In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian
processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different
shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.
Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss (upflow) side, where the
sand is pushed up the dune, and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee
side. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune
field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes.
Dunes occur in some deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas
have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline
directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important
in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from
the sea. Although the most widely distributed dunes are those
associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are
found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea
beds. Dunes can form under the action of water flow (fluvial
processes), and on sand or gravel beds of rivers, estuaries and the
The modern word "dune" came into English from French c. 1790, which
in turn came from
Middle Dutch dūne.
2 Aeolian dunes
2.1 Aeolian dune shapes
Barchan or crescentic
2.1.3 Seif or longitudinal dunes
2.1.7 Reversing dunes
2.4 Coastal dunes
Ecological succession on coastal dunes
2.5 Coastal dune floral adaptations
3 Sub-aqueous dunes
4 Lithified dunes
7.4 North America
7.5 South America
7.7 World's highest dunes
Sand dune systems
7.9 Extraterrestrial dunes
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Sand hitting sand is more likely to stick; sand hitting a more
coherent surface is more likely to bounce (saltation). This
exacerbating feedback loop helps sand accumulate into dunes.
Dunes are made of sand; the sand may be quartz, calcium carbonate,
snow, gypsum, or other materials. The upwind/upstream/upcurrent side
of the dune is called the stoss side; the downflow side is called the
Sand is pushed (creep) or bounces (saltation) up the stoss
side, and slides down the lee side. A side of a dune that the sand has
slid down is called a slip face.
Bagnold formula gives the speed at which particles can be
Aeolian dune shapes
Barchan or crescentic
Main article: barchan
Isolated barchan dunes on the surface of Mars. Dominant wind direction
would be from left to right.
Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds which are generally wider
than they are long. The lee-side slipfaces are on the concave sides of
the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow consistently from
one direction (unimodal winds). They form separate crescents when the
sand supply is comparatively small. When the sand supply is greater,
they may merge into barchanoid ridges, and then transverse dunes (see
Some types of crescentic dunes move more quickly over desert surfaces
than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100
metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, and
similar speeds have been recorded in the Western
Desert of Egypt. The
largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of
more than three kilometres, are in China's Taklamakan Desert.
See lunettes and parabolic dues, below, for other crescent-shaped
Abundant barchan dunes (see above) may merge into barchanoid ridges,
which then grade into linear (or slightly sinuous) transverse dunes,
so called because they lie transverse, or across, the wind direction,
with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridge crest.
Seif or longitudinal dunes
Seif dunes are linear (or slightly sinuous) dunes with two slip
faces. The two slip faces make them sharp-crested. They are called
seif dunes after the
Arabic word for "sword". They may be more than
160 kilometres (100 miles) long, and thus easily visible in satellite
images (see illustrations).
Seif dunes are associated with bidirectional winds. The long axes and
ridges of these dunes extend along the resultant direction of sand
movement (hence the name "longitudinal"). Some linear dunes merge
to form Y-shaped compound dunes.
Formation is debated. Bagnold, in The
Physics of Blown
Sand and Desert
Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves
into a bidirectional wind regime, and one arm or wing of the crescent
elongates. Others suggest that seif dunes are formed by vortices in a
unidirectional wind. In the sheltered troughs between highly
developed seif dunes, barchans may be formed, because the wind is
constrained to be unidirectional by the dunes.
Rub' al Khali
Rub' al Khali (Arabian Empty Quarter) sand dunes imaged by Terra (EOS
AM-1). Most of these dunes are seif dunes. Their origin from barchans
is suggested by the stubby remnant "hooks" seen on many of the dunes.
Wind would be from left to right.
Large linear seif dunes in the Great
Sea in southwest Egypt, seen
from the International Space Station. The distance between each dune
is 1.5-2.5 km.
The average-direction-longitudinal model of seif dune formation.
By contrast, transverse dunes form with the wind blowing perpendicular
to the ridges, and have only one slipface, on the lee side. The stoss
side is less steep.
Transverse dunes lie perpendicular to the wind, which moves them
forwards, producing the cross-bedding shown here.
Seif dunes are common in the Sahara. They range up to 300 m
(980 ft) in height and 300 km (190 mi) in length. In
the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the
Rub' al Khali
Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for
almost 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m.
Linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar. These
hills appear to have been formed during the last ice age under
permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation.
