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Coordinates: 30°N 125°E / 30°N 125°E / 30; 125

East China
China
Sea

The East China
China
Sea, showing surrounding regions, islands, cities, and seas

Chinese name

Simplified Chinese 1. 东海 2. 东中国海

Traditional Chinese 1. 東海 2. 東中國海

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin 1. Dōng Hǎi 2. Dōng Zhōngguó Hǎi

Bopomofo 1. ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄞˇ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ

Wu

Romanization 1. ton平 he上 2. ton平 tson平 koh入 he上

Hakka

Romanization 1. dung24 hoi31 2. dung24 dung24 gued2 hoi31

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping 1. dung1 hoi2 2. dung1 zung1 gwok3 hoi2

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ 1. tong-hái 2. tong tiong-kok hái

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC 1. dĕ̤ng-hāi 2. dĕ̤ng dṳ̆ng-guók hāi

Korean name

Hangul 동중국해

Hanja 東中國海

Transcriptions

Revised Romanization dongjungguk-hae

McCune–Reischauer dongjungguk.hae

Japanese name

Kanji 東シナ海 (2004–) 東支那海 (1913–2004) (literally "East Shina Sea")

Kana ひがしシナかい

Transcriptions

Romanization Higashi Shina Kai

The East China
China
Sea
Sea
is a marginal sea east of China. The East China
China
Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). To the east lies the Japanese islands of Kyushu
Kyushu
and the Ryukyu Islands, to the south, lies the South China
China
Sea, and to the west by the Asian continent. The sea connects with the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
(East Sea) through the Korea Strait
Korea Strait
and opens to the north into the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
(West Sea). The countries which border the sea include South Korea, Japan, Taiwan
Taiwan
and China.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Extent 1.2 Rivers 1.3 Islands and reefs

2 Nomenclature 3 History

3.1 Whaling 3.2 EEZ
EEZ
disputes

4 East China
China
Sea
Sea
in astronomy 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Geography[edit] The East China
China
Sea
Sea
is a part of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). It is bounded on the east by Kyūshū
Kyūshū
and the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
of Japan, on the south by the South China
China
Sea, and on the west by the Asian continent. It connects with the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
through the Korea Strait; it opens in the north to the Yellow Sea. Countries with borders on the sea (clockwise from north) include: South Korea, Japan, Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China. Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the "Eastern China
China
Sea
Sea
(Tung Hai)" as follows:[1]

On the South.

The Northern limit of the South China Sea
South China Sea
[From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa
Formosa
to Kiushan Tao (Turnabout Island) on to the South point of Haitan Tao (25°25' N) and thence Westward on the parallel of 25°24' North to the coast of Fukien], thence from Santyo the Northeastern point of Formosa
Formosa
to the West point of Yonakuni Island and thence to Haderuma Sima (24°03′ N, 123°47′ E).

On the East.

From Haderuma Sima a line including the Miyako Retto to the East point of Miyako Sima and thence to Okinan Kaku, the Southern extremity of Okinawa Sima through this island to Ada-Ko Sima (Sidmouth Island) on to the East point of Kikai Sima (28°20' N) through Tanegra Sima (30°30' N) to the North point thereof and on to Hi-Saki (31°17' N) in Kyusyu.

On the North.

From Nomo Saki (32°35' N) in Kyusyu
Kyusyu
to the South point of Hukae Sima (Goto Retto) and on through this island to Ose Saki (Cape Goto) and to Hunan Kan, the South point of Saisyu To (Quelpart), through this island to its Western extreme and thence along the parallel of 33°17' North to the mainland.

On the West.

The mainland of China.

Rivers[edit] The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
(Chang Jiang) is the largest river flowing into the East China
China
Sea. Islands and reefs[edit]

East China
China
Sea
Sea
coast in Cangnan County, Zhejiang

Senkaku Islands
Senkaku Islands
(Japanese) or Diaoyu Islands (Chinese). Disputed. Tong Island

There is a cluster of submerged reefs in the northern East China
China
Sea. These include:

Socotra Rock, also called Suyan Rock or Ieodo, a subject of an EEZ dispute between the People's Republic of China
China
and South Korea. Hupijiao Rock (虎皮礁) Yajiao Rock (鸭礁)

