Coordinates: 30°N 125°E / 30°N 125°E / 30; 125
China Sea, showing surrounding regions, islands, cities, and
1. Dōng Hǎi
2. Dōng Zhōngguó Hǎi
1. ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄞˇ
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ
1. ton平 he上
2. ton平 tson平 koh入 he上
1. dung24 hoi31
2. dung24 dung24 gued2 hoi31
1. dung1 hoi2
2. dung1 zung1 gwok3 hoi2
2. tong tiong-kok hái
2. dĕ̤ng dṳ̆ng-guók hāi
(literally "East Shina Sea")
Higashi Shina Kai
Sea is a marginal sea east of China. The East
is a part of the
Pacific Ocean and covers an area of roughly 1,249,000
square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). To the east lies the
Japanese islands of
Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, to the south, lies
China Sea, and to the west by the Asian continent. The sea
connects with the
Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan (East Sea) through the
Korea Strait and
opens to the north into the
Yellow Sea (West Sea). The countries which
border the sea include South Korea, Japan,
Taiwan and China.
1.3 Islands and reefs
Sea in astronomy
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Sea is a part of the
Pacific Ocean and covers an area
of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). It
is bounded on the east by
Kyūshū and the
Ryukyu Islands of Japan, on
the south by the South
China Sea, and on the west by the Asian
continent. It connects with the
Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan through the Korea Strait;
it opens in the north to the Yellow Sea.
Countries with borders on the sea (clockwise from north) include:
South Korea, Japan, Republic of
China (Taiwan) and the People's
Republic of China.
International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the
Sea (Tung Hai)" as follows:
On the South.
The Northern limit of the
South China Sea
South China Sea [From Fuki Kaku the North
Kiushan Tao (Turnabout Island) on to the South
point of Haitan Tao (25°25' N) and thence Westward on the parallel of
25°24' North to the coast of Fukien], thence from Santyo the
Northeastern point of
Formosa to the West point of Yonakuni Island and
thence to Haderuma Sima (24°03′ N, 123°47′ E).
On the East.
From Haderuma Sima a line including the Miyako Retto to the East point
of Miyako Sima and thence to Okinan Kaku, the Southern extremity of
Okinawa Sima through this island to Ada-Ko Sima (Sidmouth Island) on
to the East point of Kikai Sima (28°20' N) through Tanegra Sima
(30°30' N) to the North point thereof and on to Hi-Saki (31°17' N)
On the North.
From Nomo Saki (32°35' N) in
Kyusyu to the South point of Hukae Sima
(Goto Retto) and on through this island to Ose Saki (Cape Goto) and to
Hunan Kan, the South point of Saisyu To (Quelpart), through this
island to its Western extreme and thence along the parallel of 33°17'
North to the mainland.
On the West.
The mainland of China.
Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) is the largest river flowing into the
Islands and reefs
Sea coast in Cangnan County, Zhejiang
Senkaku Islands (Japanese) or Diaoyu Islands (Chinese). Disputed.
There is a cluster of submerged reefs in the northern East
Socotra Rock, also called Suyan Rock or Ieodo, a subject of an EEZ
dispute between the People's Republic of
China and South Korea.
Hupijiao Rock (虎皮礁)
Yajiao Rock (鸭礁)
The sea is called the East
Sea in Chinese (東海; Dōng Hǎi), being
one of the
Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are three other
seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions.
Until World War II, the sea was referred to as 東支那海 (Higashi
Shina Kai; "East Shina Sea") in Japanese. In 2004, official documents
Japanese Foreign Ministry
Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched to the
name 東シナ海 (pronounced the same), which has become the standard
usage in Japan.
Common usage in Indonesia refers to the sea as Laut Cina Timur (East
China Sea). This name was used officially by the Indonesian government
until 2014, when Indonesia switched usage from the word Cina to
Tiongkok instead; since then, the name Laut Tiongkok Timur become
standard usage in Indonesia. Despite this, many Indonesian media
outlets and publications continue to use the former sea name.