An isolated star dune.
Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with
slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the high center of
the mound. They tend to accumulate in areas with multidirectional wind
regimes. Star dunes grow upward rather than laterally. They dominate
Grand Erg Oriental
Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara. In other deserts, they occur
around the margins of the sand seas, particularly near topographic
barriers. In the southeast Badain Jaran
Desert of China, the star
dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth.
Oval or circular mounds that generally lack a slipface. Dome dunes are
rare and occur at the far upwind margins of sand seas.
Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and
river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the
direction(s) of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes,
source-bordering dunes, bourrelets and clay dunes. They may be
composed of clay, silt, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the basin floor
or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune, and deposited
on the convex side. Examples in
Australia are up to 6.5 km long,
1 km wide, and up to 50 metres high. They also occur in southern
and West Africa, and in parts of the western United States, especially
Schematic of coastal parabolic dunes.
U-shaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms
are parabolic dunes. These dunes are formed from blowout dunes where
the erosion of vegetated sand leads to a U-shaped depression. The
elongated arms are held in place by vegetation; the largest arm known
on Earth reaches 12 km. Sometimes these dunes are called
U-shaped, blowout, or hairpin dunes, and they are well known in
coastal deserts. Unlike crescent shaped dunes, their crests point
upwind. The bulk of the sand in the dune migrates forward.
In plan view, these are U-shaped or V-shaped mounds of well-sorted,
very fine to medium sand with elongated arms that extend upwind behind
the central part of the dune. There are slipfaces that often occur on
the outer side of the nose and on the outer slopes of the arms.
These dunes often occur in semiarid areas where the precipitation is
retained in the lower parts of the dune and underlying soils. The
stability of the dunes was once attributed to the vegetative cover but
recent research has pointed to water as the main source of parabolic
dune stability. The vegetation that covers them—grasses, shrubs, and
trees—help anchor the trailing arms. In inland deserts, parabolic
dunes commonly originate and extend downwind from blowouts in sand
sheets only partly anchored by vegetation. They can also originate
from beach sands and extend inland into vegetated areas in coastal
zones and on shores of large lakes.
Most parabolic dunes do not reach heights higher than a few tens of
metres except at their nose, where vegetation stops or slows the
advance of accumulating sand.
Simple parabolic dunes have only one set of arms that trail upwind,
behind the leading nose. Compound parabolic dunes are coalesced
features with several sets of trailing arms. Complex parabolic dunes
include subsidiary superposed or coalesced forms, usually of
barchanoid or linear shapes.
Parabolic dunes, like crescent dunes, occur in areas where very strong
winds are mostly unidirectional. Although these dunes are found in
areas now characterized by variable wind speeds, the effective winds
associated with the growth and migration of both the parabolic and
crescent dunes probably are the most consistent in wind direction.
The grain size for these well-sorted, very fine to medium sands is
about 0.06 to 0.5 mm. Parabolic dunes have loose sand and steep
slopes only on their outer flanks. The inner slopes are mostly well
packed and anchored by vegetation, as are the corridors between
individual dunes. Because all dune arms are oriented in the same
direction, and, the inter-dune corridors are generally swept clear of
loose sand, the corridors can usually be traversed in between the
trailing arms of the dune. However to cross straight over the dune by
going over the trailing arms, can be very difficult. Also, traversing
the nose is very difficult as well because the nose is usually made up
of loose sand without much if any vegetation.
A type of extensive parabolic dune that lacks discernible slipfaces
and has mostly coarse grained sand is known as a zibar. The term
zibar comes from the
Arabic word to describe "rolling transverse
ridges ... with a hard surface". The dunes are small, have low
relief, and can be found in many places across the planet from Wyoming
(United States) to Saudi Arabia to Australia. Spacing between zibars
ranges from 50 to 400 metres and they don't become more than 10 metres
high. The dunes form at about ninety degrees to the prevailing
wind which blows away the small, fine-grained sand leaving behind the
coarser grained sand to form the crest.
Reversing dune showing short minor slipface atop the major stoss
Occurring wherever winds periodically reverse direction, reversing
dunes are varieties of any of the above shapes. These dunes typically
have major and minor slipfaces oriented in opposite directions. The
minor slipfaces are usually temporary, as they appear after a reverse
wind and are generally destroyed when the wind next blows in the
Dune Nine in Sossusvlei, Namibia, is over 300m high.