Nomenclature[edit] The sea is called the East Sea
Sea
in Chinese (東海; Dōng Hǎi), being one of the Four Seas
Four Seas
of Chinese literature. There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions.[2] Until World War II, the sea was referred to as 東支那海 (Higashi Shina Kai; "East Shina Sea") in Japanese. In 2004, official documents of the Japanese Foreign Ministry
Japanese Foreign Ministry
and other departments switched to the name 東シナ海 (pronounced the same), which has become the standard usage in Japan. Common usage in Indonesia refers to the sea as Laut Cina Timur (East China
China
Sea). This name was used officially by the Indonesian government until 2014, when Indonesia switched usage from the word Cina to Tiongkok instead; since then, the name Laut Tiongkok Timur become standard usage in Indonesia. Despite this, many Indonesian media outlets and publications continue to use the former sea name. History[edit] Whaling[edit] American whaleships cruised for right whales in the sea between 1849 and 1892.[3] EEZ
EEZ
disputes[edit] Main article: East China
China
Sea
Sea
EEZ
EEZ
disputes There are disputes between the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC), Japan, and South Korea
South Korea
over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZ).[4] The dispute between the PRC and Japan
Japan
concerns the different application of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Sea
(UNCLOS), which both nations have ratified.[5] China
China
and Japan both claim 200 nautical miles EEZ
EEZ
rights, but the East China
China
Sea
Sea
width is only 360 nautical miles.[6] China
China
proposed the application of UNCLOS, considering the natural prolongation of its continental shelf, advocating that the EEZ
EEZ
extends as far as the Okinawa Trough.[7][8] Its Ministry of Foreign Affairs has stated that "the natural prolongation of the continental shelf of China
China
in the East China
China
Sea extends to the Okinawa Trough
Okinawa Trough
and beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of China
China
is measured,"[7] which is applicable to the relevant UNCLOS provisions that support China's right to the natural shelf.[7][8] In 2012, China presented a submission under the UNCLOS concerning the outer limits of the continental shelf to the UN.[9][10] However, Japan
Japan
claims about 40,000 square kilometers part of this territory as its own EEZ
EEZ
because it is within 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its coast, and thus proposed the Median line division of the EEZ.[6][11]

View of East China
China
Sea
Sea
from Yeliou, Taiwan

In 1995, the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) discovered an undersea natural gas field in the East China
China
Sea, namely the Chunxiao gas field,[12] which lies within the Chinese EEZ
EEZ
while Japan
Japan
believes it is connected to other possible reserves beyond the median line.[13] Japan
Japan
has objected to PRC development of natural gas resources in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
near the area where the two countries Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims overlap. The specific development in dispute is the PRC's drilling in the Chunxiao gas field, which is located in undisputed areas on China's side, three or four miles (6 km) west of the median line proposed by Japan. Japan
Japan
maintains that although the Chunxiao gas field rigs are on the PRC side of a median line that Tokyo regards as the two sides' sea boundary, they may tap into a field that stretches underground into the disputed area.[14] Japan
Japan
therefore seeks a share in the natural gas resources. The gas fields in the Xihu Sag area in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
(Canxue, Baoyunting, Chunxiao, Duanqiao, Wuyunting, and Tianwaitian) are estimated to hold proven reserves of 364 BCF of natural gas.[15] Commercial operations began 2006. In June 2008, both sides agreed to jointly develop the Chunxiao gas fields,[14] but they have never been able to agree on how to execute the plan.[16] Rounds of disputes about island ownership in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
have triggered both official and civilian protests between China
China
and Japan.[17] The dispute between PRC and South Korea
South Korea
concerns Socotra Rock, a submerged reef on which South Korea
South Korea
has constructed the Ieodo Ocean Research Station. While neither country claims the rock as territory, the PRC has objected to Korean activities there as a breach of its EEZ rights. East China
China
Sea
Sea
in astronomy[edit] Possibly, East China
China
Sea
Sea
(Donghai in Chinese) is represented with the star Eta Serpentis
Eta Serpentis
in asterism Left Wall, Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).[18] See also[edit]

Geography of China

Xihu Trough

Geography of Japan

Senkaku Islands
Senkaku Islands
(Diaoyu Islands in Chinese)

Sea
Sea
of Japan South China
China
Sea

References[edit]

