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The Duchy of the Archipelago
Archipelago
(Italian: Ducato dell'arcipelago, Greek: Δουκάτο του Αρχιπελάγους), or also Duchy of Naxos
Naxos
(Italian: Ducato di Nasso, Greek: Δουκάτο της Νάξου) or Duchy of the Aegean (Italian: Ducato dell'Egeo, Greek: Δουκάτο του Αιγαίου), was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades
Cyclades
archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros. It included all the Cyclades
Cyclades
(except Mykonos
Mykonos
and Tinos). In 1537 it became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, and was annexed by the Ottomans in 1579; however, Christian rule survived in islands such as Siphnos
Siphnos
(conquered by the Ottomans in 1617) and Tinos
Tinos
(conquered only in 1714).

Contents

1 Background and establishment of the Duchy 2 Administration, faith and economics 3 Later history 4 Collapse and Ottoman conquest 5 Legacy and influence 6 Dukes of the Archipelago

6.1 Sanudo dynasty 6.2 Crispo dynasty 6.3 Ottoman representative

7 See also 8 References 9 Sources

Background and establishment of the Duchy[edit] The Italian city states, especially the Republic of Genoa, Pisa, and the Republic of Venice, had been interested in the islands of the Aegean long before the Fourth Crusade. There were Italian trading colonies in Constantinople
Constantinople
and Italian pirates frequently attacked settlements in the Aegean in the 12th century. After the collapse and partitioning of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1204, in which the Venetians played a major role, Venetian interests in the Aegean could be more thoroughly realized. The Duchy of the Archipelago
Archipelago
was created in 1207 by the Venetian nobleman Marco Sanudo, a participant in the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
and nephew of the former Doge Enrico Dandolo, who had led the Venetian fleet to Constantinople. This was an independent venture, without the consent of the Latin emperor Henry of Flanders. Sanudo was accompanied by Marino Dandolo and Andrea and Geremia Ghisi (as well as Filocalo Navigajoso, possibly). He arranged for the loan of eight galleys from the Venetian Arsenal, set anchor in the harbor of Potamides (now Pyrgaki, in the southwest of Naxos), and largely captured the island. The Naxiotes continued to resist, however, and established a base inland, around the fortress of Apalyros/Apalire. The latter fell to Sanudo after a five or six weeks' siege, despite the assistance rendered to the Greeks by the Genoese, Venice's main competitors. With the entire island occupied in 1210, Sanudo and his associates soon conquered Melos
Melos
and the rest of the islands of the Cyclades, and he established himself as Duke
Duke
of Naxia, or Duke
Duke
of the Archipelago, with his headquarters on Naxos. Sanudo rebuilt a strong fortress and divided the island into 56 provinces, which he shared out as fiefs among the leaders of his men, most of whom were highly autonomous and apparently paid their own expenses. Navigaojso had been granted his island domain by Henry of Flanders
Henry of Flanders
and was technically vassal of the Latin Empire; Sanudo himself recognized the Latin Empire's authority rather than making the Duchy a vassal of Venice. The conqueror himself ruled for twenty years (1207–27). He held in his personal possession Paros, Antiparos, Milos, Sifnos, Kythnos, Ios, Amorgos, Kimolos, Sikinos, Syros, and Pholegandros. Sanudo's fellow crusaders conquered lordships of their own, sometimes as vassals of Sanudo like Dandolo for Andros. Although they are often considered to have become Sanudo's vassals as well,[1] the Ghisi brothers, who held Tinos, Mykonos, and the Northern Sporades (Skiathos, Skyros, Skopelos) never recognized the suzerainty of Sanudo. Instead, like him they were directly vassals of the Latin Emperors.[2] Some families thought earlier[3] to have settled at this time in the islands (Querini, Barozzi) were in fact established in the 14th century.[4] Further south, Kythera
Kythera
(or Cerigo), held by Marco Venier, and Antikythera
Antikythera
(or Cerigotto), held by Jacopo Viaro chose to become vassals of Venice.[5] Administration, faith and economics[edit]

The Duchy of Naxos
Naxos
and states in the Morea, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911)