Draas are very large-scale dune bedforms; they may be tens or a few
hundreds of meters in height, kilometers wide, and hundreds of
kilometers in length. After a draa has reached a certain size, it
generally develops superimposed dune forms. They are thought to be
more ancient and slower-moving than smaller dunes, and to form by
vertical growth of existing dunes. Draas are widespread in sand seas
and are well-represented in the geological record.
All these dune shapes may occur in three forms: simple, compound, and
complex. Simple dunes are basic forms with the minimum number of
slipfaces that define the geometric type. Compound dunes are large
dunes on which smaller dunes of similar type and slipface orientation
are superimposed. Complex dunes are combinations of two or more dune
types. A crescentic dune with a star dune superimposed on its crest is
the most common complex dune. Simple dunes represent a wind regime
that has not changed in intensity or direction since the formation of
the dune, while compound and complex dunes suggest that the intensity
and direction of the wind has changed.
The sand mass of dunes can move either windward or leeward, depending
on if the wind is making contact with the dune from below or above its
apogee. If wind hits from above, the sand particles move leeward. If
sand hits from below, sand particles move windward. The leeward flux
of sand is greater than the windward flux. Further, when the wind
carrying sand particles when it hits the dune, the dune’s sand
particles will saltate more than if the wind had hit the dune without
carrying sand particles.
Coastal dunes covered in grasses around the mouth of the Liver Å
river in Denmark.
Dunes form where the beach is wide enough to allow for the
accumulation of wind-blown sand, and where prevailing onshore winds
tend to blow sand inland. Obstacles—for example, vegetation, pebbles
and so on—tend to slow down the wind and lead to the deposition of
sand grains. These small "incipient dunes or "shadow dunes" tend
to grow in the vertical direction if the obstacle slowing the wind can
also grow vertically (i.e., vegetation). Coastal dunes expand
laterally as a result of lateral growth of coastal plants via seed or
rhizome. Models of coastal dunes suggest that their final
equilibrium height is related to the distance between the water line
and where vegetation can grow. Additionally the height of coastal
dunes is impacted by storm events, which can erode dunes. Recent work
has suggested that coastal dunes tend to evolve toward a high or low
morphology depending on the growth rate of dunes relative to storm
frequency. In certain conditions, both low and high dunes are possible
— dunes are a system that shows bistable dynamics.
Dunes provide privacy and shelter from the wind.
Ecological succession on coastal dunes
As a dune forms, plant succession occurs. The conditions on an embryo
dune are harsh, with salt spray from the sea carried on strong winds.
The dune is well drained and often dry, and composed of calcium
carbonate from seashells. Rotting seaweed, brought in by storm waves
adds nutrients to allow pioneer species to colonize the dune. These
pioneer species are marram grass, sea wort grass and other sea grasses
in the United Kingdom. These plants are well adapted to the harsh
conditions of the foredune typically having deep roots which reach the
water table, root nodules that produce nitrogen compounds, and
protected stoma, reducing transpiration. Also, the deep roots bind the
sand together, and the dune grows into a foredune as more sand is
blown over the grasses. The grasses add nitrogen to the soil, meaning
other, less hardy plants can then colonize the dunes. Typically these
are heather, heaths and gorses. These too are adapted to the low soil
water content and have small, prickly leaves which reduce
transpiration. Heather adds humus to the soil and is usually replaced
by coniferous trees, which can tolerate low soil pH, caused by the
accumulation and decomposition of organic matter with nitrate
leaching. Coniferous forests and heathland are common climax
communities for sand dune systems.
Young dunes are called yellow dunes and dunes which have high humus
content are called grey dunes. Leaching occurs on the dunes, washing
humus into the slacks, and the slacks may be much more developed than
the exposed tops of the dunes. It is usually in the slacks that more
rare species are developed and there is a tendency for the dune slacks
soil to be waterlogged and where only marsh plants can survive. These
plants would include: creeping willow, cotton grass, yellow iris,
reeds, and rushes. As for the species, there is a tendency for
natterjack toads to breed here.
Coastal dune floral adaptations
Dune ecosystems are extremely difficult places for plants to survive.
