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The Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
(Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, French: Duché de Varsovie, German: Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna. It covered the central and eastern part of present Poland
Poland
and minor parts of present Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Napoleon's campaign against Russia 1.2 The Congress of Vienna, and the Fourth Partition 1.3 Legacy

2 Government and politics

2.1 Constitution 2.2 Administrative divisions 2.3 Military 2.4 Economy

3 Geography and demographics 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] The area of the duchy had already been liberated by a popular uprising that had escalated from anti-conscription rioting in 1806. One of the first tasks for the new government included providing food to the French army fighting the Russians in East Prussia. The Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
was officially created by French Emperor Napoleon I, as part of the Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia. Its creation met the support of both local republicans in partitioned Poland, and the large Polish diaspora in France, who openly supported Napoleon
Napoleon
as the only man capable of restoring Polish sovereignty after the Partitions of Poland
Poland
of late 18th century. Although it was created as a satellite state (and was only a duchy, rather than a kingdom), it was commonly hoped and believed that with time the nation would be able to regain its former status, not to mention its former borders.

Prince Józef Poniatowski
Józef Poniatowski
Commander in Chief of forces of Duchy of Warsaw, by Juliusz Kossak

The newly recreated state was formally an independent duchy, allied to France, and in a personal union with the Kingdom of Saxony. King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
was compelled by Napoleon
Napoleon
to make his new realm a constitutional monarchy, with a parliament (the Sejm of the Duchy of Warsaw). However, the duchy was never allowed to develop as a truly independent state; Frederick Augustus' rule was subordinated to the requirements of the French raison d'état, who largely treated the state as a source of resources. The most important person in the duchy was in fact the French ambassador,[citation needed] based in the duchy's capital, Warsaw. Significantly, the duchy lacked its own diplomatic representation abroad.[1] In 1809, a short war with Austria started. Although the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
won the Battle of Raszyn, Austrian troops entered Warsaw, but Duchy and French forces then outflanked their enemy and captured Kraków, Lwów
Lwów
and some of the areas annexed by Austria in the Partitions of Poland. During the war the German colonists settled by Prussia during Partitions openly rose up against Polish government. [2] After the Battle of Wagram, the ensuing Treaty of Schönbrunn allowed for a significant expansion of the Duchy's territory southwards with the regaining of once-Polish and Lithuanian lands. Napoleon's campaign against Russia[edit] As a result of Napoleon's campaign in 1812 against Russia, the Poles expected that the Duchy would be upgraded to the status of a Kingdom and that during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, they would be joined by the liberated territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland's historic partner in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, Napoleon
Napoleon
did not want to make a permanent decision that would tie his hands before his anticipated peace settlement with Russia. Nevertheless, he proclaimed the attack on Russia as a second Polish war. That peace settlement was not to be, however. Napoleon's Grande Armée, including a substantial contingent of Polish troops, set out with the purpose of bringing the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to its knees, but his military ambitions were frustrated by his failure to supply the army in Russia and Russia's refusal to surrender after the capture of Moscow; few returned from the march back. The failed campaign against Russia proved to be a major turning point in Napoleon's fortunes.

Polish uhlans from the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
1807–1815 January Suchodolski painting

After Napoleon's defeat in the east, most of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
was retaken by Russia in January 1813 during their advance on France and its allies. The rest of the Duchy was restored to Prussia. Although several isolated fortresses held out for more than a year, the existence of the state in anything but name came to an end. Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia
created a Provisional Highest Council of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
to govern the area through his generals. The Congress of Vienna, and the Fourth Partition[edit] Although many European states and ex-rulers were represented at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, the decision-making was largely in the hands of the major powers. It was perhaps inevitable, therefore, that both Prussia and Russia would effectively partition Poland
Poland
between them; Austria was to more-or-less retain its gains of the First Partition of 1772. Russia demanded to gain all territories of Duchy of Warsaw. It kept all its gains from the three previous partitions, together with Białystok
Białystok
and the surrounding territory that it had obtained in 1807. Its demands for the whole Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
were denied by other European powers. Prussia regained territory it had first gained in the First Partition, but had had to give up to the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1807. It also regained as the "Grand Duchy of Posen" (i.e., Poznań) some of the territory it had conquered in the Second Partition, and had again had to give up in 1807. This territory formed an area approximately 29,000 km² in size. The city of Kraków
Kraków
and some surrounding territory, previously part of the Duchy of Warsaw, were established as a semi-independent Free City of Kraków, under the "protection" of its three powerful neighbours. The city's territory measured some 1164 km², and had a population of about 88,000 people. The city was eventually annexed by Austria in 1846. Finally, the bulk of the former Duchy of Warsaw, measuring some 128,000 km in area, was re-established as what is commonly referred to as the "Congress Kingdom" of Poland, in personal union with the Russian Empire. De facto a Russian puppet state it maintained its separate status only until 1831, when it was effectively annexed to the Russian Empire. Legacy[edit]

