After India's independence in 1947, the former
Madras Presidency of
India became India's Madras State. In 1953, the northern
districts of Madras state, including Godavari District, became the new
state of Andhra. Yanam was relinquished by the French in 1954, but one
condition of the cession treaty was the retention of the district's
separate and distinct identity, which also applied to the other South
Indian enclaves constituting today's
Geography and climate
Godavari river near Yanam
Andhra Pradesh districts
East Godavari district occupies an area of 12,805 square kilometres
(4,944 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's
Sumba Island. The district is bounded on north by Visakhapatnam
Malkangiri District of Orissa on the northwest by Khammam
District, on the east and south by the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal and on the west
West Godavari District. It has a coastline of 144 km
(89 mi). The small enclave (12 sq mi (30 km2)) of the
Yanam district of
Puducherry state lies within this district.
According to the 2011 census
East Godavari district has a population
of 5,154,296. This gives it a ranking of 19th in
India (out of a
total of 640 districts) and 2nd in the state. The district has a
population density of 477 inhabitants per square kilometre
(1,240/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade
2001–2011 was 5.1%.
East Godavari has a sex ratio of 1005 females
for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 71.35%.
East Godavari district has a total population of 51,51,549; 25,69,419
and 25,82,130 male and female respectively. There was change of 5.10
percent in the population compared to population as per 2001 census.
The census data states a density of 477 in 2011 compared to 454 in
2001. Average literacy rate of
East Godavari in 2011 was 71.35%
compared to 65.48% in 2001. On a gender basis, male and female
literacy was 74.91% and 67.82% respectively. With regards to sex ratio
in East Godavari, it stood at 1005 per 1000 males compared to the 2001
census figure of 993. The average national sex ratio in
India is 940
as per the 2011 census.
There were total 4,92,446 children under the age of 0-6 against
6,13,490 of 2001 census. Of total 492,446 male and female were
2,50,086 and 2,42,360 respectively. The child sex ratio as per census
2011 was 969 compared to 978 in 2001. In 2011, children under 0-6
formed 9.56% of
East Godavari district compared to 12.52% in 2001.
In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences
interviewed 1019 households in 38 villages across the district.
They found that 92.5% had access to electricity, 96.7% had drinking
water, 50.4% toilet facilities, and 30.9% lived in a pucca (permanent)
home. 28.6% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 79% of
interviewees carried a BPL card.
Revenue divisions of
East Godavari district
The district has 7 revenue divisions namely, Amalapuram, Etapaka,
Kakinada, Peddapuram, Rajahmundry, Ramachandrapuram and
Rampachodavaram with 65 mandals. These 59 mandals consists
of 1,374 villages, 2 municipal corporation, 7 municipalities and 10
census towns. It is the one of the two districts, alongside Chittoor
district to possess two municipal corporations namely,
Rajahmundry. The 7 municipalities in the district include, Amalapuram,
Mandapeta, Peddapuram, Pithapuram, Ramachandrapuram, Samalkota, Tuni.
After the merger of Dowleswaram,
Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation, there exists 7 census towns of
Arempudi, Bandarulanka, Chidiga, Morampudi, Ramanayyapeta,
The mandals of Chinturu, Kunavaram,
Nellipaka and Vararamchandrapuram
were added to
East Godavari district based on Polavaram
The list of 64 mandals in
East Godavari district under 7 revenue
divisions are listed in the following table:
The culture of
East Godavari district is a rich traditional one in all
parts of the district, and reflects the true culture of Andhra
Pradesh. It is known for Veda-pandits, the
Godavari River and the
hospitality of the people. The
Telugu language originated in this
Rajahmundry or Rajamahendri). East
Godavari District has produced several stalwarts in area of culture,
music, art and cinema. Poet and writer Devulapalli Krishnasastri,
musician and singer
M. Balamuralikrishna (Mangalampalli Balamurali
Krishna), P. B. Sreenivas, Adurthi Subba Rao, C. Pullaiah, painter N.
Reddi Naidu, actress
Jaya Prada belong to this district. Freedom
fighter, social worker and politician Durgabai Deshmukh[citation
The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of
East Godavari is
₹52,294 crore (US$8.0 billion) and it contributes 10% to the
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per
capita income at current prices was ₹78,255 (US$1,200). The primary,
secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute ₹16,093
crore (US$2.5 billion), ₹10,857 crore (US$1.7 billion) and
₹25,343 crore (US$3.9 billion) respectively. The major
products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and
allied services are, paddy, sugarcane, betel leaves, coconut, milk,
meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is
contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, unorganised
trade and transport.
Rajahmundry Railway station is a major station in the district
The total of core road network of the district is 1,274.067 km
(791.669 mi). It includes, 613.289 km (381.080 mi) of
existing and a proposed length of 660.780 km
(410.590 mi). The total rail network of the district is
171.34 km (106.47 mi).
The National Highway 5 connecting
Howrah passes through
this district. Rajahmundry,
Tuni and Samalkot are the railway
junctions in the district. The
Howrah rail line also passes
through this district.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government,
aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of
the state. As per the school information report for the
academic year 2015-16, there are a total of 5,986 schools. They
include, 29 government, 3,452 mandal and zilla parishads, 1
residential, 1688 private, 2 model, 12 Kasturba Gandhi Balika
Vidyalaya (KGBV), 285 municipal and 517 other types of schools.
