HOME
The Info List - East End





The East End of London, usually called the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames. It does not have universally accepted boundaries, though the various channels of the River Lea
River Lea
are often considered to be the eastern boundary.[1] It comprises of areas of Central London, East London
East London
and London Docklands. The East End's emergence began in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
with initially slow urban growth outside the eastern walls, which subsequently accelerated, especially in the 19th century, to absorb pre-existing settlements. The first known written record of the East End as a distinct entity, as opposed its component parts, comes from John Strype's 1720 'Survey of London', where he describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Westminster, Southwark, and "That Part beyond the Tower". The relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical. The East End was the urbanised part of an area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London
Tower of London
for time immemorial. Later, as London grew further, the fully urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London
East London
grew further still, east of the Lea and into Essex. The area was notorious for its deep poverty, overcrowding and associated social problems. This has led to the East End’s history of intense political activism and association with some of the country’s most influential social reformers. Another major theme of East End history has been that of migration; both inward and outward. The area had a strong pull on the rural poor from other parts of England and attracted waves of migration from further afield: notably Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees, who created a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century.,[2] Irish weavers,[3] Ashkenazi Jews[4] and, in the 20th century, Sylheti Bangladeshis.[5] The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London
Port of London
in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands
London Docklands
Development Corporation. The Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
development, improved infrastructure, and the Olympic Park[6] mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some parts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.[7]

Contents

1 Uncertain boundaries 2 Development

2.1 Emergence 2.2 Accelerated 19th century development

3 Industry and built environment 4 Politics and social reform 5 Second World War 6 Outside perception and cockney identity

6.1 Geographic 6.2 Linguistic

7 Population

7.1 Immigration 7.2 Out migration: the Cockney
Cockney
diaspora 7.3 Demographics

8 Crime 9 Disasters 10 Entertainment 11 20th and early 21st centuries 12 Popular culture 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Uncertain boundaries[edit] The East End lies east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames. Aldgate Pump
Aldgate Pump
on the edge of the City is the symbolic start of the East End and, on the river, Tower Bridge is also sometimes also described in these terms.

Aldgate Pump
Aldgate Pump
- Symbolic start of the East End

Beyond these references though, the East End has no official or generally accepted boundaries, and there are a range of views about how much of wider East London
East London
should be included within it. A common preference is to include the modern borough of Tower Hamlets, and the former parish and borough of Shoreditch
Shoreditch
(this includes Hoxton and Haggerston
Haggerston
and is now the southern part of the modern London Borough of Hackney).[8][9][10] An alternative, narrower definition restricts the East End to the modern borough of Tower Hamlets.[11] Parts of the old parish and borough of Hackney are sometimes included,[12] while others include areas east of the Lea such as West Ham,[9][13] East Ham,[9][13] Leyton[13] and Walthamstow.[13] This uncertainty is not new; when Jack London
Jack London
came to London in 1902, his Hackney carriage
Hackney carriage
driver did not know the way. Jack London observed, " Thomas Cook
Thomas Cook
and Son, path-finders and trail-clearers, living sign-posts to all the World.... knew not the way to the East End".[14] Development[edit] Emergence[edit] The East End began with the medieval growth of London beyond the walls, along the Roman Roads leading from Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and Aldgate
Aldgate
and also alongside the Thames. Growth was much slower in the east, and the modest extensions on this side were separated from the much larger extensions in the west by the marshy open area of Moorfields
Moorfields
adjacent to the wall on the north side which discouraged development in that direction. Building accelerated in the 16th century, and the area that would later become known as the East End began to take shape. In 1720 John Strype
John Strype
gives us our first record of the East End as a distinct entity when he describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Westminster, Southwark, and "That Part beyond the Tower". The relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical. The East End was the urbanised part of an area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London for time immemorial, having its roots in the Bishop of London's historic Manor of Stepney. Later, as London grew further, the fully urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London
East London
grew further still, east of the Lea and into Essex. For a very long time the East End was physically separated from the London's western growth by the open spaces known as Moorfields. Shoreditch's boundary with the parish of St Luke's (and its predecessor St Giles-without-Cripplegate) ran through the Moorfields countryside becoming, on urbanisation, the boundary of east and north London. That line, with very slight modifications, has also become the boundary of the modern London Boroughs of Hackney and Islington. Moorfields
Moorfields
remained largely open until 1812, and the longstanding presence of that open space separating the emerging East End from the western urban expansion of London must have helped shape the varying economic character of the two parts and perceptions of their distinct identity (see map below).

Ogilby & Morgan's 1673 map of London. The East End is developing outside Bishopsgate, Aldgate
Aldgate
and along the river - it is separated from the western growth of the city by Moorfields

Historically, the East End has always contained some of the poorest areas of London. The main reasons for this include the following:

The medieval system of copyhold, which prevailed throughout the East End, into the 19th century. Essentially, there was little point in developing land that was held on short leases.[9] The siting of noxious industries, such as tanning and fulling downwind outside the boundaries of the City, and therefore beyond complaints and official controls. The foul-smelling industries partially preferred the East End because the prevailing winds in London traveled from west to east (i.e. it was downwind from the rest of the city), meaning that most odors from their businesses would not go into the city but outside, and thereby reduced complaints. The low paid employment in the docks and related industries, made worse by the trade practices of outwork, piecework and casual labour. The concentration of the ruling court and national political epicentre in Westminster, on the opposite western side of the City of London.

Historically, the East End is arguably conterminous with the Manor of Stepney. This manor was held by the Bishop of London, in compensation for his duties in maintaining and garrisoning the Tower of London. Further ecclesiastic holdings came about from the need to enclose the marshes and create flood defences along the Thames. Edward VI
Edward VI
passed the land to the Wentworth family, and thence to their descendants, the Earls of Cleveland. The ecclesiastic system of copyhold, whereby land was leased to tenants for terms as short as seven years, prevailed throughout the manor. This severely limited scope for improvement of the land and new building until the estate was broken up in the 19th century.[15] In medieval times trades were carried out in workshops in and around the owners' premises in the City. By the time of the Great Fire these were becoming industries and some were particularly noisome, such as the processing of urine to perform tanning; or required large amounts of space, such as drying clothes after process and dying in fields known as tentergrounds; and rope making. Some were dangerous, such as the manufacture of gunpowder or the proving of guns. These activities came to be performed outside the City walls in the near suburbs of the East End. Later when lead making and bone processing for soap and china came to be established, they too located in the East End rather than the crowded streets of the City.[9] The lands to the east of the City had always been used as hunting grounds for bishops and royalty, with King John establishing a palace at Bow. The Cistercian
Cistercian
Stratford Langthorne Abbey
Stratford Langthorne Abbey
became the court of Henry III in 1267 for the visitation of the Papal legates, and it was here that he made peace with the barons under the terms of the Dictum of Kenilworth. It became the fifth largest Abbey in the country, visited by monarchs and providing a popular retreat (and final resting place) for the nobility.[16] The Palace of Placentia
Palace of Placentia
at Greenwich, to the south of the river, was built by the Regent to Henry V, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Henry VIII
Henry VIII
established a hunting lodge at Bromley Hall.[17] These Royal connections continued until after the Interregnum when the Court established itself in the Palace of Whitehall and the offices of politics congregated around them. The East End also lay on the main road to Barking
Barking
Abbey, important as a religious centre since Norman times and where William the Conqueror had first established his English court.[18] Accelerated 19th century development[edit] During the Middle Ages, settlements had been established predominantly along the lines of the existing roads, and the principal villages were Stepney, Whitechapel
Whitechapel
and Bow. Settlements along the river began at this time to service the needs of shipping on the Thames, but the City of London retained its right to actually land the goods. The riverside became more active in Tudor times, as the Royal Navy was expanded and international trading developed and downstream, a major fishing port developed at Barking
Barking
to provide fish to the City. These and other factors meant that industries relating to construction, repair, and victualling of naval and merchant ships flourished in the area. Whereas royalty such as King John had had a hunting lodge at Bromley-by-Bow, and the Bishop of London
Bishop of London
had a palace at Bethnal Green, later these estates began to be split up, and estates of fine houses for captains, merchants and owners of manufacturers began to be built. Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
moved his family and goods to Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
during the Great Fire of London, and Captain Cook
Captain Cook
moved from Shadwell
Shadwell
to Stepney Green, a place where a school and assembly rooms had been established (commemorated by Assembly Passage, and a plaque on the site of Cook's house on the Mile End
Mile End
Road). Mile End
Mile End
Old Town also acquired some fine buildings, and the New Town began to be built. As the area became built up and more crowded, the wealthy sold their plots for sub-division and moved further afield. Into the 18th and 19th centuries, there were still attempts to build fine houses, for example Tredegar Square
Tredegar Square
(1830), and the open fields around Mile End New Town were used for the construction of estates of workers' cottages in 1820. This was designed in 1817 in Birmingham by Anthony Hughes and finally constructed in 1820[19] Globe Town was established from 1800 to provide for the expanding population of weavers around Bethnal Green, attracted by improving prospects in silk weaving. The population of Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
trebled between 1801 and 1831, with 20,000 looms being operated in people's own homes. By 1824, with restrictions on importation of French silks relaxed, up to half these looms had become idle, and prices were driven down. With many importing warehouses already established in the district, the abundance of cheap labour was turned to boot, furniture and clothing manufacture.[20] Globe Town continued its expansion into the 1860s, long after the decline of the silk industry.

The East End in 1741–5, as depicted on John Rocque's Exact Survey of the city's of London Westminster ye Borough of Southwark
Southwark
and the Country near ten miles round. London is expanding, but there are still large areas of fields to the east of the City.

1882 Reynolds Map of the East End. Development has now eliminated the open fields pictured on the map.

Part of Charles Booth's poverty map showing the Old Nichol
Old Nichol
slum. Published 1889 in Life and Labour of the People in London. The red areas are "middle class, well-to-do", light blue areas are "poor, 18s to 21s a week for a moderate family", dark blue areas are "very poor, casual, chronic want", and black areas are the "lowest class...occasional labourers, street sellers, loafers, criminals and semi-criminals".

Boundary Estate
Boundary Estate
bandstand was built on the rubble from the clearance of the Old Nichol' slum.

