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DUBROVNIK ( ( listen ); historically RAGUSA) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
, in the region of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County . Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites .

The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade ; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa , it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy .

In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was besieged by the Serb and Montenegrin soldiers gathered in the Yugoslav People\'s Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling. After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Republic of Ragusa * 2.3 Languages * 2.4 Austrian rule * 2.5 1918–1991 * 2.6 Since 1991: Breakup of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and its aftermath

* 3 Heritage

* 3.1 Important monuments * 3.2 Walls of Dubrovnik
Walls of Dubrovnik

* 4 Demographics * 5 Transport * 6 Education * 7 Notable people * 8 Climate * 9 Sister cities

* 10 Gallery

* 10.1 Panorama

* 11 In popular culture * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

NAMES

The names Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, and of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.

The name Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin (1189). It is mostly explained as a Slavic name of the dubrava type, referring to an oak grove or oak forest; but Putanec (1993) interprets it as a corruption of a name derived from Epidaurus (i.e. dubr- as a reflex of -daur-).

The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν (Rhaousin, Latinized Ragusium) in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape"; from Greek ῥώξ, ῥωγός "narrow passage"; Greek ῥωγάς "ragged (of rocks)", ῥαγή (ῥαγάς) "fissure"; from the name of the Epirote tribe of the Rhogoi, from an unidentified "Illyrian " substrate. A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has also been proposed. Putanec (1993) gives a review of etymological suggestion, and favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek ("Pelasgian" ), from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa also found in the Greek name of Brač , Elaphousa.

The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine Porphyrogenitus 's De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
(10th century). According to this account, Ragusa (Ῥαούσιν) is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum ( Ragusa Vecchia
Ragusa Vecchia
), a Greek city situated some 15 km (9 mi) to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century. The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built (connected by Constantine to Greek λᾶας "rock, stone").

HISTORY

ORIGINS

According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus
Constantine Porphyrogenitus
's De Administrando Imperio (c. 950), Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, named for a "rocky island" called Lausa, by refugees from Epidaurum ( Ragusa Vecchia
Ragusa Vecchia
), a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions .

Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls . The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is also evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era.

Antun Ničetić, in his 1996 book Povijest dubrovačke luke ("History of the Port
Port
of Dubrovnik"), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was established by Greek sailors, as a station halfway between the two Greek settlements of Budva
Budva
and Korčula
Korčula
, 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart from each other.

REPUBLIC OF RAGUSA

Main article: Republic of Ragusa Medieval fortresses, Lovrijenac "> Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
before the earthquake in 1667

After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
in those medieval centuries had a Roman population. After the Crusades
Crusades
, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
came under the sovereignty of Venice
Venice
(1205–1358), which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. After a fire destroyed almost the whole city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed. By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
.

Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
ruled itself as a free state , although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and other Italian maritime republics.

For centuries, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was an ally of Ancona
Ancona
, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's chief rival for control of the Adriatic. This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona
Ancona
and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria - Germany
Germany
): starting in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
it went on to Ancona, through Florence
Florence
and ended in Flanders
Flanders
as seen on this map .

The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs. The Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine (for sanitary reasons).

The Republic was an early adopter of what are now regarded as modern laws and institutions: a medical service was introduced in 1301, with the first pharmacy , still operating to this day, being opened in 1317. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital (Lazarete) was established in 1377. Slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A 20 km (12 mi) water supply system , instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava. He completed the aqueduct with two public fountains. He also built a number of mills along one of its branches.

The city was ruled by the local aristocracy which was of Latin-Dalmatian extraction and formed two city councils . As usual for the time, they maintained a strict system of social classes . The republic abolished the slave trade early in the 15th century and valued liberty highly. The city successfully balanced its sovereignty between the interests of Venice
Venice
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for centuries.

The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and common Croatian. The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little since the 11th century among the common people who inhabited the city. Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in Dubrovnik. At the same time, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
became a cradle of Croatian literature
Croatian literature
. Big Onofrio's fountain (1438)

The economic wealth of the Republic was partially the result of the land it developed, but especially of seafaring trade. With the help of skilled diplomacy, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
merchants travelled lands freely and on the sea the city had a huge fleet of merchant ships (argosy) that travelled all over the world. From these travels they founded some settlements, from India to America, and brought parts of their culture and flora home with them. One of its keys to success was not conquering, but trading and sailing under a white flag with the word Latin
Latin
: Libertas (freedom) prominently featured on it. The flag was adopted when slave trading was abolished in 1418.