The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and
high schools of the district are 722,123.
District has universities located at
Rajahmundry City such as Adikavi
Nannaya University Rajahmundry, Telugu University, Acharya NG Ranga
Agricultural University. There are numerous educational institutes
with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, District
Institute of Education and Training (DIET) in Rajahmundry, established
in 1989 for the benefit of teacher trainees and in-service teachers.
There are many educational institutions that provide education in
different fields such as Engineering, Medical, Law, Pharmacy,
Postgraduate colleges etc. Some of the notable
universities, colleges are Rangaraya
Medical College in
Pithapuram Rajah College, Kakinada.
Vakalapudi beach at Kakinada
East Godavari has many visiting places such as Historical Temples,
Natural beauty and Nurseries etc. The historical temples are located
at Amalapuram, Annavaram, Antarvedi, Draksharamam, Kotipalli,
Samalkota etc. In these temples, most of the
temples having "Swayam Bhu" status of the lords and having their own
"Sthala Purana (history of the place)".
Corangi Wildlife Sanctuary is located about 15 km from Kakinada
on Kakinada–Yanam Road. Kadiyapu lanka, 20 km from
Rajamahendravaram, is the location of many plant nurseries. Other
attractions are Sir Arthur Cotton Museum at Dhavaleswaram, Coringa
Wildlife Sanctuary. Eco tourism projects are located at Maredumilli,
Papikondalu Rampa and
Tuni Talupulamma lova is most popular temple in
East Godavari district
List of districts in India
^ "District - East Godavari".
Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Retrieved
23 August 2014.
^ a b "
East Godavari district profile".
Andhra Pradesh State
^ "District Profile". East
Godavari District Webportal. National
Informatics Centre. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
^ David M. Knipe (2015). Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living
Andhra Tradition. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
^ "Telangana". google.com.
^ "Post division, who will get Bhadrachalam?". The Times of
^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union
Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government".
India 2010: A Reference
Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General,
Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
(India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112.
ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations
Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
^ a b c d "Economy of
East Godavari District".
Andhra Pradesh Economic
Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
^ a b c "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30
^ "Indian Districts by Population, Growth Rate, Sex Ratio 2011
Census". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
^ a b c "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3),
2007-08: India. Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). International Institute for
Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010.
Retrieved 3 October 2011.
^ "Mandal wise population". Official website of East Godavari
District. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
^ a b Staff Reporter. "
East Godavari district gets new revenue
division". The Hindu.
^ "Ten new revenue divisions created". The Hindu. Hyderabad. 4 April
2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
^ a b "District Census Handbook - East Godavari" (PDF). Census of
India. pp. 16–17, 54. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13
November 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ "Ordinance on
Polavaram project promulgated". The Hans India.
Hyderabad. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation (Amendment) Act, 2014" (PDF).
India code. Ministry of
Law and Justice, Legislative Department. 17
July 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ Murali Sankar, K.N. (4 April 2013). "All set for creation of new
revenue division". The Hindu. Kakinada. Retrieved 3 September
^ ":: APRDC ::".
Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation.
Roads and Buildings Department. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department,
Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27
December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government
Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016.
Retrieved 7 November 2016.
^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education.
Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education.
Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh.
Retrieved 8 November 2016.
^ "Tourist Places". East
Godavari District Webportal. Retrieved 16
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
East Godavari district.
Godavari District web site
Places adjacent to
East Godavari district
Khammam district, Telangana
Malkangiri district, Odisha
West Godavari district
East Godavari district
Bay of Bengal
West Godavari district
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
Note: Yanam district,
Puducherry is completely surrounded by East
State of Andhra Pradesh
Amaravati (de facto),
Hyderabad (de jure)
(population over 1 lakh)
List of cities in Andhra Pradesh
List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh
List of urban local bodies in Andhra Pradesh
List of revenue divisions in Andhra Pradesh
List of urban agglomerations in Andhra Pradesh
Portal: Andhra Pradesh
Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project
Sriram Sagar Project
Upper Wardha Dam
Neher water system
Devadula lift irrigation scheme
Upper Dudhana Dam
Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
Pattiseema Lift Irrigation Project
features / regions
Komaram Bheem Asifabad
Languages / people
Godavari Valley Coalfield
Wardha Valley Coalfield
Pench Kanhan Coalfield
Oil / gas fields
Krishna Godavari Basin
Ravva oil field
Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station
Koradi Thermal Power Station
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station
Wardha Warora Power Plant
Vidarbha Power Plant
Nashik Thermal Power Station
Dhariwal Power Station
Nashik Thermal Power Station
Kothagudem Thermal Power Station
Kakatiya Thermal Power Station
Parli Thermal Power Station
NTPC Mauda Super Thermal Power Station
Ramagundam B Thermal Power Station
Tiroda Thermal Power Station
Butibori Power Project
Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru
Shendra – Bidkin Industrial Park
National Highway 6 (India)(old numbering)
Old Godavari Bridge
Godavari Arch Bridge
Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways
River basin's sustainable
productivity & ecology
Algal bloom in reservoirs
High alkalinity of river water in the river basin upstream of
Frequent floods in tail end area of the river basin
Alkali salts / high pH water run off from ash / red mud dumps of coal
fired power stations / bauxite ore enrichment
Excessive silting of reservoirs due to deforestation and mining
Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal
East Godavari district