This is due to a number of pressures related to their proximity to the
ocean and confinement to growth on sandy substrates. These include:
Little available soil moisture
Little available soil organic matter/nutrients
Erosion/shifting and sometimes ephemeral substrate
There are many adaptations plants have evolved to cope with these
Deep taproot to reach water table (Pink
Shallow but extensive root systems
Prostrate growth form to avoid wind/salt spray (Abronia spp., Beach
Krummholz growth form (Monterrey Cypress-not a dune plant but deals
with similar pressures)
Thickened cuticle/Succulence to reduce moisture loss and reduce salt
uptake (Ambrosia/Abronia spp., Calystegia soldanella)
Pale leaves to reduce insolation (Artemisia/Ambrosia spp.)
Thorny/Spiky seeds to ensure establishment in vicinity of parent,
reduces chances of being blown away or swept our to sea (Ambrosia
A nabkha, or coppice dune, is a small dune anchored by vegetation.
They usually indicate desertification or soil erosion, and serve as
nesting and burrow sites for animals.
Main article: Ripple marks
Sub-aqueous (underwater) dunes form on a bed of sand or gravel under
the actions of water flow. They are ubiquitous in natural channels
such as rivers and estuaries, and also form in engineered canals and
pipelines. Dunes move downstream as the upstream slope is eroded and
the sediment deposited on the downstream or lee slope in typical
These dunes most often form as a continuous 'train' of dunes, showing
remarkable similarity in wavelength and height. The shape of a dune
gives information about its formation environment. For instance,
rives produce asymmetrical ripples, with the steeper slip face facing
downstream. This is useful when they are found fossilized in the
Dunes on the bed of a channel significantly increase flow resistance,
their presence and growth playing a major part in river flooding.
Cross-bedding in lithified aeolian sand dunes preserved as sandstone
in Zion National Park, Utah
A lithified (consolidated) sand dune is a type of sandstone that is
formed when a marine or aeolian sand dune becomes compacted and
hardened. Once in this form, water passing through the rock can carry
and deposit minerals, which can alter the color of the rock.
Cross-bedded layers of stacks of lithified dunes can produce the
cross-hatching patterns, such as those seen in the Zion National Park
in the western United States.
A slang term, used in the southwest US, for consolidated and hardened
sand dunes is "slickrock", a name that was introduced by pioneers of
Old West because their steel-rimmed wagon wheels could not gain
traction on the rock.
Main article: Desertification
Sand dunes can have a negative impact on humans when they encroach on
Sand dunes move via a few different means, all of them
helped along by wind. One way that dunes can move is by saltation,
where sand particles skip along the ground like a bouncing ball. When
these skipping particles land, they may knock into other particles and
cause them to move as well, in a process known as creep. With slightly
stronger winds, particles collide in mid-air, causing sheet flows. In
a major dust storm, dunes may move tens of metres through such sheet
flows. Also as in the case of snow, sand avalanches, falling down the
slipface of the dunes—that face away from the winds—also move the
Sand threatens buildings and crops in Africa, the Middle East, and
China. Drenching sand dunes with oil stops their migration, but this
approach is quite destructive to the dunes' animal habitats and uses a
Sand fences might also slow their movement to a
crawl, but geologists are still analyzing results for the optimum
fence designs. Preventing sand dunes from
overwhelming towns, villages, and agricultural areas has become a
priority for the United Nations Environment Programme. Planting dunes
with vegetation also helps to stabilise them.
Sand blowing off a crest in the
Kelso Dunes of the Mojave Desert,
Dune habitats provide niches for highly specialized plants and
animals, including numerous rare species and some endangered species.
Due to widespread human population expansion, dunes face destruction
through land development and recreational usages, as well as
alteration to prevent the encroachment of sand onto inhabited areas.
Some countries, notably the United States, Australia, Canada, New
Zealand, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Sri Lanka have developed
significant programs of dune protection through the use of sand dune
stabilization. In the U.K., a
Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan has been
developed to assess dunes loss and to prevent future dunes
A dune in Sossusvlei, in the greater Namib-Naukluft National Park,
Namibia. Note the trees being engulfed for scale.