During the 19th century, building on an adhoc basis could never keep up with the needs of the expanding population. Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
visited Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
in 1850 and wrote for the Morning Chronicle, as a part of a series forming the basis for London Labour and the London Poor (1851), that the trades in the area included tailors, costermongers, shoemakers, dustmen, sawyers, carpenters, cabinet makers and silkweavers. He noted that in the area:

roads were unmade, often mere alleys, houses small and without foundations, subdivided and often around unpaved courts. An almost total lack of drainage and sewerage was made worse by the ponds formed by the excavation of brickearth. Pigs and cows in back yards, noxious trades like boiling tripe, melting tallow, or preparing cat's meat, and slaughter houses, dustheaps, and 'lakes of putrefying night soil' added to the filth —  Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
London Labour and London Poor (1851), [21]

A movement began to clear the slums – with Burdett-Coutts building Columbia Market in 1869 and with the passing of the "Artisans' and Labourers' Dwelling Act" in 1876 to provide powers to seize slums from landlords and provide access to public funds to build new housing.[22] Housing associations such as the Peabody Trust
Peabody Trust
were formed to provide philanthropic homes for the poor and clearing the slums generally. Expansion work by the railway companies, such as the London and Blackwall Railway and Great Eastern Railway, caused large areas of slum housing to be demolished. The "Working Classes Dwellings Act" in 1890 placed a new responsibility to house the displaced residents and this led to the building of new "philanthropic housing" such as Blackwall Buildings and Great Eastern Buildings.[23] By 1890 official slum clearance programmes had begun. One was the creation of the world's first council housing, the LCC Boundary Estate, which replaced the neglected and crowded streets of Friars Mount, better known as The Old Nichol
Old Nichol
Street Rookery.[24] Between 1918 and 1939 the LCC continued replacing East End housing with five or six storey flats, despite residents preferring houses with gardens and opposition from shopkeepers who were forced to relocate to new, more expensive premises. The Second World War brought an end to further slum clearance.[25] Industry and built environment[edit]

West India Docks
West India Docks
by Pugin and Rowlandson from Ackermann's Microcosm of London, or, London in Miniature (1808-11)

Industries associated with the sea developed throughout the East End, including rope making and shipbuilding. The former location of roperies can still be identified from their long straight, narrow profile in the modern streets, for instance Ropery Street near Mile End. Shipbuilding was important from the time when Henry VIII
Henry VIII
caused ships to be built at Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
as a part of his expansion of the Royal Navy. On 31 January 1858, the largest ship of that time, the SS Great Eastern, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was launched from the yard of Messrs Scott Russell & Co, of Millwall. The 692-foot (211 m) vessel was too long to fit across the river, and so the ship had to be launched sideways. Due to the technical difficulties of the launch, after this, shipbuilding on the Thames
Thames
went into a long decline.[26] Ships continued to be built at the Thames
Thames
Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company at Blackwall and Canning Town
Canning Town
until the yard closed in 1913, shortly after the launch of the Dreadnought Battleship HMS Thunderer (1911).

The Howlett photo of Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
against the launching chains of the Great Eastern at Millwall
Millwall
in 1857

Minories station on the LBR, c. 1840. Winding drums and Cooke-Wheatstone "needle" telegraph shown in left foreground

The West India Docks
West India Docks
were established in 1803, providing berths for larger ships and a model for future London dock building. Imported produce from the West Indies
West Indies
was unloaded directly into quayside warehouses. Ships were limited to 6000 tons.[27] The old Brunswick Dock, a shipyard at Blackwall became the basis for the East India Company's East India Docks
East India Docks
established there in 1806.[28] The London Docks
London Docks
were built in 1805, and the waste soil and rubble from the construction was carried by barge to west London, to build up the marshy area of Pimlico. These docks imported tobacco, wine, wool and other goods into guarded warehouses within high walls (some of which still remain). They were able to berth over 300 sailing vessels simultaneously, but by 1971 they closed, no longer able to accommodate modern shipping.[29] The most central docks, St Katharine Docks, were built in 1828 to accommodate luxury goods, clearing the slums that lay in the area of the former Hospital of St Katharine. They were not successful commercially, as they were unable to accommodate the largest ships, and in 1864, management of the docks was amalgamated with that of the London Docks.[30] The Millwall
Millwall
Docks were created in 1868, predominantly for the import of grain and timber. These docks housed the first purpose built granary for the Baltic grain market, a local landmark that remained until it was demolished to improve access for the London City Airport.[31] The first railway ('The Commercial Railway') to be built, in 1840, was a passenger service based on cable haulage by stationary steam engines that ran the 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from Minories to Blackwall on a pair of tracks. It required 14 miles (22.5 km) of hemp rope, and 'dropped' carriages as it arrived at stations, which were reattached to the cable for the return journey, and the train 'reassembling' itself at the terminus.[32] The line was converted to standard gauge in 1859, and steam locomotives adopted. The building of London termini at Fenchurch Street (1841),[33] and Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
(1840) provided access to new suburbs across the River Lea, again resulting in the destruction of housing and increased overcrowding in the slums. After the opening of Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
(1874), Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
railway station became a goods yard, in 1881, to bring imports from Eastern ports. With the introduction of containerisation, the station declined, suffered a fire in 1964 that destroyed the station buildings, and it was finally demolished in 2004 for the extension of the East London
East London
Line. In the 19th century, the area north of Bow Road became a major railway centre for the North London
North London
Railway, with marshalling yards and a maintenance depot serving both the City and the West India docks. Nearby Bow railway station
Bow railway station
opened in 1850 and was rebuilt in 1870 in a grand style, featuring a concert hall. The line and yards closed in 1944, after severe bomb damage, and never reopened, as goods became less significant, and cheaper facilities were concentrated in Essex.[34] The River Lea
River Lea
was a smaller boundary than the Thames, but it was a significant one. The building of the Royal Docks
Royal Docks
consisting of the Royal Victoria Dock
Royal Victoria Dock
(1855), able to berth vessels of up to 8000 tons;[35] Royal Albert Dock
Royal Albert Dock
(1880), up to 12,000 tons;[36] and King George V Dock (1921), up to 30,000 tons,[37] on the estuary marshes, extended the continuous development of London across the Lea into Essex
Essex
for the first time.[38] The railways gave access to a passenger terminal at Gallions Reach and new suburbs created in West Ham, which quickly became a major manufacturing town, with 30,000 houses built between 1871 and 1901.[39] Soon afterwards, East Ham
East Ham
was built up to serve the new Gas Light and Coke Company and Bazalgette's grand sewage works at Beckton.[40] From the mid-20th century, the docks declined in use and were finally closed in 1980, leading to the setting up of the London Docklands Development Corporation in 1981.[41] London's main port is now at Tilbury, further down the Thames
Thames
estuary, outside the boundary of Greater London. The dock had been established in 1886 to bring bulk goods by rail to London, but being nearer the sea and able to accommodate vessels of 50,000 tons, they were more easily converted to the needs of modern container ships in 1968, and so they survived the closure of the inner docks.[42] Various wharves along the river continue to be in use but on a much smaller scale. Politics and social reform[edit]

William Booth
William Booth
founded the Salvation Army, in Whitechapel, in 1878

At the end of the 17th century large numbers of Huguenot
Huguenot
weavers arrived in the East End, settling to service an industry that grew up around the new estate at Spitalfields, where master weavers were based. They brought with them a tradition of 'reading clubs', where books were read, often in public houses. The authorities were suspicious of immigrants meeting and in some ways they were right to be as these grew into workers' associations and political organisations. Towards the middle of the 18th century the silk industry fell into a decline – partly due to the introduction of printed calico cloth – and riots ensued. These 'Spitalfield Riots' of 1769 were actually centred to the east and were put down with considerable force, culminating in two men being hanged in front of the Salmon and Ball public house at Bethnal Green. One was John Doyle (an Irish weaver), the other John Valline (of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent).[43] In 1844, "An Association for promoting Cleanliness among the Poor" was established, and it built a bath-house and laundry in Glasshouse Yard, East Smithfield. This cost a single penny for bathing or washing and by June 1847 was receiving 4,284 people a year. This led to an Act of Parliament to encourage other municipalities to build their own and the model spread quickly throughout the East End. Timbs noted that "... so strong was the love of cleanliness thus encouraged that women often toiled to wash their own and their children's clothing, who had been compelled to sell their hair to purchase food to satisfy the cravings of hunger".[44] William Booth
William Booth
began his 'Christian Revival Society' in 1865, preaching the gospel in a tent erected in the 'Friends Burial Ground', Thomas Street, Whitechapel. Others joined his 'Christian Mission', and on 7 August 1878 the Salvation Army
Salvation Army
was formed at a meeting held at 272 Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Road.[45] A statue commemorates both his mission and his work in helping the poor. Dubliner Thomas John Barnardo
Thomas John Barnardo
came to the London Hospital, Whitechapel
Whitechapel
to train for medical missionary work in China. Soon after his arrival in 1866 a cholera epidemic swept the East End killing 3,000 people. Many families were left destitute, with thousands of children orphaned and forced to beg or find work in the factories. In 1867, Barnardo set up a Ragged School
Ragged School
to provide a basic education but was shown the many children sleeping rough. His first home for boys was established at 18 Stepney Causeway in 1870. When a boy died after being turned away (the home was full), the policy was instituted that 'No Destitute Child Ever Refused Admission'.[46] In 1884, the Settlement movement
Settlement movement
was founded, with settlements such as Toynbee Hall[47] and Oxford House, to encourage university students to live and work in the slums, experience the conditions and try to alleviate some of the poverty and misery in the East End. Notable residents of Toynbee Hall included R. H. Tawney, Clement Attlee, Guglielmo Marconi, and William Beveridge. The Hall continues to exert considerable influence, with the Workers Educational Association (1903), Citizens Advice Bureau
Citizens Advice Bureau
(1949) and Child Poverty
Poverty
Action Group (1965) all being founded or influenced by it.[48] In 1888, the matchgirls of Bryant and May in Bow went on strike for better working conditions. This, combined with the many dock strikes in the same era, made the East End a key element in the foundation of modern socialist and trade union organisations, as well as the Suffragette movement.[49] Towards the end of the 19th century, a new wave of radicalism came to the East End, arriving both with Jewish
Jewish
émigrés fleeing from Eastern European persecution, and Russian and German radicals avoiding arrest. A German émigré anarchist, Rudolf Rocker, began writing in Yiddish for Arbayter Fraynd (Workers' Friend). By 1912, he had organised a mass London garment workers' strike for better conditions and an end to 'sweating'.[50] Amongst the Russians
Russians
was fellow anarchist Peter Kropotkin who helped found the Freedom Press in Whitechapel. Afanasy Matushenko, one of the leaders of the Potemkin mutiny, fled the failure of the Russian Revolution of 1905
Russian Revolution of 1905
to seek sanctuary in Stepney Green.[51] Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
and Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
attended meetings of the newspaper Iskra
Iskra
in 1903. in Whitechapel; and in 1907 Lenin and Joseph Stalin[52][53] attended the Fifth Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party held in a Hoxton
Hoxton
church. That congress consolidated the leadership of Lenin's Bolshevik
Bolshevik
faction and debated strategy for the communist revolution in Russia.[54] Trotsky noted, in his memoires, meeting Maxim Gorky
Maxim Gorky
and Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
at the conference.[55] By the 1880s, the casual system caused dock workers to unionise under Ben Tillett
Ben Tillett
and John Burns.[56] This led to a demand for '6d per hour' (The Docker's Tanner),[57] and an end to casual labour in the docks.[58] Colonel G. R. Birt, the general manager at Millwall
Millwall
Docks, gave evidence to a Parliamentary committee, on the physical condition of the workers:

The poor fellows are miserably clad, scarcely with a boot on their foot, in a most miserable state.... These are men who come to work in our docks who come on without having a bit of food in their stomachs, perhaps since the previous day; they have worked for an hour and have earned 5d. [2p]; their hunger will not allow them to continue: they take the 5d. in order that they may get food, perhaps the first food they have had for twenty-four hours. — Col. G. R. Birt, in evidence to the Parliamentary Committee (1889), [58]

These conditions earned dockers much public sympathy, and after a bitter struggle, the London Dock Strike of 1889
London Dock Strike of 1889
was settled with victory for the strikers, and established a national movement for the unionisation of casual workers, as opposed to the craft unions that already existed.