American whaleships cruised for right whales in the sea between 1849
Main article: East
There are disputes between the People's Republic of
South Korea over the extent of their respective exclusive
economic zones (EEZ).
The dispute between the PRC and
Japan concerns the different
application of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea (UNCLOS), which both nations have ratified.
China and Japan
both claim 200 nautical miles
EEZ rights, but the East
is only 360 nautical miles.
China proposed the application of
UNCLOS, considering the natural prolongation of its continental shelf,
advocating that the
EEZ extends as far as the Okinawa Trough.
Its Ministry of Foreign Affairs has stated that "the natural
prolongation of the continental shelf of
China in the East
extends to the
Okinawa Trough and beyond 200 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of
measured," which is applicable to the relevant UNCLOS provisions
that support China's right to the natural shelf. In 2012, China
presented a submission under the UNCLOS concerning the outer limits of
the continental shelf to the UN. However,
Japan claims about
40,000 square kilometers part of this territory as its own
it is within 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its coast, and thus
proposed the Median line division of the EEZ.
View of East
Sea from Yeliou, Taiwan
In 1995, the People's Republic of
China (PRC) discovered an undersea
natural gas field in the East
China Sea, namely the
field, which lies within the Chinese
Japan believes it
is connected to other possible reserves beyond the median line.
Japan has objected to PRC development of natural gas resources in the
Sea near the area where the two countries Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) claims overlap. The specific development in
dispute is the PRC's drilling in the
Chunxiao gas field, which is
located in undisputed areas on China's side, three or four miles
(6 km) west of the median line proposed by Japan.
that although the
Chunxiao gas field rigs are on the PRC side of a
median line that Tokyo regards as the two sides' sea boundary, they
may tap into a field that stretches underground into the disputed
Japan therefore seeks a share in the natural gas resources.
The gas fields in the Xihu Sag area in the East
Baoyunting, Chunxiao, Duanqiao, Wuyunting, and Tianwaitian) are
estimated to hold proven reserves of 364 BCF of natural gas.
Commercial operations began 2006. In June 2008, both sides agreed to
jointly develop the
Chunxiao gas fields, but they have never been
able to agree on how to execute the plan.
Rounds of disputes about island ownership in the East
triggered both official and civilian protests between
The dispute between PRC and
South Korea concerns Socotra Rock, a
submerged reef on which
South Korea has constructed the Ieodo Ocean
Research Station. While neither country claims the rock as territory,
the PRC has objected to Korean activities there as a breach of its EEZ
Sea in astronomy
Sea (Donghai in Chinese) is represented with the
Eta Serpentis in asterism Left Wall, Heavenly Market enclosure
(see Chinese constellation).
Geography of China
Geography of Japan
Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Islands in Chinese)
Sea of Japan
^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (PDF) (3rd ed.). Monaco: International
Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 33.
Special Publication No.
23. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
^ Chang, Chun-shu (2007). The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Nation,
State, and Imperialism in Early China, ca. 1600 B.C. – A.D. 8.
University of Michigan Press. pp. 263–264.
^ Ocmulgee, of Holmes Hole, Feb. 10-Mar. 27, 1849, Old Dartmouth
Historical Society (ODHS); Covington, of Warren, Feb. 26-Mar. 21,
1854, Nicholson Whaling Collection (NWC); Florida, of Fairhaven, Mar.
15-Apr. 7, 1860, in Old Whaling Family (Williams, 1964); John and
Winthrop, of San Francisco, Feb. 22-Mar. 31, 1890, ODHS; Cape Horn
Pigeon, of New Bedford, Feb. 18-Apr. 14, 1892, Kendall Whaling Museum
^ James Manicom, Bridging Troubled Waters: China, Japan, and Maritime
Order in the East
Sea (Georgetown University Press; 2014)
^ Koo, Min Gyo (2009). Island Disputes and Maritime Regime Building in
East Asia. Springer. pp. 182–183.