The institution of European feudalism caused little disruption to the local islanders who were familiar with the rights of a landowner class under the Byzantine system of the pronoia. The significant legal distinctions between the Byzantine pronoia and feudalism were of little immediate consequence to those who farmed the land or fished the waters in question. In most cases, the local population submitted relatively peacefully to the authority of their new Venetian lords. Sanudo and his successors prudently followed a conciliatory course with their Byzantine subjects, granting even fiefs to certain among them, in an effort to bind them to the dynasty. The Venetians brought the Catholic Church with them, but, as they were a minority of habitually absentee landowners, most of the population remained Greek Orthodox. Marco Sanudo
Marco Sanudo
himself established a Latin archbishopric on Naxos, but in contrast to his successors, did not attempt to forcibly convert the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
majority. These moves consisted primarily in imposing restrictions on Orthodox clergy and the exclusion of Orthodox Christians from positions of authority. The islands were of great importance in Venetian grand strategy, with their valuable trade routes to Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Eastern Mediterranean, which the Venetians could now control; Aside from providing safe traveling routes to Venetian ships, the Venetians also exported to Venice corundum and marble, which they mined on Naxos. Certain Latin feudal rights survived in the island of Naxos
Naxos
and elsewhere until they were abrogated in 1720 by the Ottomans. Later history[edit] The Annals of the Latin Archipelago
Archipelago
center on the family histories of Sanudo and Dandolo, Ghisi, Crispo and Sommaripa, Venier and Quirini, Barozzi and Gozzadini. Twenty-one dukes of the two dynasties ruled the Archipelago, successively as vassals of the Latin Emperors at Constantinople, of the Villehardouin dynasty of princes of Achaea, of the Angevins of the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(in 1278), and after 1418 of the Republic of Venice. In 1248,[6] the Duchy was nominally granted to William of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea. Marco II Sanudo lost many of the islands, except Naxos
Naxos
and Paros, to the forces of the renewed Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the admiral Licario
Licario
in the late 13th century. The Byzantine revival was to prove short-lived though, as they relinquished control of their gains in 1310. In 1317 the Catalan Company
Catalan Company
raided the remnants of the Duchy; in 1383, the Crispo family led an armed insurrection and overthrew Sanudo's heirs as Dukes of Archipelago. Under the Crispo dukes, social order and agriculture decayed, and piracy became dominant. Collapse and Ottoman conquest[edit]

Eastern Mediterranean in 1450

Before the last Latin Christian duke, Jacopo IV Crispo, was deposed in 1566 by Ottoman Sultan Selim II, he was already paying the Sultan tribute. The Sultan's appointed representative, the last Duke
Duke
of Archipelago
Archipelago
(1566–79) was a Portuguese Jew (Marrano), Joseph Nasi. Latin Christian rule was not entirely removed after that date: the Gozzadini family in Bologna
Bologna
survived as lords of Siphnos
Siphnos
and other little islands in the Cyclades
Cyclades
until 1617, and the island of Tenos remained Venetian until 1714. The last Venetian ports in Morea
Morea
(the Peloponnese) were captured in 1718. Gaspar Graziani, a Dalmatian nobleman, was awarded the title of Duke
Duke
of the Archipelago
Archipelago
in 1616, but the island was again under direct Ottoman rule at the end of 1617; he was the last to hold the title. Legacy and influence[edit] Today, Cyclades
Cyclades
islands such as Syros
Syros
and Tinos
Tinos
have some entirely Catholic villages and parishes, while many Greeks from the Cyclades have surnames with a distinctly Italo-Venetian origin e.g. Venieris, Ragousis, Dellaportas, Damigos etc. Dukes of the Archipelago[edit]

Sanudo Tower, Chora of Naxos

Sanudo dynasty[edit]

Marco I Sanudo
Marco I Sanudo
(1207–27) Angelo (1227–62) Marco II (1262–1303) Guglielmo I (1303–23) Niccolò I (1323–41) Giovanni I (1341–62) Fiorenza (1362–71) Niccolò II (1364–71) Niccolò III dalle Carceri (1371–83)

Crispo dynasty[edit]

Francesco I Crispo (1383–97) Giacomo I (1397–1418) Giovanni II (1418–33) Giacomo II (1433–47) Gian Giacomo (1447–53) Guglielmo II (1453–63) Francesco II (1463) Giacomo III (1463–80) Giovanni III (1480–94)

(interregnum)

Francesco III (1500–11)

(interregnum)

Giovanni IV (1517–64) Giacomo IV (1564–66)

Ottoman representative[edit]

Joseph Nasi
Joseph Nasi
(1566–79)

See also[edit]

Byzantine Greece

References[edit]

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^ cf. Longnon (1969), p. 239 ^ Setton (1976), p. 19 note 78 ^ cf Longnon (1969), pp. 238–239, basing himself on the works of Karl Hopf ^ Louise Buenger Robbert, Venice and the Crusades in A History of the Crusades vol.V p 432, citing the works of Silvano Borsari and of R-J Loenertz ^ Longnon (1969), p. 239 ^ R-J Loenertz, Les seigneurs tierciers de Négrepont, Byzantion, vol. 35, 1965, re-edited in Byzantina et Franco-Graeca : series altera p 152. The date of 1236, proposed by Hopf without justification, has been rejected by Longnon in Problèmes de l'histoire de la principauté de Morée, Journal des savants (1946) pp. 149-150.