Lady Burdett-Coutts

The philanthropist Angela Burdett-Coutts was active in the East End, alleviating poverty by founding a sewing school for ex-weavers in Spitalfields
Spitalfields
and building the ornate Columbia Market in Bethnal Green. She helped to inaugurate the London Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, was a keen supporter of the 'Ragged School Union', and operated housing schemes similar to those of the Model Dwellings Companies such as the East End Dwellings Company
East End Dwellings Company
and the Four Per Cent Industrial Dwellings Company, where investors received a financial return on their philanthropy.[59] Between the 1890s and 1903, when the work was published, the social campaigner Charles Booth instigated an investigation into the life of London poor (based at Toynbee Hall), much of which was centred on the poverty and conditions in the East End.[60] Further investigations were instigated by the 'Royal Commission on the Poor Laws and Relief of Distress 1905-09', the Commission found it difficult to agree, beyond that change was necessary and produced separate minority and majority reports. The minority report was the work of Booth with the founders of the London School of Economics Sidney and Beatrice Webb. They advocated focusing on the causes of poverty and the radical notion of poverty being involuntary, rather than the result of innate indolence. At the time their work was rejected but was gradually adopted as policy by successive governments.[61]

Sylvia Pankhurst
Sylvia Pankhurst
1882–1960

Sylvia Pankhurst
Sylvia Pankhurst
became increasingly disillusioned with the suffragette movement's inability to engage with the needs of working class women, so in 1912 she formed her own breakaway movement, the East London
East London
Federation of Suffragettes. She based it at a baker's shop at Bow emblazoned with the slogan, "Votes for Women", in large gold letters. The local Member of Parliament, George Lansbury, resigned his seat in the House of Commons to stand for election on a platform of women's enfranchisement. Pankhurst supported him in this, and Bow Road became the campaign office, culminating in a huge rally in nearby Victoria Park. Lansbury was narrowly defeated in the election, however, and support for the project in the East End was withdrawn. Pankhurst refocused her efforts, and with the outbreak of the First World War, she began a nursery, clinic and cost price canteen for the poor at the bakery. A paper, the Women's Dreadnought, was published to bring her campaign to a wider audience. Pankhurst spent twelve years in Bow fighting for women's rights. During this time, she risked constant arrest and spent many months in Holloway Prison, often on hunger strike. She finally achieved her aim of full adult female suffrage in 1928, and along the way she alleviated some of the poverty and misery, and improved social conditions for all in the East End.[62] The alleviation of widespread unemployment and hunger in Poplar had to be funded from money raised by the borough itself under the Poor Law. The poverty of the borough made this patently unfair and lead to the 1921 conflict between government and the local councillors known as the Poplar Rates Rebellion. Council meetings were for a time held in Brixton prison, and the councillors received wide support.[63] Ultimately, this led to the abolition of the Poor Laws through the Local Government Act 1929. The General Strike had begun as a dispute between miners and their employers outside London in 1925. On 1 May 1926 the Trades Union Congress called out workers all over the country, including the London dockers. The government had had over a year to prepare and deployed troops to break the dockers' picket lines. Armed food convoys, accompanied by armoured cars, drove down the East India Dock Road. By 10 May, a meeting was brokered at Toynbee Hall to end the strike. The TUC were forced into a humiliating climbdown and the general strike ended on 11 May, with the miners holding out until November.[64] Second World War[edit]

Dornier Do 17
Dornier Do 17
bombers of the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
over West Ham
West Ham
on 7 September 1940. (Air Ministry photograph)

Hardest of all, the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
will smash Stepney. I know the East End! Those dirty Jews and Cockneys will run like rabbits into their holes. — [65], Germany Calling – Lord Haw-Haw, collaborator and broadcaster

Initially, the German commanders were reluctant to bomb London, fearing retaliation against Berlin. On 24 August 1940, a single aircraft, tasked to bomb Tilbury, accidentally bombed Stepney, Bethnal Green and the City. The following night the RAF
RAF
retaliated by mounting a forty aircraft raid on Berlin, with a second attack three days later. The Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
changed its strategy from attacking shipping and airfields to attacking cities. The City and West End were designated 'Target Area B'; the East End and docks were 'Target Area A'. The first raid occurred at 4:30 p.m. on 7 September and consisted of 150 Dornier and Heinkel bombers and large numbers of fighters. This was followed by a second wave of 170 bombers. Silvertown
Silvertown
and Canning Town bore the brunt of this first attack.[9] Between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941, a sustained bombing campaign was mounted. It began with the bombing of London for 57 successive nights,[66] an era known as 'the Blitz'. East London
East London
was targeted because the area was a centre for imports and storage of raw materials for the war effort, and the German military command felt that support for the war could be damaged among the mainly working class inhabitants. On the first night of the Blitz, 430 civilians were killed and 1,600 seriously wounded.[66] The populace responded by evacuating children and the vulnerable to the country[67] and digging in, constructing Anderson shelters in their gardens and Morrison shelters in their houses, or going to communal shelters built in local public spaces.[68] On 10 September 1940, 73 civilians, including women and children preparing for evacuation, were killed when a bomb hit the South Hallsville School. Although the official death toll is 73,[69] many local people believed it must have been higher. Some estimates say 400 or even 600 may have lost their lives during this raid on Canning Town.[70]

Children of an eastern suburb of London, made homeless by the Blitz

The effect of the intensive bombing worried the authorities and 'Mass-Observation' was deployed to gauge attitudes and provide policy suggestions,[71] as before the war they had investigated local attitudes to anti-Semitism.[72] The organisation noted that close family and friendship links within the East End were providing the population with a surprising resilience under fire. Propaganda was issued, reinforcing the image of the 'brave chirpy Cockney'. On the Sunday after the Blitz began, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
himself toured the bombed areas of Stepney and Poplar. Anti-aircraft installations were built in public parks, such as Victoria Park and the Mudchute on the Isle of Dogs, and along the line of the Thames, as this was used by the aircraft to guide them to their target. The authorities were initially wary of opening the London Underground for shelter, fearing the effect on morale elsewhere in London and hampering normal operations. On 12 September, having suffered five days of heavy bombing, the people of the East End took the matter into their own hands and invaded tube stations with pillows and blankets. The government relented and opened the partially completed Central line as a shelter. Many deep tube stations remained in use as shelters until the end of the war.[9] Aerial mines were deployed on 19 September 1940. These exploded at roof top height, causing severe damage to buildings over a wider radius than the impact bombs. By now, the Port of London
Port of London
had sustained heavy damage with a third of its warehouses destroyed, and the West India and St Katherine Docks had been badly hit and put out of action. Bizarre events occurred when the River Lea
River Lea
burned with an eerie blue flame, caused by a hit on a gin factory at Three Mills, and the Thames
Thames
itself burnt fiercely when Tate & Lyle's Silvertown
Silvertown
sugar refinery was hit.[9] On 3 March 1943 at 8:27 p.m., the unopened Bethnal Green Underground station was the site of a wartime disaster. Families had crowded into the underground station due to an air-raid siren at 8:17, one of 10 that day. There was a panic at 8:27 coinciding with the sound of an anti-aircraft battery (possibly the recently installed Z battery) being fired at nearby Victoria Park. In the wet, dark conditions, a woman slipped on the entrance stairs and 173 people died in the resulting crush. The truth was suppressed, and a report appeared that there had been a direct hit by a German bomb. The results of the official investigation were not released until 1946.[73] There is now a plaque at the entrance to the tube station, which commemorates the event as the "worst civilian disaster of World War II". The first V-1 flying bomb
V-1 flying bomb
struck in Grove Road, Mile End, on 13 June 1944, killing six, injuring 30, and making 200 people homeless.[19] The area remained derelict for many years until it was cleared to extend Mile End
Mile End
Park. Before demolition, local artist Rachel Whiteread
Rachel Whiteread
made a cast of the inside of 193 Grove Road. Despite attracting controversy, the exhibit won her the Turner Prize
Turner Prize
for 1993.[74]

Prefabricated post-war home at Chiltern Open Air Museum: Universal House, steel frame clad with corrugated asbestos cement

It is estimated that by the end of the war, 80 tons of bombs had fallen on the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
alone, affecting 21,700 houses, destroying 2,233 and making a further 893 uninhabitable. In Bethnal Green, 555 people were killed, and 400 were seriously injured.[25] For the whole of Tower Hamlets, a total of 2,221 civilians were killed, and 7,472 were injured, with 46,482 houses destroyed and 47,574 damaged.[75] So badly battered was the East End that when Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
was hit during the height of the bombing, Queen Elizabeth observed that "It makes me feel I can look the East End in the face."[76][77] By the end of the war, the East End was a scene of devastation, with large areas derelict and depopulated. War production was changed quickly to making prefabricated houses,[78] and many were installed in the bombed areas and remained common into the 1970s. Today, 1950s and 1960s architecture dominates the housing estates of the area such as the Lansbury Estate
Lansbury Estate
in Poplar, much of which was built as a show-piece of the 1951 Festival of Britain.[79] Outside perception and cockney identity[edit] Society at large viewed the East End with a mixture of suspicion and fascination with the use of the term East End in a pejorative sense beginning in the late 19th century,[80] as the expansion of the population of London led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants.[20] The problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks (1827)[81] and the central London railway termini (1840–1875) that caused the clearance of former slums and rookeries, with many of the displaced people moving into the East End. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.[9]

[The] invention about 1880 of the term 'East End' was rapidly taken up by the new halfpenny press, and in the pulpit and the music hall ... A shabby man from Paddington, St Marylebone
Marylebone
or Battersea might pass muster as one of the respectable poor. But the same man coming from Bethnal Green, Shadwell
Shadwell
or Wapping
Wapping
was an 'East Ender', the box of Keating's bug powder must be reached for, and the spoons locked up. In the long run this cruel stigma came to do good. It was a final incentive to the poorest to get out of the 'East End' at all costs, and it became a concentrated reminder to the public conscience that nothing to be found in the 'East End' should be tolerated in a Christian country. — The Nineteenth Century XXIV (1888), [82]