Alexandria Coastal Dunefields, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Witsand Nature Reserve in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa
The white dunes of De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa
The dunes of the Suguta Valley, a desert part of the Great Rift Valley
in northwestern Kenya
The dunes of the Danakil Depression, northeastern
Ethiopia toward the
border with Eritrea
The dunes of
Sossusvlei in the greater Namib-Naukluft National Park,
The coastal dunes of
Iona National Park
Iona National Park in the southwesternmost part
Khawa dunes in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, the southwesternmost
part of Botswana
La Dune Rose
La Dune Rose in the city of
Gao in northern
Mali near the
Erg Aoukar in southeastern
Mauritania extending into Mali
Erg Chech in southwestern
Algeria and northern Mali
Erg Chebbi and
Erg Chigaga in southern Morocco
Grand Erg Oriental
Grand Erg Oriental in northeastern
Algeria and southern Tunisia
Grand Erg Occidental
Grand Erg Occidental in western Algeria
Idehan Ubari and the
Idehan Murzuq in southwestern Libya
Sea in southeastern Libya
Sea in southeastern
Libya and southwestern Egypt
Sand Sheet in northwestern Sudan
The dunes of the Bayuda
Desert in northern Sudan
The dunes of the Lompoul
Desert in northwestern Senegal
The coastal dunes of Bazaruto Island, Mozambique
Erg du Djourab in northern Chad
The dunes of the
Mourdi Depression in northeastern Chad
The dunes of Tin Toumma Desert, in southeastern Niger
Grand Erg de Bilma in the Ténéré, in northern Niger
The dunes of Oursi in the Sahel Region, northern Burkina Faso
Tanzania's Shifting Sands near Olduvai Gorge
Wind ripples on crescent-shaped sand dunes (Barchans) in Southwest
The dunes in the Thar
India and Pakistan
Sand Dunes, Tottori Prefecture, Japan
Rig-e Jenn in the Central
Desert of Iran.
Rig-e Lut in the Southeast of Iran.
Sand Dunes in the Philippines, particularly Paoay
Dune (also written as Merheb) in United Arab Emirates, used as
an arena for motor sports and skiing.
Gumuk Pasir Parangkusumo near
Parangtritis beach in Yogyakarta,
Mui Ne, Vietnam.
Wahiba Sands, Oman
Teri, red dune complex in southern India
Fronting the Mediterranean
Sea in Oliva, a municipality in the comarca
Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain.
The Dunes of Dyuni, near Pomorie, Bulgaria, vast area of sand dunes in
the Burgas Province
Dune of Pilat, not far from Bordeaux, France, is the largest known
sand dune in Europe
The Dunes of Piscinas, in the south west of
Sands of Forvie
Sands of Forvie within the Ythan
Estuary complex, Aberdeenshire,
Oxwich Dunes, near Swansea, is on the
Gower Peninsula in Wales.
Winterton Dunes – Norfolk, England
Słowiński National Park, Poland
Sand Dune, Lemesos, Cyprus
Råbjerg mile, Northern Jutland, Denmark
Thy National Park, North
Denmark Region, Denmark
Dunes of Corrubedo, Spain
Northern Littoral Natural Park, Portugal
São Jacinto Dunes Natural Reserve, Portugal
Rëra e Hedhur in Shëngjin, Albania
Veluwe National Park, Veluwe, Netherlands
Texel National Park, Texel, Netherlands
Zuid-Kennemerland National Park, North Holland, Netherlands
Ammothines Lemnou, Lemnos, Greece
Dunes of the Curonian Spit,
Lithuania and Russia
Cadiz Dunes Wilderness, California.
Sand Dunes, the northernmost sand dunes in the world,
Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska
Sand Dunes, located in the Athabasca
Provincial Park, Saskatchewan.
The Cadiz Dunes in the Mojave Trails National Monument in California.
Kelso Dunes in the Mojave
Desert of California.
Sand Dunes and Mesquite Flat
Sand Dunes in Death Valley
National Park, California.
Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado.
White Sands National Monument, New Mexico.
Little Sahara Recreation Area, Utah.
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan, on the east shore of
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana, on the south shore of Lake
Warren Dunes State Park, Michigan, on the east shore of
Grand Sable Dunes, in the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan.
Samalayuca Dunes, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico
Algodones Dunes near Brawley, California.
Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes, on the central coast of California.
Monahans Sandhills State Park
Monahans Sandhills State Park near Odessa, Texas.
Beaver Dunes State Park
Beaver Dunes State Park near Beaver, Oklahoma.
The Killpecker sand dunes of the Red
Desert in southwestern Wyoming.
Jockey's Ridge State Park
Jockey's Ridge State Park – on the Outer Banks, North Carolina.