Part of a series on

Polish statehood

Poland

Kingdom of the Piasts Kingdom of the Jagiellons Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Partitions of Poland Kingdom of Galicia Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Congress Poland) Free City of Cracow Grand Duchy of Posen Grand Duchy of Cracow Regency Kingdom of Poland Second Polish Republic Polish Underground State People's Republic of Poland Polish government-in-exile Republic of Poland

Poland
Poland
portal

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Superficially, the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
was just one of various states set up during Napoleon's dominance over the European continent, lasting only a few years and passing with his fall. However, its establishment a little over a decade after the Second and Third Partitions had appeared to wipe Poland
Poland
off the map meant that Poles
Poles
had their hopes rekindled of a resurrected Polish state. Even with Napoleon's defeat a Polish state continued in some form until the increasingly autocratic Russian state eliminated Poland
Poland
once again as a separate entity. Altogether, this meant that an identifiable Polish state was in existence for at least a quarter of a century. At the 200th anniversary of the creation of this iteration of the Polish state, numerous commemorative events dedicated to that event were held in the Polish capital of Warsaw. In addition the Polish Ministry of Defense asked the honour of holding a joint parade of Polish and French soldiers to which President Nicolas Sarkozy agreed.[3] Government and politics[edit] Constitution[edit] The Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
could be considered liberal for its time. It provided for a bicameral Sejm consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. A Council of Ministers functioned as the executive body of the Duchy. Serfdom was abolished and all classes were to be equal before the law. While Roman Catholicism was the state religion, religious tolerance was also guaranteed by the constitution. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative division
Administrative division
of Duchy of Warsaw The administrative divisions of Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
were based on departments, each headed by a prefect. This organization was based on the French model, as the entire Duchy was in fact created by Napoleon and based on French ideas, although departments were divided into Polish powiats (counties). There were 6 initial departments, after 1809 (after Napoleon's defeat of the Austrians and the Treaty of Schönbrunn) increased to 10 (as the Duchy territory increased). Each department was named after its capital city.

Map of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
1807–1809

In January 1807:

Warsaw
Warsaw
Department (Polish: Departament warszawski) Poznań Department
Poznań Department
(Polish: Departament poznański) Kalisz Department
Kalisz Department
(Polish: Departament kaliski) Bydgoszcz Department
Bydgoszcz Department
(Polish: Departament bydgoski) Płock Department
Płock Department
(Polish: Departament płocki) Łomża Department
Łomża Department
(Polish: Departament łomżyński) – for the first few months known as Białystok
Białystok
Department (Polish: Departament białostocki)[citation needed]

The above 6 departments were divided into 60 powiats.

Map of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
1809–1815

Added in 1809:

Kraków
Kraków
Department (Polish: Departament krakowski) Lublin Department
Lublin Department
(Polish: Departament lubelski) Radom Department
Radom Department
(Polish: Departament radomski) Siedlce Department
Siedlce Department
(Polish: Departament siedlecki)