Internally the area generally took pride in a ‘ Cockney
Cockney
identity’, although this term has both a geographic and a linguistic connotation and as so often with London is hard to pin down. See also East End of London in popular culture. Geographic[edit] A traditional definition is that to be a Cockney, one had to be born within the sound of Bow Bells, situated in Cheapside. In general, the sound pattern would cover most of the City, and parts of the near East End such as Aldgate
Aldgate
and Whitechapel, but it is unlikely that the bells would have been heard in the docklands. In practice, with Royal London the only maternal hospital nearby, few would today be born within earshot. In practice people from all over the East End, inner East London
East London
and occasionally beyond self-identify as Cockneys. Linguistic[edit] The linguistic use of Cockney
Cockney
is more identifiable, with lexical borrowings from Yiddish, Romani, and costermonger slang, and a distinctive accent that features T-glottalization, a loss of dental fricatives and diphthong alterations, amongst others. The accent is said to be a remnant of early English London speech, modified by the many immigrants to the area.[83] The Cockney
Cockney
accent has suffered a long decline, beginning with the introduction in the 20th century of received pronunciation, the more recent adoption of Estuary
Estuary
English, which itself contains many features of Cockney
Cockney
English, and finally with mass immigration that has made native English speakers a minority in the area[84] Cockney
Cockney
English is spoken widely in the East End, wider East London and more widely in traditionally working-class areas across London. There is a Cockney
Cockney
derivative called Estuary
Estuary
English, heavily influenced by Cockney
Cockney
and which is named after the Thames
Thames
Estuary
Estuary
area where the movement of East Londoners to south Essex
Essex
and to a lesser extent parts on north Kent led it to be widely spoken in those areas. As well as the concentration of speakers around the estuary the form of speech can be heard less commonly in various other places around the Home Counties. Within London Cockney
Cockney
speech is, to a significant degree, being replaced by Multicultural London English, a form of speech with a significant Cockney
Cockney
influence. Population[edit]

Brick Lane
Brick Lane
has been a centre for new immigration through the centuries (Sep 2005)

Further information: Ethnic groups in London

The Billingsgate Fish Market
Billingsgate Fish Market
in the early 19th century

Throughout history the area has absorbed waves of immigrants, who have each added a new dimension to the culture and history of the area, most notably the French Protestant
Protestant
Huguenots in the 17th century,[2] the Irish in the 18th century,[3] Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
fleeing pogroms in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
towards the end of the 19th century,[4] and the Sylheti Bangladeshis[5] community settling in the East End from the 1960s. Immigration[edit]

The East London
East London
Mosque was one of the first in Britain to be allowed to use loudspeakers to broadcast the adhan.[85]

Immigrant
Immigrant
communities first developed in the riverside settlements. From the Tudor era until the 20th century, ships' crews were employed on a casual basis. New and replacement crew would be found wherever they were available, local sailors being particularly prized for their knowledge of currents and hazards in foreign ports. Crews would be paid off at the end of their voyage. Inevitably, permanent communities became established, including colonies of Lascars and Africans
Africans
from the Guinea Coast. Large Chinatowns at both Shadwell
Shadwell
and Limehouse developed, associated with the crews of merchantmen in the opium and tea trades. It was only after the devastation of the Second World War that this predominantly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
community relocated to Soho.[86] In 1786, the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor
Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor
was formed by citizens concerned at the size of London's indigent Black population, many of whom had been expelled from North America as Black Loyalists — former slaves who had fought on the side of the British in the War of Independence. Others were discharged sailors and some a legacy of British involvement in the slave trade. The committee distributed food, clothing, medical aid and found work for men, from various locations including the White Raven tavern in Mile End.[87] They also helped the men to go abroad, some to Canada. In October 1786, the Committee funded an ill-fated expedition of 280 black men, 40 black women and 70 white women (mainly wives and girlfriends) to settle in Sierra Leone.[88] From the late 19th century, a large African mariner community was established in Canning Town
Canning Town
as a result of new shipping links to the Caribbean and West Africa.[89] Immigrants
Immigrants
have not always been readily accepted and in 1517 the Evil May Day riots, where foreign-owned property was attacked, resulted in the deaths of 135 Flemings
Flemings
in Stepney. The Gordon Riots
Gordon Riots
of 1780 began with burnings of the houses of Catholics and their chapels in Poplar and Spitalfields.[90]

Anti-immigration poster, from 1902

In the 1870 and 80s, so many Jewish
Jewish
émigrés were arriving that over 150 synagogues were built. Today there are only four active synagogues remaining in Tower Hamlets: the Congregation of Jacob Synagogue (1903 – Kehillas Ya'akov), the East London
East London
Central Synagogue (1922), the Fieldgate Street Great Synagogue
Fieldgate Street Great Synagogue
(1899) and Sandys Row Synagogue (1766).[91] Jewish
Jewish
immigration to the East End peaked in the 1890s, leading to anti-foreigner agitation by the British Brothers League, formed in 1902 by Captain William Stanley Shaw and the Conservative MP for Stepney, Major Evans-Gordon, who had overturned a Liberal majority in the 1900 General Election on a platform of limiting immigration. In Parliament in 1902, Evans-Gordon claimed that "not a day passes but English families are ruthlessly turned out to make room for foreign invaders. The rates are burdened with the education of thousands of foreign children."[92] Jewish
Jewish
immigration only slowed with the passing of the Aliens Act 1905, which gave the Home Secretary
Home Secretary
powers to regulate and control immigration.[93] At the beginning of the 20th century, London was the capital of the extensive British Empire, which contained tens of millions of Muslims, but had no mosque for Muslim residents or visitors. On 9 November 1910, at a meeting of Muslims and non-Muslims at the Ritz Hotel, the London Mosque Fund was established with the aims of organising weekly Friday prayers and providing a permanent place of worship for Muslims in London.[94] From 1910 to 1940 various rooms had been hired for Jumu'ah
Jumu'ah
prayers on Fridays. Finally, in 1940, three houses were purchased at 446–448  Commercial Road
Commercial Road
in the East End of London as a permanent place of prayer. On 2 August 1941 the combined houses were inaugurated as the East London
East London
Mosque and Islamic Culture Centre at a ceremony attended by the Egyptian Ambassador, Colonel Sir Gordon Neal (representing the Secretary of State for India). The first prayer was led by the Ambassador for Saudi Arabia, Shaikh Hafiz Wahba.[95] From the late 1950s the local Muslim population began to increase due to further immigration from the Indian subcontinent, particularly from Sylhet
Sylhet
in East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971. The migrants settled in areas already established by the Sylheti expatriate community, working in the local docks and Jewish
Jewish
tailoring shops set up in the days of British India.[96] During the 1970s, this immigration increased significantly. In 1975 the local authority bought the properties in Commercial Road
Commercial Road
under a compulsory purchase order, in return providing a site with temporary buildings on Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Road. The local community set about raising funds to erect a purpose-built mosque on the site. King Fahd of Saudi Arabia
Fahd of Saudi Arabia
donated £1.1 million of the £2 million fund,[97] and the governments of Kuwait
Kuwait
and Britain also donated to the fund.[98] Seven years later, the building of the new mosque commenced, with foundations laid in 1982 and construction completed in 1985. It was one of the first mosques in the European Union to broadcast the adhan from the minaret using loudspeakers. Currently, the mosque has a capacity of 7,000, with prayer areas for men and women, and classroom space for supplementary education. However, by the 1990s the capacity was already insufficient for the growing congregation and for the range of projects based there.[99] Community tensions were again raised by an anti-semitic Fascist march that took place in 1936 and was blocked by residents and activists at the Battle of Cable Street.[100] From the mid-1970s anti-Asian violence occurred,[101] culminating in the murder on 4 May 1978 of a 25-year-old clothing worker named Altab Ali
Altab Ali
by three white teenagers in a racially motivated attack. Bangladeshi groups mobilised for self-defence, 7,000 people marched to Hyde Park in protest, and the community became more politically involved.[102] The former churchyard of St Mary's Whitechapel, near where the attack took place, was renamed " Altab Ali
Altab Ali
Park" in 1998 as a commemoration of his death. Inter-racial tension has continued with occasional outbreaks of violence and in 1993 there was a council seat win for the British National Party (since lost).[103] A 1999 bombing in Brick Lane
Brick Lane
was part of a series that targeted ethnic minorities, gays and "multiculturalists".[104] Out migration: the Cockney
Cockney
diaspora[edit] As London extended east, East Enders often moved to opportunities in the new suburbs. The late 19th century saw a very major movement of people to West Ham[39] and East Ham[40] to service the new docks and industries established there. There were very significant attempts to address overcrowded housing which began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London County Council. In the inter-war period, migration occurred to new estates built to alleviate conditions in the East End, in particular at Becontree
Becontree
and Harold Hill, or out of London entirely. The Second World War devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target for bombing, especially during the Blitz, leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs and new housing being built in the 1950s.[9] Many East Enders went further than the eastern suburbs, leaving London altogether, notably to the Essex
Essex
new towns of Basildon
Basildon
and Harlow
Harlow
and a number of expanded towns in south Essex
Essex
and elsewhere. Demographics[edit] The population of the East End increased inexorably throughout the 19th century. House building could not keep pace and overcrowding was rife. It was not until the interwar period that there was a decline caused by migration to new London suburbs like the Becontree
Becontree
estate, built by the London County Council
London County Council
between 1921 and 1932, and to areas outside London.[105] This depopulation accelerated after the Second World War and has only recently begun to reverse. These population figures reflect the area that now forms the London Borough of Tower Hamlets only:

Borough 1811[106] 1841[106] 1871[106] 1901[107] 1931[107] 1961[107] 1971[108] 1991[109] 2001[110]

Bethnal Green 33,619 74,088 120,104 129,680 108,194 47,078 n/a n/a n/a

Poplar 13,548 31,122 116,376 168,882 155,089 66,604

Stepney 131,606 203,802 275,467 298,600 225,238 92,000

Total 178,773 309,012 511,947 597,102 488,611 205,682 169,626 161,064 196,106

By comparison, in 1801 the population of England and Wales was 9 million; by 1851 it had more than doubled to 18 million, and by the end of the century had reached 40 million.[19] Today, Bangladeshis form the largest minority population in Tower Hamlets, constituting 33.5% of the borough's population at the 2001 census; the Bangladeshi community there is the largest such community in Britain.[111] The 2006 estimates show a decline in this group to 29.8% of the population, reflecting a movement to better economic circumstances and the larger houses available in the eastern suburbs.[112] In this, the latest group of migrants are following a pattern established for over three centuries. Crime[edit] Further information: Crime in London

The Gabriel Franks of the Marine Support Unit
Marine Support Unit
of the Metropolitan Police, named after the first marine police officer killed in the line of duty

The high levels of poverty in the East End have, throughout history, corresponded with a high incidence of crime. From earliest times, crime depended, as did labour, on the importing of goods to London, and their interception in transit. Theft occurred in the river, on the quayside and in transit to the City warehouses. This was why, in the 17th century, the East India Company built high-walled docks at Blackwall and had them guarded to minimise the vulnerability of their cargoes. Armed convoys would then take the goods to the company's secure compound in the City. The practice led to the creation of ever-larger docks throughout the area, and large roads to drive through the crowded 19th century slums to carry goods from the docks.[9] No police force operated in London before the 1750s. Crime and disorder were dealt with by a system of magistrates and volunteer parish constables, with strictly limited jurisdiction. Salaried constables were introduced by 1792, although they were few in number and their power and jurisdiction continued to derive from local magistrates, who in extremis could be backed by militias. In 1798, England's first Marine Police Force
Marine Police Force
was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott, to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London
Pool of London
and the lower reaches of the river. Its base was (and remains) in Wapping
Wapping
High Street. It is now known as the Marine Support Unit.[113] In 1829, the Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
Force was formed, with a remit to patrol within 7 miles (11 km) of Charing Cross, with a force of 1,000 men in 17 divisions, including 'H' division, based in Stepney. Each division was controlled by a superintendent, under whom were four inspectors and sixteen sergeants. The regulations demanded that recruits should be under thirty-five years of age, well built, at least 5-foot-7-inch (1.70 m) in height, literate and of good character.[114] Unlike the former constables, the police were recruited widely and financed by a levy on ratepayers; so they were initially disliked. The force took until the mid-19th century to be established in the East End. Unusually, Joseph Sadler Thomas, a Metropolitan Police superintendent of 'F' (Covent Garden) Division, appears to have mounted the first local investigation (in Bethnal Green), in November 1830 of the London Burkers.[115] A specific Dockyard division of the Metropolitan force was formed to assume responsibility for shore patrols within the docks in 1841,[116] a detective department was formed in 1842, and in 1865, "J" division was established in Bethnal Green.[114]

William Hogarth's depiction of London vice, Gin Lane
Gin Lane
(1751).