^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (PDF) (3rd ed.). Monaco: International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 33. Special
Special
Publication No. 23. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Chang, Chun-shu (2007). The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Nation, State, and Imperialism in Early China, ca. 1600 B.C. – A.D. 8. University of Michigan Press. pp. 263–264. ISBN 978-0-472-11533-4.  ^ Ocmulgee, of Holmes Hole, Feb. 10-Mar. 27, 1849, Old Dartmouth Historical Society (ODHS); Covington, of Warren, Feb. 26-Mar. 21, 1854, Nicholson Whaling Collection (NWC); Florida, of Fairhaven, Mar. 15-Apr. 7, 1860, in Old Whaling Family (Williams, 1964); John and Winthrop, of San Francisco, Feb. 22-Mar. 31, 1890, ODHS; Cape Horn Pigeon, of New Bedford, Feb. 18-Apr. 14, 1892, Kendall Whaling Museum (KWM). ^ James Manicom, Bridging Troubled Waters: China, Japan, and Maritime Order in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
(Georgetown University Press; 2014) ^ Koo, Min Gyo (2009). Island Disputes and Maritime Regime Building in East Asia. Springer. pp. 182–183. ISBN 9781441962232.  ^ a b "Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands". Globalsecurity.org.  ^ a b c Wang, Yuanyuan (2012). " China
China
to submit outer limits of continental shelf in East China
China
Sea
Sea
to UN". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2013-12-08.  ^ a b Guo, Rongxing (2006). Territorial disputes and resource management: A global handbook. New York: Nova Science Pub Inc. p. 104. ISBN 9781600214455.  ^ " China
China
reports to UN outer limits of continental shelf in East China Sea". Global Times. 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-08.  ^ Yu, Runze (2012). " China
China
reports to UN outer limits of continental shelf in E. China
China
Sea". SINA English. Archived from the original on 2013-12-08.  ^ "Diplomatic Bluebook 2006" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-08.  ^ Kim, Sun Pyo (2004). Maritime delimitation and interim arrangements in North East Asia. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. p. 285. ISBN 9789004136694.  ^ Bush, Richard C. (2010). The perils of proximity: China-Japan security relations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780815704744.  ^ a b Fackler, Martin (19 June 2008). " China
China
and Japan
Japan
in Deal Over Contested Gas Fields". The New York Times.  ^ "EIA Country Analysis Briefs, East China
China
Sea". Energy Information Administration. March 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-09-20.  ^ Marianne Lavelle & Jeff Smith (26 October 2012). "Why Are China and Japan
Japan
Sparring Over Eight Tiny, Uninhabited Islands?". National Geographic News.  ^ "Chinese, Japanese Stage Protests Over East China
China
Sea
Sea
Islands". Voice of America.  ^ 天文教育資訊網 [Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy] (in Chinese), Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy (aeea.nmns.edu.tw), 23 June 2006, retrieved 19 October 2012 

Further reading[edit]

Kim, Suk Kyoon. " China
China
and Japan
Japan
Maritime Disputes in the East China Sea: A Note on Recent Developments." Ocean
Ocean
Development & International Law 43.3 (2012) pp: 296-308. online McDevitt, Michael. "The East China
China
Sea: The Place Where Sino–US Conflict Could Occur." American Foreign Policy Interests (2014) 36.2 pp: 100-110. online Manicom, James. Bridging Troubled Waters: China, Japan, and Maritime Order in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
(Georgetown University Press; 2014) Nakano, Ryoko. "The Sino–Japanese Territorial Dispute and Threat Perception in Power Transition." The Pacific Review DOI:10.1080/09512748.2015.1013493. online Peterson, Alexander M. "Sino-Japanese Cooperation in the East China Sea: A Lasting Arrangement?" 42 Cornell International Law Journal 44.1 (2009). the United States. Congress. (2014). Maritime Sovereignty in the East and South China
China
Seas: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces of the Committee on Armed Services Meeting Jointly with the Subcommittee on Asia
Asia
and the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (Serial No. 113-137), House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session, Hearing held January 14, 2014 Valencia, Mark J. "The East China
China
Sea
Sea
Disputes: History, Status, and Ways Forward." Asian Perspective (2014) 38.2 pp: 183-218. Zou, Keyuan. Law of the Sea
Sea
in East Asia: Issues and Prospects (Routledge; 2005)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to East China
China
Sea.

Kosuke Takahashi. Gas and oil rivalry in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
Asia
Asia
Times Online. July 27, 2004. Chinese submarine enters Japanese waters. Wikinews. November 18, 2004. Retrieved March 7, 2006. Oil and gas in troubled waters The Economist. October 6, 2005. J Sean Curtin. Stakes rise in Japan, China
China
gas dispute Asia
Asia
Times Online. October 19, 2005. Chinese Suyan Rock community Alexander M. Peterson's 2009 Note in the Cornell International Law Journal detailing the dispute, clarifying the legal impact of the 2008 Sino-Japanese arrangement to cooperate in the East China
China
Sea, and proposing increased Sino-Japanese cooperation. China, Japan
Japan
and the Energy Quest in the East China
China
Sea
Sea
by Amrita Jash, IPP Review (Singapore). August 29, 2017

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234174933 LCCN: sh85040538 GND: 41046

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