^ a b "Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands". Globalsecurity.org.
^ a b c Wang, Yuanyuan (2012). "
China to submit outer limits of
continental shelf in East
Sea to UN". Xinhua. Archived from the
original on 2013-12-08.
^ a b Guo, Rongxing (2006). Territorial disputes and resource
management: A global handbook. New York: Nova Science Pub Inc.
p. 104. ISBN 9781600214455.
China reports to UN outer limits of continental shelf in East China
Sea". Global Times. 2012. Archived from the original on
^ Yu, Runze (2012). "
China reports to UN outer limits of continental
shelf in E.
China Sea". SINA English. Archived from the original on
^ "Diplomatic Bluebook 2006" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of
Japan. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Kim, Sun Pyo (2004). Maritime delimitation and interim arrangements
in North East Asia. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. p. 285.
^ Bush, Richard C. (2010). The perils of proximity: China-Japan
security relations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
p. 76. ISBN 9780815704744.
^ a b Fackler, Martin (19 June 2008). "
Japan in Deal Over
Contested Gas Fields". The New York Times.
^ "EIA Country Analysis Briefs, East
China Sea". Energy Information
Administration. March 2008. Archived from the original on
^ Marianne Lavelle & Jeff Smith (26 October 2012). "Why Are China
Japan Sparring Over Eight Tiny, Uninhabited Islands?". National
^ "Chinese, Japanese Stage Protests Over East
Voice of America.
^ 天文教育資訊網 [Activities of Exhibition and Education in
Astronomy] (in Chinese), Activities of Exhibition and Education in
Astronomy (aeea.nmns.edu.tw), 23 June 2006, retrieved 19 October
Kim, Suk Kyoon. "
Japan Maritime Disputes in the East China
Sea: A Note on Recent Developments."
Ocean Development &
International Law 43.3 (2012) pp: 296-308. online
McDevitt, Michael. "The East
China Sea: The Place Where Sino–US
Conflict Could Occur." American Foreign Policy Interests (2014) 36.2
pp: 100-110. online
Manicom, James. Bridging Troubled Waters: China, Japan, and Maritime
Order in the East
Sea (Georgetown University Press; 2014)
Nakano, Ryoko. "The Sino–Japanese Territorial Dispute and Threat
Perception in Power Transition." The Pacific Review
Peterson, Alexander M. "Sino-Japanese Cooperation in the East China
Sea: A Lasting Arrangement?" 42 Cornell International Law Journal 44.1
the United States. Congress. (2014). Maritime Sovereignty in the East
China Seas: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on
Seapower and Projection Forces of the Committee on Armed Services
Meeting Jointly with the Subcommittee on
Asia and the Pacific of the
Committee on Foreign Affairs (Serial No. 113-137), House of
Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session,
Hearing held January 14, 2014
Valencia, Mark J. "The East
Sea Disputes: History, Status, and
Ways Forward." Asian Perspective (2014) 38.2 pp: 183-218.
Zou, Keyuan. Law of the
Sea in East Asia: Issues and Prospects
Wikimedia Commons has media related to East
Kosuke Takahashi. Gas and oil rivalry in the East
Online. July 27, 2004.
Chinese submarine enters Japanese waters. Wikinews. November 18, 2004.
Retrieved March 7, 2006.
Oil and gas in troubled waters The Economist. October 6, 2005.
J Sean Curtin. Stakes rise in Japan,
China gas dispute
Online. October 19, 2005.
Chinese Suyan Rock community
Alexander M. Peterson's 2009 Note in the Cornell International Law
Journal detailing the dispute, clarifying the legal impact of the 2008
Sino-Japanese arrangement to cooperate in the East
China Sea, and
proposing increased Sino-Japanese cooperation.
Japan and the Energy Quest in the East
Sea by Amrita
Jash, IPP Review (Singapore). August 29, 2017
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