One of the East End industries that serviced ships moored off the Pool of London was prostitution, and in the 17th century, this was centred on the Ratcliffe Highway, a long street lying on the high ground above the riverside settlements. In 1600, it was described by the antiquarian John Stow
John Stow
as 'a continual street, or filthy straight passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages builded, inhabited by sailors and victuallers.' Crews were 'paid off' at the end of a long voyage, and would spend their earnings on drink in the local taverns.[117] One madame described as 'the great bawd of the seamen' by Samuel Pepys was Damaris Page. Born in Stepney in approximately 1610, she had moved from prostitution to running brothels, including one on the Highway that catered for ordinary seaman and a further establishment nearby that catered for the more expensive tastes amongst the officers and gentry. She died wealthy, in 1669, in a house on the Highway, despite charges being brought against her and time spent in Newgate Prison.[117][118] By the 19th century, an attitude of toleration had changed, and the social reformer William Acton described the riverside prostitutes as a 'horde of human tigresses who swarm the pestilent dens by the riverside at Ratcliffe and Shadwell'. The 'Society for the Suppression of Vice' estimated that between the Houndsditch, Whitechapel
Whitechapel
and Ratcliffe areas there were 1803 prostitutes; and between Mile End, Shadwell
Shadwell
and Blackwall 963 women in the trade. They were often victims of circumstance, there being no welfare state and a high mortality rate amongst the inhabitants that left wives and daughters destitute, with no other means of income.[119] At the same time, religious reformers began to introduce 'Seamans' Missions' throughout the dock areas that sought both to provide for seafarer's physical needs and to keep them away from the temptations of drink and women. Eventually, the passage of the 'Contagious Diseases Act' in 1864 allowed policemen to arrest prostitutes and detain them in hospital. The act was repealed in 1886, after agitation by early feminists, such as Josephine Butler
Josephine Butler
and Elizabeth Wolstenholme, led to the formation of the Ladies National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts.[120] Notable crimes in the area include the Ratcliff Highway murders (1813);[121] the killings committed by the London Burkers
London Burkers
(apparently inspired by Burke and Hare) in Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
(1831);[122] the notorious serial killings of prostitutes by Jack the Ripper[49] (1888); and the Siege of Sidney Street
Siege of Sidney Street
(1911) (in which anarchists, inspired by the legendary Peter the Painter, took on Home Secretary Winston Churchill, and the army).[123] In the 1960s the East End was the area most associated with gangster activity, most notably that of the Kray twins.[124] The 1996 Docklands bombing caused significant damage around South Quay Station, to the south of the main Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
development. Two people were killed and thirty-nine injured in one of Mainland Britain's biggest bomb attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[125] This led to the introduction of police checkpoints controlling access to the Isle of Dogs, reminiscent of the City's 'ring of steel'. Disasters[edit]

1878 drawing. The Bywell Castle
Bywell Castle
bears down upon the Princess Alice.

Many disasters have befallen the residents of the East End, both in war and in peace. In particular, as a maritime port, plague and pestilence have disproportionately fallen on the residents of the East End. The area most afflicted by the Great Plague (1665) was Spitalfields,[126] and cholera epidemics broke out in Limehouse
Limehouse
in 1832 and struck again in 1848 and 1854.[90] Typhus
Typhus
and tuberculosis were also common in the crowded 19th century tenements. The Princess Alice was a passenger steamer crowded with day trippers returning from Gravesend to Woolwich
Woolwich
and London Bridge. On the evening of 3 September 1878, she collided with the steam collier Bywell Castle
Bywell Castle
(named for Bywell Castle) and sank into the Thames
Thames
in under four minutes. Of the approximately 700 passengers, over 600 were lost.[127] During the First World War, the morning of 13 June 1917 was the first ever daylight air-raid over the East End which in total killed 104 people. Sixteen of the dead were 5 and 6 year olds who were sitting in their class room at Upper North Street School, Poplar when the bomb hit. The memorial which still stands today in Poplar Recreation Ground was built by A.R. Adams, a local funeral director at the time. Also, on 19 January 1917, 73 people died, including 14 workers, and more than 400 were injured, in a TNT explosion in the Brunner-Mond munitions factory in Silvertown. Much of the area was flattened, and the shock wave was felt throughout the city and much of Essex. This was the largest explosion in London history, and was heard in Southampton
Southampton
and Norwich. Andreas Angel, chief chemist at the plant, was posthumously awarded the Edward Medal
Edward Medal
for trying to extinguish the fire that caused the blast.[128] The same year, on 13 June, a bomb from a German Gotha bomber killed 18 children in their primary school in Upper North Street, Poplar. This event is commemorated by the local war memorial erected in Poplar Recreation Ground,[129][130] but during the war a total of 120 children and 104 adults were killed in the East End by aerial bombing, with many more injured.[131] Another tragedy occurred on the morning of 16 May 1968 when Ronan Point, a 23-storey tower block in Newham, suffered a structural collapse due to a natural gas explosion. Four people were killed in the disaster and seventeen were injured, as an entire corner of the building slid away. The collapse caused major changes in UK building regulations and led to the decline of further building of high rise council flats that had characterised 1960s public architecture.[132] Entertainment[edit]

Curtain Theatre, c. 1600 (some sources identify this as a depiction of The Theatre, the other Elizabethan theatre in Shoreditch)

Inn-yard theatres were first established in the Tudor period, with the Boar's Head Inn (1557) in Whitechapel, the George in Stepney and a purpose built, but short lived, John Brayne's Red Lion Theatre (1567), nearby.[133] The first permanent theatres with resident companies were constructed in Shoreditch, with James Burbage's The Theatre
The Theatre
(1576) and Henry Lanman's Curtain Theatre
Curtain Theatre
(1577) standing close together. On the night of 28 December 1598 Burbage's sons dismantled The Theatre, and moved it piece by piece across the Thames
Thames
to construct the Globe Theatre.[134] The Goodman's Fields Theatre was established in 1727, and it was here that David Garrick
David Garrick
made his successful début as Richard III, in 1741. In the 19th century the theatres of the East End rivalled in their grandiosity and seating capacity those of the West End. The first of this era was the ill-fated Brunswick Theatre (1828), which collapsed three days after opening, killing 15 people. This was followed by the opening of the Pavilion Theatre, Whitechapel
Whitechapel
(1828), the Garrick (1831) in Leman Street, the Effingham (1834) in Whitechapel, the Standard (1835) in Shoreditch, the City of London
City of London
(1837) in Norton Folgate, then the Grecian and the Britannia Theatre
Britannia Theatre
in Hoxton (1840).[135] Though very popular for a time, from the 1860s onwards these theatres, one by one, began to close, the buildings were demolished and their very memory began to fade.[136]

1867 Poster from the National Standard Theatre, Shoreditch

There were also many Yiddish
Yiddish
theatres, particularly around Whitechapel. These developed into professional companies, after the arrival of Jacob Adler in 1884 and the formation of his 'Russian Jewish
Jewish
Operatic Company' that first performed in Beaumont Hall,[137] Stepney, and then found homes both in the Prescott Street Club, Stepney, and in Princelet Street in Spitalfields.[138] The Pavilion became an exclusively Yiddish
Yiddish
theatre in 1906, finally closing in 1936 and being demolished in 1960. Other important Jewish
Jewish
theatres were Feinmans, The Jewish
Jewish
National Theatre and the Grand Palais. Performances were in Yiddish, and predominantly melodrama.[91] These declined, as audience and actors left for New York and the more prosperous parts of London.[139] The once popular music halls of the East End have mostly met the same fate as the theatres. Prominent examples included the London Music Hall (1856–1935), 95-99 Shoreditch
Shoreditch
High Street, and the Royal Cambridge Music Hall (1864–1936), 136 Commercial Street. An example of a 'giant pub hall', Wilton's Music Hall
Wilton's Music Hall
(1858), remains in Grace's Alley, off Cable Street
Cable Street
and the early 'saloon style' Hoxton
Hoxton
Hall (1863) survives in Hoxton
Hoxton
Street, Hoxton.[140] Many popular music hall stars came from the East End, including Marie Lloyd. The music hall tradition of live entertainment lingers on in East End public houses, with music and singing. This is complemented by less respectable amusements such as striptease, which, since the 1950s has become a fixture of certain East End pubs, particularly in the area of Shoreditch, despite being a target of local authority restraints.[141]

Hoxton
Hoxton
Hall, still an active community resource and performance space

Novelist and social commentator Walter Besant
Walter Besant
proposed a 'Palace of Delight'[142] with concert halls, reading rooms, picture galleries, an art school and various classes, social rooms and frequent fêtes and dances. This coincided with a project by the philanthropist businessman, Edmund Hay Currie to use the money from the winding up of the 'Beaumont Trust',[143] together with subscriptions to build a 'People's Palace' in the East End. Five acres of land were secured on the Mile End
Mile End
Road, and the Queen's Hall was opened by Queen Victoria on 14 May 1887. The complex was completed with a library, swimming pool, gymnasium and winter garden, by 1892, providing an eclectic mix of populist entertainment and education. A peak of 8000 'tickets' were sold for classes in 1892, and by 1900, a Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree awarded by the University of London
University of London
was introduced.[144] In 1931, the building was destroyed by fire, but the Draper's Company, major donors to the original scheme, invested more to rebuild the technical college and create Queen Mary's College in December 1934.[145] A new 'People's Palace' was constructed, in 1937, by the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney, in St Helen's Terrace. This finally closed in 1954.[146] Professional theatre returned briefly to the East End in 1972, with the formation of the Half Moon Theatre in a rented former synagogue in Aldgate. In 1979, they moved to a former Methodist
Methodist
chapel, near Stepney Green
Stepney Green
and built a new theatre on the site, opening in May 1985, with a production of Sweeney Todd. The theatre enjoyed success, with premières by Dario Fo, Edward Bond
Edward Bond
and Steven Berkoff, but by the mid-1980s, the theatre suffered a financial crisis and closed. After years of disuse, it has been converted to a public house.[147] The theatre spawned two further arts projects: the Half Moon Photography Workshop, exhibiting in the theatre and locally, and from 1976 publishing Camerwork,[148] and the 'Half Moon Young People's Theatre', which remains active in Tower Hamlets.[149] The football team followed by many East End people is West Ham
West Ham
United, founded in 1895 as Thames
Thames
Ironworks. The 'other' East London
East London
clubs are Leyton Orient, and to a lesser extent Dagenham and Redbridge, but rather than rivalry, there is some overlap of support. Millwall
Millwall
F.C. originally played in the area of that name on the Isle of Dogs, but moved south of the Thames
Thames
in 1910. 20th and early 21st centuries[edit]