Napoleon
Napoleon
conferring the Constitution in 1807

Military[edit] Main article: Army of the Duchy of Warsaw The duchy's armed forces were completely under French control via its war minister, Prince Józef Poniatowski, who was also a Marshal of France. In fact, the duchy was heavily militarized, bordered as it was by Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and Russia, and it was to be a significant source for troops in various campaigns of Napoleon. The duchy's army was of a considerable size when compared to the duchy's number of inhabitants. Initially consisting of 30,000 of regular soldiers (made up of both cavalry and infantry),[4] its numbers were to rise to over 60,000 in 1810, and by the time of Napoleon's campaign in Russia in 1812, its army totaled almost 120,000 troops (out of a total population of some 4.3 million people). Economy[edit] The heavy drain on its resources by forced military recruitment, combined with a drop in exports of grain, caused significant problems for the duchy's economy. To make matters worse, in 1808 the French Empire imposed on the duchy an agreement at Bayonne
Bayonne
to buy from France the debts owed to it by Prussia.[5] The debt, amounting to more than 43 million francs in gold, was bought at a discounted rate of 21 million francs.[5] However, although the duchy made its payments in installments to France over a four-year period, Prussia was unable to pay it (due to a very large indemnity it owed to France), causing the Polish economy to suffer heavily. Indeed, to this day the phrase "sum of Bayonne" is a synonym in Polish for a huge amount of money.[5] All these problems resulted in both inflation and over-taxation. To counter the threat of bankruptcy, the authorities intensified the development and modernisation of agriculture. Also, a protectionist policy was introduced to protect industry. Geography and demographics[edit] According to the Treaties of Tilsit, the area of the duchy covered roughly the areas of the 2nd and 3rd Prussian partitions, with the exception of Danzig (Gdańsk), which became the Free City of Danzig under joint French and Saxon "protection", and of the district around Białystok, which became part of Russia. The Prussian territory was made up of territory from the former Prussian provinces of New East Prussia, Southern Prussia, New Silesia, and West Prussia. In addition, the new state was given the area along the Noteć
Noteć
river and the Land of Chełmno. Altogether, the duchy had an initial area of around 104,000 km², with a population of approximately 2,600,000. The bulk of its inhabitants were Poles. Following the annexation in 1809 of parts of Austrian Galicia and the areas of Zamość
Zamość
and Kraków, the duchy's area increased significantly, to around 155,000 km², and the population also substantially increased, to roughly 4,300,000. According to the 1810 census, the duchy had a population of 4,334,000, of whom a clear majority were ethnic Poles, Jews constituted 7% of the inhabitants (perhaps an underestimation), Germans - 6%, Lithuanians and Ruthenians - 4%.[6] See also[edit]

History of Poland
Poland
(1795–1918) Polish Legions (Napoleonic period) Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1806) Congress Poland List of French possessions and colonies

References[edit]

^ Roberts, Andrew (2014). Napoleon: A Life. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780698176287. chap. 19 (no pg. no. in e-book). ^ Kolonizacja niemiecka w południowo-wschodniej cześci Królestwa Polskiego w latach 1815-1915 Wiesław Śladkowski Wydawn. Lubelskie, 1969, page 234 ^ "Druga Strona".  ^ Paul Robert Magocsi; Jean W. Sedlar; Robert A. Kann; Charles Jelavich; Joseph Rothschild (1974). A History of East Central Europe. University of Washington Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-295-95358-8. Retrieved 11 May 2012.  ^ a b c Paul Robert Magocsi; Jean W. Sedlar; Robert A. Kann; Charles Jelavich; Joseph Rothschild (1974). A History of East Central Europe. University of Washington Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-295-95358-8. Retrieved 11 May 2012.  ^ Czubaty, Jarosław (2016). The Duchy of Warsaw, 1807-1815: A Napoleonic Outpost in Central Europe. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 109. 

Further reading[edit]

Martyna Deszczyńska. "'As Poor as Church Mice': Bishops, Finances, Posts, and Civil Duties in the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807-13," Central Europe (2011) 9#1 pp 18–31. E. Fedosova (December 1998), Polish Projects of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, Journal of the International Napoleonic Society 1(2) Alexander Grab, Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Transformation of Europe (2003) pp 176–87 Otto Pivka (2012). Napoleon's Polish Troops. Osprey Publishing. pp. 8–10. 

External links[edit]

Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw

Text in Polish Text in German

Polish Army of the Napoleonic Wars Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Duchy of Warsaw Information about events marking 200th anniversary of establishing Duch of Warsaw, in Polish, also included photo gallery

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Coordinates: 52°14′00″N 21°01′00″E / 52.2333°N 21.0167°E

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