Dune found in
Cape Henlopen State Park
Cape Henlopen State Park in Lewes, Delaware.
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area near Florence, Oregon, on the
Bruneau Dunes State Park
Bruneau Dunes State Park – Owyhee Desert, Idaho
Hoffmaster State Park
Hoffmaster State Park – Muskegon, Michigan
Lake State Park — a sand dunes that allows off-road vehicle
use located in Mears, Michigan.
White sand dunes in the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park,
Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
Lençóis Maranhenses National Park in the state of Maranhão, Brazil
Jericoacoara National Park, in the state of Ceará, Brazil
Genipabu in Natal, Brazil
Medanos de Coro National Park
Medanos de Coro National Park near the town of Coro, in Falcón State,
Duna Federico Kirbus in Catamarca Province, Argentina
Villa Gesell in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
Cerro Blanco in Nazca Province, Peru
Huacachina in Ica Region, Peru
Cerro Medanoso in Atacama Region, Chile
Valdivian Coastal Reserve
Valdivian Coastal Reserve in Chile
Desert sand dunes in the Northern Territory,
South Australia, Australia
Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia
Cronulla sand dunes
Cronulla sand dunes in New South Wales, Australia
Beach in New South Wales, Australia
Te Paki sand dunes near Cape Reinga, New Zealand
World's highest dunes
Note: This table is partially based on estimates and incomplete
Height from Base feet/metres
Sea Level feet/metres
Duna Federico Kirbus
Bolsón de Fiambalá, Fiambalá, Catamarca Province, Argentina
Highest in the world
Nazca Province, Ica Region,
Peru 14°52′05″S 74°50′17″W /
14.868°S 74.838°W / -14.868; -74.838 (Cerro Blanco Dune)
Highest in Peru, second highest in the world
Badain Jaran Dunes
Badain Jaran Desert, Alashan Plain, Inner Mongolia, Gobi Desert, China
World's tallest stationary dunes and highest in Asia
Rig-e Yalan Dune
Lut Desert, Kerman, Iran
Near World the hottest place (Gandom Beryan)
Average Highest Area Dunes
Sand Sea, Algerian Sahara
Highest in Africa
Sossusvlei Dunes, Namib Desert,
Namibia / Near Walvis
according to the Namibian Ministry of Environment & Tourism the
highest dune in the world
Moreton Island, Brisbane, Australia
Highest in Australia
Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, USA
Highest in North America
Dune of Pyla
Bay of Arcachon, Aquitaine, France
Highest in Europe
Dunhuang Oasis, Taklamakan Desert, Gansu, China
Atacama Desert, Chile
Highest in Chile
Sand dune systems
(coastal dunes featuring succession)
Sand Dunes Provincial Park,
Alberta and Saskatchewan
Sand Dune, Israel
Bamburgh Dunes, Northumberland, England
Bradley Beach, New Jersey
Circeo National Park, a Mediterranean dune area on the southwest coast
Lazio region of Italy
Cronulla sand dunes, NSW, Australia
Crymlyn Burrows, Wales
Dawlish Warren, Devon, England
Queensland Australia, largest sand island in the world
Kenfig Burrows, Wales
Margam burrows, Wales
Sand Dunes, Newcastle, Co Down, Northern Ireland
Morfa Harlech sand dunes, Gwynedd, Wales
Newborough Warren, North Wales
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, near North Bend, Oregon
Penhale Sands, Cornwall, England
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan
Beach State Park, Richland, New York
Studland, Dorset, England
Thy National Park, North
Denmark Region, Denmark
Winterton, Norfolk, England
Sand Dunes, Wales
Sand dune on Mars
See also: List of extraterrestrial dune fields
Dunes can likely be found in any environment where there is a
substantial atmosphere, winds, and dust to be blown. Dunes are common
Mars and in the equatorial regions of Titan.
Titan's dunes include large expanses with modal lengths of about
20–30 km. The regions are not topographically confined,
resembling sand seas. These dunes are interpreted to be longitudinal
dunes whose crests are oriented parallel to the dominant wind
direction, which generally indicates west-to-east wind flow. The sand
is likely composed of hydrocarbon particles, possibly with some water
ice mixed in.
List of landforms
Sand dune stabilization
^ a b first edited by Fowler, H.W.; Fowler, F.G. (1984). Sykes, J.B.,
ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (7th ed.).
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^ dune - Definitions from Dictionary.com
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