Redevelopment of Isle of Dogs

Historically, the East End has suffered from under-investment in both housing stock and infrastructure. From the 1950s, the East End represented the structural and social changes affecting the UK economy in a microcosm. The area had one of the highest concentrations of council housing, the legacy both of slum clearance and wartime destruction.[150] The progressive closure of docks, cutbacks in railways and the closure and relocation of industry contributed to a long-term decline, removing many of the traditional sources of low- and semi-skilled jobs. However, beginning with the LDDC, in the 1980s, there have been a number of urban regeneration projects, most notably Canary Wharf, a huge commercial and housing development on the Isle of Dogs. Many of the 1960s tower blocks have been demolished or renovated, replaced by low-rise housing, often in private ownership, or owned by housing associations.[151] The area around Old Spitalfields
Spitalfields
Market and Brick Lane
Brick Lane
called "London's curry capital"[152] has been extensively regenerated and, amongst other things, has been dubbed as Bangla Town.[153] The contribution of Bangladeshi people to British life was recognised in 1998, when Pola Uddin, Baroness Uddin
Pola Uddin, Baroness Uddin
of Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
became the first Bangladeshi-born Briton to enter the House of Lords, and the first Muslim peer to swear her oath of allegiance in the name of her own faith. Her glory was short-lived as she was investigated and suspended from the House of Lords
House of Lords
for an expenses scandal, in which she was found guilty of offences.[154] The area is also home to a number of commercial and public art galleries; including the newly expanded Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Gallery. The artists Gilbert and George
Gilbert and George
have long made their home and workshop in Spitalfields,[155] and the neighbourhood around Hoxton
Hoxton
Square has become a centre for modern British art, including the White Cube gallery, with many artists from the Young British Artists
Young British Artists
movement living and working in the area. This has made the area around Hoxton and Shoreditch
Shoreditch
fashionable, with many former residents now driven out by higher property prices, and a busy nightlife has developed, with over 80 licensed premises around Shoreditch.[156] By the mid-1980s, both the District line
District line
(extended to the East End in 1884 and 1902)[157] and Central line (1946)[158] were running beyond their capacity, and the Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
(1987) and Jubilee line (1999) were constructed to improve rail communications through the riverside district. There was a long-standing plan to provide London with an inner motorway box, the East Cross Route. Apart from a short section, this was never built,[159] but road communications were improved by the completion of the Limehouse
Limehouse
Link tunnel under Limehouse
Limehouse
Basin in 1993 and the extension of the A12 connecting to the Blackwall Tunnel
Blackwall Tunnel
with an upgraded carriageway in the 1990s. The extension of the East London
East London
line to the north, on the border between Islington and Hackney, provided further travel links in 2010. From 2017, Crossrail
Crossrail
line 1 is expected to create a fast railway service across London, from east to west, with a major interchange at Whitechapel. New river crossings are planned at Beckton, (the Thames Gateway Bridge)[160] and the proposed Silvertown
Silvertown
Link road tunnel, to supplement the existing Blackwall Tunnel.[161]

The Olympic Park in April 2012

The 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
and Paralympics were held in an Olympic Park created on former industrial land around the River Lea. It is intended that this should leave a legacy of new sports facilities, housing, and industrial and technical infrastructure that will further help regenerate the area.[6] This is linked to a new Stratford International station in the Newham, and the future Stratford City development.[162] Also in Newham is London City Airport, built in 1986 in the former King George V Dock, a small airport serving short-haul domestic and European destinations. In the same area, the University of East London
East London
has developed a new campus which provided the United States Olympic Team its training base during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.[163] The Queen Mary campus has expanded into new accommodation both adjacent to its existing site at Mile End, and with specialist medical campuses at the Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel and at Charterhouse Square
Charterhouse Square
in the City. Whitechapel
Whitechapel
is the base for the London Air Ambulance, and the hospital's clinical facilities are undergoing a £1 billion refurbishment and expansion.[164] Much of the area remains, however, one of the poorest in Britain. This is in spite of rising property prices and the extensive building of luxury apartments centred largely around the former dock areas and alongside the Thames. With rising costs elsewhere in the capital and the availability of brownfield land, the East End has become a desirable place for business.[7]

Popular culture[edit] Main article: East End of London
East End of London
in popular culture Further information: East End Literature

Gus Elen, The Coster's Mansion, 1899 sheet music

The East End has been the subject of parliamentary commissions and other examinations of social conditions since the 19th century, as seen in Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor
London Labour and the London Poor
(1851)[165] and Charles Booth's Life and Labour of the People in London
Life and Labour of the People in London
(third, expanded edition 1902-3, in 17 volumes).[60] Arthur Morrison's novel A Child of the Jago (1896) is set in Bethnal Green, and recounts the story of a boy growing up in a slum surrounding Arnold Circus.[166] Narrative accounts of experiences amongst the East End poor were also written by Jack London
Jack London
in The People of the Abyss
The People of the Abyss
(1903), by George Orwell in parts of his novel Down and Out in Paris and London, recounting his own experiences in the 1930s, as well as the Jewish writer Emanuel Litvinoff
Emanuel Litvinoff
in his autobiographical novel Journey Through a Small Planet set in the 1930s. A further detailed study of Bethnal Green was carried out in the 1950s by sociologists Michael Young and Peter Willmott, in Family and Kinship in East London.[167] Themes from these social investigations have been drawn out in fiction.[8] Crime, poverty, vice, sexual transgression, drugs, class-conflict and multi-cultural encounters and fantasies involving Jewish, Chinese and Indian immigrants are major themes. Though the area has been productive of local writing talent, from the time of Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray
The Picture of Dorian Gray
(1891) the idea of 'slumming it' in the 'forbidden' East End has held a fascination for a coterie of the literati.[168] The image of the East Ender changed dramatically between the 19th century and the 20th. From the 1870s they were characterised in culture as often shiftless, untrustworthy and responsible for their own poverty.[167] However, many East Enders worked in lowly but respectable occupations such as carters, porters and costermongers. This latter group particularly became the subject of music hall songs at the turn of the 20th century, with performers such as Marie Lloyd, Gus Elen
Gus Elen
and Albert Chevalier
Albert Chevalier
establishing the image of the humorous East End Cockney
Cockney
and highlighting the conditions of ordinary workers.[169] This image, buoyed by close family and social links and the community's fortitude in the war, came to be represented in literature and film. However, with the rise of the Kray twins
Kray twins
in the 1960s the dark side of East End character returned with a new emphasis on criminality and gangsterism. The success of Jennifer Worth's memoir Call the Midwife (2002, reissued 2007), which became a major best-seller and was adapted by the BBC
BBC
into their most popular new programme since the current ratings system began,[170] has led to a high level of interest in true-life stories from the East End. Melanie McGrath's Silvertown (2003), about her grandmother's life in the East End, was also a best-seller, as was the follow-up Hopping, about the annual East Enders' 'holiday' hop-picking in Kent.[171] A raft of similar books was published in the 2000s, among them Gilda O'Neill's best-selling Our Street (2004),[172] Piers Dudgeon's Our East End (2009), Jackie Hyam's Bombsites and Lollipops (2011) and Grace Foakes' Four Meals for Fourpence (reprinted 2011). In 2012, HarperCollins
HarperCollins
published The Sugar Girls, a book which tells the true stories of women working at Tate & Lyle's factories in Silvertown
Silvertown
since 1944. The authors commented that many of the East Enders they interviewed were unhappy with the way their neighbourhoods had previously been portrayed in books and on screen – as squalid and criminal, in the Dickensian vein,[173] and as a result they were keen to emphasise the positive aspects of East End life and community.[174] 2012 also saw the publication of Spitalfields
Spitalfields
Life, a book adapted from the very successful blog of the same name, in which 'the gentle author' (who is anonymous) writes about, and celebrates, the lives of the men and women who live and work in the East End community of Spitalfields.[175] See also[edit]

London portal

West End of London Historical immigration to Great Britain Arrival of black immigrants in London History of Bangladeshi immigrants in London History of Bangladeshis in the United Kingdom

Museums of local history:

Island History Trust Museum of London Docklands Ragged School
Ragged School
Museum V&A Museum of Childhood

References[edit]

^ The New Oxford Dictionary of English
The New Oxford Dictionary of English
(1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X – p.582 "East End the part of London east of the City as far as the River Lea, including the Docklands". ^ a b Bethnal Green: Settlement and Building to 1836, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
(1998), pp. 91–5. Date accessed: 17 April 2007 ^ a b Irish in Britain John A. Jackson, p. 137–9, 150 (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964) ^ a b The Jews, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1: Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, The Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes to 1870, Private Education from Sixteenth Century (1969), pp. 149–51. Date accessed: 17 April 2007 ^ a b The Spatial Form of Bangladeshi Community in London's East End Iza Aftab (UCL) (particularly background of Bangladeshi immigration to the East End). Date accessed: 17 April 2007 ^ a b Olympic Park: Legacy (London 2012) accessed 20 September 2007 Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Chris Hammett Unequal City: London in the Global Arena (2003) Routledge ISBN 0-415-31730-4 ^ a b Newland, Paul (2008). The Cultural Construction of London's East End. Rodopi.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The East End Alan Palmer, (John Murray, London 1989) ISBN 0-7195-5666-X ^ Fishman (1998) defines the boundaries as being Tower Hamlets and the southern part of the London Borough of Hackney
London Borough of Hackney
(ie Shoreditch). ^ Richard Tames, East End Past (2004), treats the area as coextensive with Tower Hamlets, while acknowledging that this excludes parts of the London Borough of Hackney, such as Shoreditch
Shoreditch
and Hoxton, which many would regard as belonging to the East End. ^ Tony Blair lived in Dalston, Hackney and referred to the area as being in the 'East End' https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/aug/02/tony-blair-faith-foundation-short-film ^ a b c d "Londoners Over the Border", in Household Words Charles Dickens 390 Archived 24 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. 12 September 1857 (Newham archives) accessed 18 September 2007 ^ Jack London, The People of the Abyss
The People of the Abyss
(1903).