Sources[edit]

Frazee, Charles A.; Frazee, Cathleen (1988). The Island Princes of Greece: The Dukes of the Archipelago. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert. ISBN 90-256-0948-1.  Sansaridou-Hendrickx, Thekla; Hendrickx, Benjamin (2013). "The Post-Ducal 'Dukes of Naxos' of the 'per Dignità First Duchy of Christendom': A Re-Examination and Assessment". Journal of Early Christian History. 3 (2): 94–107. doi:10.1080/2222582X.2013.11877287.  Longnon, Jean (1969). "The Frankish States in Greece, 1204–1311". In Wolff, Robert Lee; Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 234–275. ISBN 0-299-06670-3.  Miller, William (1908). The Latins in the Levant, a History of Frankish Greece (1204–1566). New York: E.P. Dutton and Company. OCLC 563022439.  Miller, William (1921). Essays on the Latin Orient. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Setton, Kenneth M. (1976). The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Volume I: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-87169-114-0.  Setton, Kenneth M. (1978). The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Volume II: The Fifteenth Century. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-87169-127-2.  Setton, Kenneth M. (1984). The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Vol. III: The Sixteenth Century to the Reign of Julius III. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-87169-161-2.  Loenertz, Raymond-Joseph (1975). Les Ghisi, dynastes vénitiens dans l'Archipel (1207-1390) (in French). Florence: Olschki. 

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Frankish and Latin Greece (1204–1797)

History

Fourth Crusade

Constantinople
Constantinople
1203 Constantinople
Constantinople
1204 Partitio Romaniae

Kountouras Grove Treaty of Nymphaeum Constantinople
Constantinople
1235 Genoese occupation of Rhodes War of the Euboeote Succession Pelagonia Constantinople
Constantinople
1260 Constantinople
Constantinople
1261 Treaty of Viterbo Prinitza Makryplagi Settepozzi Neopatras Demetrias Revolt of Alexios Kallergis Hospitaller conquest of Rhodes Halmyros Manolada Byzantine–Genoese War Revolt of Saint Titus Echinades Rhodes
Rhodes
1444 1st Ottoman–Venetian War Rhodes
Rhodes
1480 2nd Ottoman–Venetian War Rhodes
Rhodes
1522 3rd Ottoman–Venetian War 4th Ottoman–Venetian War 5th Ottoman–Venetian War

Siege of Candia

6th Ottoman–Venetian War 7th Ottoman–Venetian War Fall of the Republic of Venice

Treaty of Campo Formio

Major centres

Cities

Constantinople Thessaloniki Glarentza Patras Athens

Islands

Crete Chios Rhodes Naxos

States and territories

Latin Empire Kingdom of Thessalonica Principality of Achaea

Akova Arcadia Argos
Argos
and Nauplia Marquisate of Bodonitsa Chalandritsa Estamira Geraki Gritzena Kalavryta Karytaina Nikli Passavant Patras Veligosti and Damala Vostitsa

Duchy of Athens

Salona

Duchy of Neopatras County palatine of Cephalonia
Cephalonia
and Zakynthos Lordship of Chios Maona di Chio e di Focea Catalan Company Navarrese Company Knights Hospitaller Triarchy of Negroponte Duchy of the Archipelago Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic of Venice

Crete Ionian Islands Modon and Coron Kingdom of the Morea Lepanto Parga Preveza

People

Latin Emperors Latin Empresses Latin Patriarch of Constantinople Princes of Achaea Princesses of Achaea Archbishops of Patras Archbishops of Corinth Tocco

Carlo I

Acciaioli

Antonio I

Angevins

Charles I of Naples

Gattilusi Pallavicini family Villehardouin family

Geoffrey I William II

Marco I Sanudo Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat Knights Hospitaller

Pierre d'Aubusson Juan Fernández de Heredia Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam Foulques de Villaret

Roger de Flor Zaccaria

Benedetto I Martino Centurione II

Cultural impact

Chronicle of the Morea Chronicle of the Tocco Assizes of Romania Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
in Greece Cretan School Cretan literature