The People of the Abyss
The People of the Abyss
at Project Gutenberg

^ Stepney, Old and New London: Volume 2 (1878), pp. 137-142 accessed: 17 November 2007 ^ Houses of Cistercian
Cistercian
monks: Abbey of Stratford Langthorne, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 2 (1907), pp. 129-133 accessed: 30 April 2008. ^ Stepney: Manors and Estates, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
(1998), pp. 19-52 accessed: 20 November 2007 ^ The ancient parish of Barking: Introduction, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (1966), pp. 184-190 accessed: 20 November 2007 ^ a b c What lies beneath ... East End of London
East End of London
Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. East London
East London
History Society accessed 5 October 2007 ^ a b From 1801 to 1821, the population of Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
more than doubled and by 1831 had trebled (see table in population section). These newcomers were principally weavers. For further details, see Andrew August Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work, and Poverty
Poverty
in Late-Victorian London pp 35-6 (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999) ISBN 0-8386-3807-4 ^ 'Bethnal Green: Building and Social Conditions from 1837 to 1875', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 120-26 accessed: 14 November 2006. ^ Hovels to High Rise: State Housing in Europe Since 1850 Anne Power (Routeledge, 1993) ISBN 0-415-08935-2 ^ The estate of Sir Charles Wheler and the Wilkes family, Survey of London: volume 27: Spitalfields
Spitalfields
and Mile End
Mile End
New Town Great Eastern Buildings (1957), pp. 108-115. Retrieved 17 May 2008 ^ Walks Through History: Exploring the East End, Taylor, Rosemary (Breedon Books 2001) ISBN 1-85983-270-9 ^ a b Bethnal Green: Building and Social Conditions from 1915 to 1945, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 132-135 accessed: 10 October 2007 ^ Building the Great Eastern Port Cities: London. Retrieved 17 April 2007 ^ West India Docks
West India Docks
(1803–1980) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ East India Docks
East India Docks
(1806–1967) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ London Docks
London Docks
(1805–1971) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ St Katharine Docks
St Katharine Docks
(1828–1969) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Millwall
Millwall
Docks (1868–1980) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Our Home Railways (Volume 2) W.J. Gordon (1910, Frederick Warne & Co, London) ^ Basildon's Railway Stations Basildon
Basildon
History On-line. Retrieved 23 October 2007 ^ Bow Disused stations, site record, Subterranea Britannica. Retrieved 23 October 2007 ^ Royal Victoria Dock
Royal Victoria Dock
(1855–1981) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Royal Albert Dock
Royal Albert Dock
(1880–1980) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ King George V Dock (1921–1981) Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Royal Docks
Royal Docks
– a short History Royal Docks
Royal Docks
Trust (2006) accessed 18 September 2007 ^ a b West Ham: Introduction, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 6 (1973), pp. 43-50 accessed: 23 February 2008 ^ a b Becontree
Becontree
hundred: East Ham, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 6 (1973), pp. 1-8 18 September 2007 ^ The London Docklands
London Docklands
Development Corporation 1981–1998 (2007) LDDC accessed 18 September 2007 ^ Tilbury
Tilbury
Dock (1886–1981) Port Cities:London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ The Spitalfields
Spitalfields
Riots 1769 Archived 22 August 2004 at the Wayback Machine. London Metropolitan Archives accessed on 10 November 2006 ^ Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable John Timbs, pp. 33 (London, 1855) ^ 1868 Foundation Deed Of The Salvation Army
Salvation Army
Archived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ( Salvation Army
Salvation Army
history) accessed 15 February 2007 ^ History of Barnardo's Homes Archived 29 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (Barnardo's 2007) accessed 29 May 2007 ^ Toynbee Hall, named for Arnold Toynbee
Arnold Toynbee
was founded in 1884 in Commercial Street as a centre for social reform by Samuel and Henrietta Barnett
Henrietta Barnett
with support from Balliol and Wadham College, Oxford; its work continues today. ^ Toynbee Hall Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (Spartacus Educational) accessed 26 September 2007 ^ a b East End 1888 William Fishman (Duckworth 1998) ISBN 0-7156-2174-2 ^ East End Jewish
Jewish
Radicals 1875–1914 William J Fishman (Five Leaves Publications, 2004) ISBN 0-907123-45-7 ^ The Battleship Potemkin and Stepney Green
Stepney Green
Archived 13 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ( East London
East London
History Society) accessed on 10 November 2006 ^ Stalin, Man of the Borderlands Alfred J. Rieber Archived 1 August 2012 at Archive.is
Archive.is
The American Historical Review, 106.5 December 2001 (The History Cooperative) ^ Lenin stayed in Bloomsbury. Stalin, then known as Joseph Djugashvili, was the delegate from Tbilisi. He did not speak at the conference, and did not refer to it in his own memoires. An account of the conference under his name appeared in the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
newspaper Bakinskii proletarii (but was excised from the second edition of his collected works). He stayed in Tower House, a hostel for itinerant workers near the London Hospital, for two weeks, paying sixpence a night for a cubicle. Jack London
Jack London
and George Orwell, in their respective periods, also stayed at the hostel writing on the poor conditions. Today, the hostel provides luxury housing for City workers. (see Guardian, below) ^ Luxury beckons for East End's house of history Mark Gould and Jo Revill 24 October 2004 The Guardian
The Guardian
accessed 25 February 2007 ^ Chapter 16: My Second Foreign Exite: German Socialism Trotsky, Leon My Life (Charles Schribner's Sons, New York, 1930) Marxist Internet Archive. Retrieved 27 February 2008 ^ John Burns
John Burns
is commemorated in the name given to a current Woolwich Ferry. ^ 2½p in modern coinage ^ a b The Great Dock Strike of 1889 Archived 19 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Smith and Nash, The Story of the Dockers' Strike (1889) in London Docklands
London Docklands
History for GCSE. Retrieved 18 September 2007 ^ Social Policy: From the Victorians to the Present Day Susan Morris (LSE seminars) accessed 10 November 2006 ^ a b Life and Labour of the People in London
Life and Labour of the People in London
(London: Macmillan, 1902–1903) at The Charles Booth on-line archive accessed 10 November 2006 ^ The Webbs: Beatrice (1858–1943) and Sidney (1859–1947) Archived 25 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (The history of the LSE) accessed 15 November 2007 ^ Barbara Castle, Sylvia and Christabel Pankhurst (Penguin Books, 1987) ISBN 0-14-008761-3 ^ Poplarism, 1919-25: George Lansbury
George Lansbury
and the Councillors' Revolt Noreen Branson (Lawrence & Wishart, 1980) ISBN 0-85315-434-1 ^ Breaking the General Strike ( East London
East London
History Society) accessed 15 November 2007 ^ From Here to Obscurity Yoel Sheridan (Tenterbooks, 2001) ISBN 0-9540811-0-2 ^ a b The weather closed in on the night of 2 November 1940, otherwise London would have been bombed for 76 successive nights. Docklands at War – The Blitz
The Blitz
The Museum of London Docklands
London Docklands
accessed 27 February 2008 ^ An earlier planned evacuation had been met with intense distrust in the East End, families preferring to remain united and in their own homes (see Palmer, 1989). ^ The man responsible for the shelter programme was Charles Kay MP, London's Joint Regional Commissioner, and a former councillor and Mayor of Poplar. Elected on a pro-war ticket within the first 30 weeks of war (see Palmer, 1989, p. 139) ^ Andrew Swinney (17 February 2003). "HISTORY TOUR – Disaster! 2". Webapps.newham.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.  ^ Remembering the East End:The Second World War Age-exchange accessed 14 November 2007 ^ Mass-Observation Archive: Topic Collections:Air Raids 1938-45 (Box TC23/9/T) University of Sussex, special collections accessed 15 November 2007 ^ Mass-Observation Archive: Topic Collections:Anti-Semitism survey 1939-51 University of Sussex, special collections accessed 15 November 2007 ^ Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
tube disaster ( BBC
BBC
Homeground) accessed 15 February 2007 Archived 13 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Best and worst of art bites the dust Archived 6 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Roberts, Alison The Times, London, 12 January 1994 accessed 5 October 2007 ^ The East End at War Rosemary Taylor and Christopher Lloyd (Sutton Publishing, 2007) ISBN 0-7509-4913-9 ^ "Biography of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother". BritainExpress. Retrieved 13 February 2007.  ^ Jennifer Wilding. "The Will to Fight". On War. Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2007.  ^ Pre-fabricated housing was constructed under the auspices of the Burt Committee and the Housing (Temporary Accommodation) Act 1944. ^ The Lansbury Estate: Introduction and the Festival of Britain exhibition, Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs
Isle of Dogs
(1994), pp. 212-23 accessed: 18 September 2007 ^ Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names A Mills (2001) ^ By the early 19th century, over 11,000 people were crammed into insanitary slums in an area, which took its name from the former Hospital of St Catherine that had stood on the site since the 12th century. ^ The Nineteenth Century XXIV (1888) p.292; in East End 1888 William Fishman (1998) p.1 ^ Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language Ed. Tom McArthur (Oxford University Press, 2005) ^ Estuary
Estuary
English David Rosewarne Times Educational Supplement, (19 October 1984) accessed 20 November 2007 ^ Eade, John (1996). "Nationalism, Community, and the Islamization of Space in London". In Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 223–224. ISBN 0520204042. Retrieved 19 April 2015. As one of the few mosques in Britain permitted to broadcast calls to prayer (azan), the mosque soon found itself at the center of a public debate about “noise pollution” when local non-Muslim residents began to protest.  ^ London's First Chinatown
Chinatown
Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 May 2007 ^ Further relief was distributed at the Yorkshire Stingo, on the south side of Marylebone
Marylebone
Road, with other centres of black poor being the rookery of Seven Dials and Marylebone. ^ Braidwood, Stephen Black Poor and White Philanthropists: London's Blacks and the Foundation of the Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Settlement 1786–1791 (Liverpool University Press, 1994) ^ Geoffrey Bell, The other Eastenders : Kamal Chunchie and West Ham's early black community (Stratford: Eastside Community Heritage, 2002) ^ a b London from the Air Archived 1 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. East London
East London
History Society accessed 5 July 2007 ^ a b Exploring the vanishing Jewish
Jewish
East End London Borough of Tower Hamlets accessed 9 June 2016 ^ Dispersing the Myths about Asylum Helen Shooter, March 2003 ( Socialist
Socialist
Review) accessed 1 October 2007 ^ Aliens Act 1905
Aliens Act 1905
(5 Edward VII
Edward VII
c.13) (UK Government Acts) available online at Moving Here ^ Humayun Ansari, ed. (30 June 2011). The Making of the East London Mosque, 1910-1951: Minutes of the London Mosque Fund and East London Mosque Trust Ltd (Camden Fifth Series). Cambridge University Press. ASIN 1107014921.  ^ History. East London
East London
Mosque. Retrieved on 12 September 2007. ^ Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields
Spitalfields
1660–2000 Anne J. Kershen, 2005, ISBN 0-7146-5525-2 ^ Metcalf, Barbara (1996). Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. University of California Press. p. 219. ISBN 0520204042.  ^ Kibria, Nazli (1996). Muslims in Motion: Islam and National Identity in the Bangladeshi Diaspora. Rutgers University Press. p. 103. ISBN 0813550556.  ^ New East London
East London
Mosque development opens doors before Ramadan East London Advertiser ^ Day the East End said 'No pasaran' to Blackshirts by Audrey Gillan, The Guardian, 30 September 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2007 ^ Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
and Stepney Trades Council Blood on the Streets (report published 1978) ^ Troyna, Barry and Carrington, Bruce Education, Racism and Reform pp. 30–31 (Taylor & Francis, 1990) ISBN 0-415-03826-X ^ On this day report BBC
BBC
accessed: 17 April 2007 ^ Life sentence for London nailbomber Archived 3 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine., The Job, published by the London Metropolitan Police, 30 June 2000; accessed: 17 April 2007 ^ Metropolitan Essex
Essex
since 1919: Suburban growth, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (1966), pp. 63-74 accessed: 18 October 2007 ^ a b c Population data for Civil Parishes Statistical Abstract for London Vol IV ( London County Council
London County Council
1901) ^ a b c A vision of Britain between 1801 and 2001. Including maps, statistical trends and historical descriptions Vision of Britain – Population data: Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
Archived 25 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Metropolitan Borough of Poplar Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Metropolitan Borough of Stepney Archived 24 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Vision of Britain(Tower Hamlets District Population) accessed 21 September 2017 ^ 1991 Census top 50 urban areas and constituent parts, UK Office of National Statistics accessed 9 March 2016 ^ Neighbourhood Statistics Archived 14 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. – LB Tower Hamlets statistics (National Statistics) accessed 22 February 2008 ^ 2001 Census (29 April 2001). "Census 2001 Profiles — Tower Hamlets". National Statistics Online. Retrieved 26 March 2009.  ^ Bangladeshi population estimates Archived 13 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. – Tower Hamlets Neighbourhood Statistics (Office for National Statistics). (13 July 2006). Retrieved 27 March 2009. ^ History of the Marine Support Unit
Marine Support Unit
Archived 16 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (Metropolitan Police) accessed 24 January 2007 ^ a b Records of Service Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (Metropolitan Police) accessed 23 October 2007 ^ Early Murder Investigations The Official Encyclopaedia of Scotland Yard, accessed 23 October 2007 ^ History of the Metropolitan Police: Time Line 1829–1849 Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (Metropolitan Police) accessed 23 October 2007 ^ a b Prostitution
Prostitution
in maritime London Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Faramerz Dabhoiwala, "Damaris page" (c.1610–1669), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, (2004) online edition (subscription only) ^ 19th century responses to prostitution Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Prostitution
Prostitution
in maritime London Port Cities: London. Retrieved 29 September 2007 ^ Ratcliffe Highway Murders ( Thames
Thames
Police Museum) accessed 15 February 2007 ^ Sarah Wise – The Italian Boy: A Tale of Murder and Body Snatching in 1830s London (Metropolitan Books, 2004) ISBN 0-8050-7537-2 ^ The Houndsditch Murders and the Siege of Sidney Street, Donald Rumbelow, ISBN 0-491-03178-5 ^ Inside the Firm: The Untold Story of the Krays' Reign of Terror Tony Lambrianou (Pan Books 2002) ISBN 0-330-49014-1 ^ Statement in Lord's Northern Ireland debate The Lord Privy Seal (Viscount Cranborne) 12 February 1996 (Lord's Hansard, UK Parliament) accessed 26 September 2007 ^ Plague deaths measured at more than 3000 deaths per 478 sq yards in Spitalfields
Spitalfields
in 1665 (source: London from the Air) ^ Princess Alice Disaster Thames
Thames
Police Museum accessed 19 September 2007 ^ The Silvertown
Silvertown
Explosion: London 1917 Graham Hill and Howard Bloch (Stroud: Tempus Publishing 2003). ISBN 0-7524-3053-X. ^ The Poplar War Memorial is an exclusively civilian memorial, reflecting the pacifism of the Mayor Will Crooks
Will Crooks
and local MP George Lansbury. ^ East London
East London
in Mourning (Peace Pledge Union) accessed 2 April 2007 ^ The East End at War, East London
East London
History Society accessed 14 November 2007 ^ Collapse: Why Buildings Fall Down Phil Wearne (Channel 4 books) ISBN 0-7522-1817-4 ^ Red Lion Theatre, Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Christopher Phillpotts (CrossRail Documentary Report, prepare by MoLAS) Archived 1 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. accessed 17 November 2007 ^ William Shakespeare: A Compact Documentary Life Samuel Schoenbaum (Oxford University Press, 1987) ISBN 0-19-505161-0 ^ Haycroft, Jack Adams and the troupe moved to Hoxton
Hoxton
from premises in Shoreditch, that had operated from the early 1830s, The Making of the Britannia Theatre
Britannia Theatre
Alan D. Craxford and Reg Moore, from Sam and Sallie: A novel of the theatre Alfred L. Crauford, (London: Cranley and Day 1933) Archived 23 July 2012 at Archive.is
Archive.is
accessed 22 September 2007 ^ Theatre in the Victorian Age Michael Booth (CUP 1991) pp. 4-6 ^ Yiddish
Yiddish
Theatre and music hall in London: 1880–1905 The Jewish Museum (2004) accessed on 31 March 2007 ^ A Life on the Stage: A Memoir Jacob Adler translated and with commentary by Lulla Rosenfeld, (Knopf NY 1999) ISBN 0-679-41351-0 ^ The end of Yiddish
Yiddish
theatre Archived 8 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine. East London
East London
History Society accessed on 29 April 2007 ^ The Last Empires: A Music Hall Companion ed. Benny Green (London, Pavilion Books Ltd. in association with Michael Joseph Ltd., 1986) ^ Lara Clifton Baby Oil and Ice: Striptease
Striptease
in East London (DoNotPress, 2002) ISBN 1-899344-85-3 ^ In Walter Besant
Walter Besant
All Sorts and Conditions of Men (1882) ^ In 1841, John Barber Beaumont
John Barber Beaumont
died and left property in Beaumont Square, Stepney to provide for the 'education and entertainment' of people from the neighbourhood. The charity – and its property – was becoming moribund by the 1870s, and in 1878 it was wound up by the Charity Commissioners, providing its new chair, Sir Edmund Hay Currie, with £120,000 to invest in a similar project. He raised a further £50,000 and secured continued funding from the Draper's Company for ten years (The Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Society, below) ^ From Palace to College – An illustrated account of Queen Mary College G. P. Moss and M. V. Saville pp. 39-48 (University of London 1985) ISBN 0-902238-06-X ^ The People's Palace Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. The Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Society (2006). Retrieved 5 July 2007 ^ Origins and History Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Queen Mary, University of London
University of London
Alumni Booklet (2005) accessed 5 July 2007 ^ Royal Holloway Half Moon Theatre archive Archives in M25. Retrieved 23 October 2007 ^ British Photography 1945-80: Part 4: Britain in the 70s The New York Times online. Retrieved 23 May 2007 Archived 26 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ About Us Half Moon Young People's Theatre accessed 23 October 2007 ^ Poverty, Housing Tenure and Social Exclusion Peter Lee and Alan Murie, (The Policy Press in association with the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1997) ISBN 1-86134-063-X ^ Housing associations, also known as registered social landlords, active in the East End, include: BGVPHA ( Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
and Victoria Park Housing Association), Tower Hamlets Community Housing, Poplar HARCA and EastendHomes. ^ " Brick Lane
Brick Lane
Named 'Curry Capital 2012′". Londonist. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.  ^ The taste of Banglatown Paul Barker 13 April 2004 The Guardian accessed 18 September 2007 ^ Bangladeshi London (Exploring 20th century London) accessed 26 March 2009 ^ Gilbert & George: The Complete Pictures, Rudi Fuchs (Tate Publishing, 2007) ISBN 978-1-85437-681-7 ^ Draft Statement of Licensing Policy (s5.2) – London Borough of Hackney (2007) ^ District line
District line
facts Transport for London
Transport for London
accessed 23 October 2007 ^ An extended history of the Central line Archived 14 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. TfL
TfL
accessed 23 October 2007 ^ East Cross Route
East Cross Route
Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (Chris's British Road Directory) accessed 23 October 2007 ^ Thames
Thames
Gateway Bridge Transport Projects in London (alwaystouchout) accessed 20 July 2007 ^ Silvertown
Silvertown
Link Transport Projects in London (alwaystouchout) accessed 20 July 2007 ^ Webster, Ben (21 April 2006). "Ghost train station that cost £210 m". The Times. London. Retrieved 24 July 2007.  ^ "University of East London
East London
Olympic Partnerships". Archived from the original on 23 September 2010.  ^ Ben Bradshaw, written Parliamentary answer, Hansard
Hansard
3 September 2007 accessed 18 September 2007 ^ Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor
London Labour and the London Poor
(London: Griffin, Bohn, and Company, Stationers' Hall Court) in Volume 1 (1861) Archived 22 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Volume 2 Archived 26 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Volume 3 Archived 22 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine., and an additional Volume (1862) Archived 22 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine. all accessed 14 November 2007 ^ Glinert, Ed (6 August 2015). East End Chronicles. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780141982366.  ^ a b Family and Kinship in East London
East London
Michael Young and Peter Willmott (1957) ISBN 978-0-14-020595-4 ^ William Taylor (2001) This Bright Field: A Travel Book in One Place ^ Vaudeville, Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America pp 351-2, Frank Cullen, Florence Hackman, Donald P. McNeilly (Routledge 2006) ISBN 0-415-93853-8 accessed 22 October 2007 ^ "Call the Midwife series ends on ratings high". BBC
BBC
News. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ "Hopping by Melanie McGrath". HarperCollins. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ "East End chronicler Gilda O'Neill dies". The Guardian. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ "Oral History & Creative Non-Fiction: Telling the Lives of the Sugar Girls". History Workshop Online. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ "Call The Midwife". The Sugar Girls
The Sugar Girls
blog. 19 February 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ "Book Review: Spitalfields
Spitalfields
Life By The Gentle Author". Londonist. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article name needed". Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

Further reading[edit]

Black, Gerry (2003). Jewish
Jewish
London: An Illustrated History. Derby: Breedon. ISBN 1-85983-363-2.  Fishman, William J. (1988). East End 1888: a year in a London borough among the labouring poor. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2174-2.  Fishman, William J. (1979). The Streets of East London. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-1416-9.  (with photographs by Nicholas Breach) Gerzina, Gretchen (1995). Black London: life before emancipation. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers UP. ISBN 0-8135-2259-5.  Glendinning, Nigel; Griffiths, Joan; Hardiman, Jim; Lloyd, Christopher; Poland, Victoria (2001). Changing Places: a short history of the Mile End
Mile End
Old Town RA area. London: Mile End
Mile End
Old Town Residents' Association. ISBN 0-9541171-0-7.  Marriott, John (2012). Beyond the Tower: A History of East London. Padstow, Cornwall: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300187750.  Morris, Derek (2007). Mile End
Mile End
Old Town, 1740–1780: a social history of an early modern London Suburb (2nd ed.). London: East London History Society. ISBN 978-0-9506258-6-7.  Palmer, Alan (1989). The East End. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5666-X.  Tames, Richard (2004). East End Past. London: Historical Publications. ISBN 978-0-948667-94-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for London/East End.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to East End of London.

The East End of London
East End of London
on h2g2 Jewish
Jewish
East End of London Stepney and Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
Victoria County History of Middlesex Vol 11 East London
East London
History

v t e

Sub-regions of London

NUTS 2

Inner London Outer London

Boundary Commission

North London South London

London Plan

Sub-regions used in the London Plan

Other

Central London Docklands East End South Bank Thames
Thames
Gateway (London Riverside Lower Lea Valley) West End

Mayor of London, (April 2009), A new plan for London: Proposals for the Mayor's London Plan, (PDF; 1,4 MB), Greater London
Greater London
Authority, ISBN=978-1-84781-249-0

Coordinates: 51°31′N 0°03′W / 51.517°N 0.050°W / 51

.