Monuments

Frankish

Argyrokastro Castle Castle of Chios Chlemoutsi Exomvourgo Fortifications of Rhodes Grand Magne Isova Old Navarino castle Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes Platamon Castle Zaraka Monastery

Venetian

Arkadi Monastery Bourtzi (Nafplio) Frangokastello Fortezza of Rethymno Fortifications of Chania Fortifications of Heraklion Gouverneto Monastery Koules Fortress New Fortress, Corfu Old Fortress, Corfu Palamidi

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Successors of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
after the Fourth Crusade

Greek states

Empire of Nicaea
Empire of Nicaea
(1204) Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204) Despotate of Epirus
Despotate of Epirus
(1205)

Latin states

Latin Empire
Latin Empire
(1204) Kingdom of Thessalonica
Kingdom of Thessalonica
(1205) Principality of Achaea
Principality of Achaea
(1205) Duchy of Athens
Athens
(1205) Triarchy of Negroponte
Triarchy of Negroponte
(1205) Duchy of the Archipelago
Archipelago
(1207)

v t e

Crusader states

Levant

Kingdom of Jerusalem Principality of Antioch County of Edessa County of Tripoli Kingdom of Cilicia Kingdom of Cyprus

Greece

Latin Empire Kingdom of Thessalonica Principality of Achaea Duchy of Athens Duchy of Neopatras Duchy of the Archipelago Triarchy of Negroponte County palatine of Cephalonia
Cephalonia
and Zakynthos Lordship of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic of Venice Possessions of the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
(Lordship of Chios) Knights Hospitaller

Baltic

State of the Teutonic Order
State of the Teutonic Order
(Teutonic Order) Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonian Brothers of the Sword) Dobrzyń Land
Dobrzyń Land
(Order of Dobrzyń)

Crusades portal Catholicism portal

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Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic of Venice

Adriatic Sea

Istria
Istria
(10th century – 1797) Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(11th century – 1797) Durazzo (Durrës) (1392–1501) Venetian Albania
Venetian Albania
(1420–1797)

Ionian Islands and dependencies

Cerigo (Cythera) and Cerigotto (Anticythera) (1363–1797) Corfu
Corfu
and Paxi
Paxi
(1386–1797) Parga
Parga
(1401–1797) Zante (Zakynthos) (1479–1797) Cephalonia
Cephalonia
(1500–1797) Ithaca
Ithaca
(1500–1797) Santa Maura (Leucas) (1684–1797) Vonitsa
Vonitsa
(1684–1797) Preveza
Preveza
(1717–1797)

Mainland Greece

Modon and Coron (1207–1500) Negroponte (Euboea) (1209/1390–1470) Pteleos
Pteleos
(1322–1470) Napoli di Romania (Nafplio) (1388–1540) Argos
Argos
(1394–1463) Lepanto (Naupactus) (1407–1540) Patras
Patras
(1408–1413) Athens
Athens
(1395–1402) Thessalonica (1423–30) Navarino (1417–1500) Monemvasia
Monemvasia
(1463–1540) Kingdom of the Morea
Morea
(1687–1715)

Aegean Islands

Hydra (1204-1566) Spezia (1220-1460) Crete
Crete
(1205–1669), then only Souda, Gramvousa
Gramvousa
and Spinalonga
Spinalonga
(until 1715) Mykonos
Mykonos
(1390–1537) Duchy of the Archipelago
Archipelago
(1383–1537/79), then only Sifnos (1383–1617) and Tinos
Tinos
(1390–1715) Skiathos, Skopelos
Skopelos
and Alonissos
Alonissos
(1453–1538) Aegina
Aegina
(1451–1537/1687–1715) Poros
Poros
(1484–1715)

Other

Constantinople
Constantinople
(1204–61) Gallipoli
Gallipoli
(1204-35) Rodosto (1204-35) Soldaia (Sudak) (13th century – 1365) Cyprus (1489–1571)

Related articles

Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
& Frankokratia Ottoman–Venetian Wars Venetian–Genoese Wars

v t e

Dukes of Naxos
Naxos
and of the Archipelago

Sanudo dynasty (1207–1383)

Marco I Angelo Marco II Guglielmo I Niccolò I Giovanni I Fiorenza with Niccolò (II) Spezzabanda Niccolò II (III) dalle Carceri

Crispo dynasty (1383–1566)

Francesco I Giacomo I Giovanni II Giacomo II Gian Giacomo Guglielmo II Francesco II Giacomo III Giovanni III Francesco III Giovanni IV Giacomo IV

Coordinates: 37°06′N 25°22′E / 37.100°N 25.367°E / 37

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