Many Conversos , Jews from Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
, were attracted to the city. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. During this time there worked in the city one of the most famous cannon and bell founders of his time: Ivan Rabljanin
Ivan Rabljanin
(Magister Johannes Baptista Arbensis de la Tolle). Already in 1571 Dubrovnik sold its protectorate over some Christian settlements in other parts of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to France
France
and Venice
Venice
. At that time there was also a colony of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
in Fes
Fes
in Morocco. The bishop of Dubrovnik was a Cardinal protector
Cardinal protector
in 1571. At that time there were only 16 other countries which had Cardinal protectors; those being France, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Poland, England, Scotland, Ireland, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, Lucca, Greece, Illyria, Armenia and Lebanon. Territory of the Republic before 1808

The Republic gradually declined due to a combination of a Mediterranean shipping crisis and the catastrophic earthquake of 1667 which killed over 5,000 citizens and levelled most of the public buildings, and consequently negatively impacted the whole well-being of the Republic. In 1699, the Republic was forced to sell two mainland patches of its territory to the Ottomans in order to avoid being caught in the clash with advancing Venetian forces. Today this strip of land belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and is that country's only direct access to the Adriatic. A highlight of Dubrovnik's diplomacy was the involvement in the American Revolution .

In 1806, the city surrendered to the Napoleonic army , as that was the only way to end a month-long siege by the Russian-Montenegrin fleets (during which 3,000 cannonballs fell on the city). At first, Napoleon demanded only free passage for his troops, promising not to occupy the territory and stressing that the French were friends of Dubrovnik. Later, however, French forces blockaded the harbours, forcing the government to give in and let French troops enter the city. On this day, all flags and coats of arms above the city walls were painted black as a sign of mourning. In 1808, Marshal Auguste de Marmont abolished the republic and integrated its territory first into Napoleon\'s Kingdom of Italy
Italy
and later into the Illyrian provinces under French rule. This was to last until 28 January 1814 when the city surrendered to Captain Sir William Hoste leading a body of British and Austrian troops who were besieging the fortress .

LANGUAGES

The official language until 1472 was Latin
Latin
. Later, the Senate of the Republic decided that the official language of the Republic would be the Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
dialect of the Romance Dalmatian language , and forbade the use of the Croatian language
Croatian language
in senatorial debate. The Gospari (the Aristocracy) held on to their language for many centuries, but it slowly disappeared.

The Italian language
Italian language
as spoken in the republic was heavily influenced by the Venetian language
Venetian language
and the Tuscan dialect . Italian took root among the Dalmatian-speaking merchant upper classes, as a result of Venetian influence.

AUSTRIAN RULE

When the Habsburg Empire annexed these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
, the new authorities implemented a bureaucratic administration, established the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, which had its own Sabor (Diet) or Parliament, based in the city of Zadar
Zadar
, and political parties such as the Autonomist Party and the People\'s Party . They introduced a series of modifications intended to slowly centralise the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structure. Unfortunately for the local residents, these steps largely failed, despite the intention of wanting to stimulate the economy. Once the personal, political and economic damage of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganisation of the Adriatic along national lines.

The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movement claiming ethnicity as the founding block toward a community—posed a particularly perplexing problem: Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a province ruled by the German-speaking Habsburg monarchy , with bilingual (Croatian- and Italian-speaking) elites that dominated the general population consisting of a Croatian Catholic majority (and a Slavic Orthodox minority). The "Libertas" Flag of Dubrovnik

In 1815, the former Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Government (its noble assembly) met for the last time in Ljetnikovac in Mokošica . Once again, extreme measures were taken to re-establish the Republic, but it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy was recognised by the Austrian Empire.

In 1832, Baron Šišmundo Getaldić-Gundulić (Sigismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola) (1795–1860) was elected Mayor of Dubrovnik, serving for 13 years; the Austrian government granted him the title of "Baron".

Count Rafael Pucić (Raffaele Pozza), (1828–1890) was elected for first time Podestà of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
in the year 1869 after this was re-elected in 1872, 1875, 1882, 1884) and elected twice into the Dalmatian Council, 1870, 1876. The victory of the Nationalists in Split in 1882 strongly affected in the areas of Korčula
Korčula
and Dubrovnik. It was greeted by the mayor (podestà) of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Rafael Pucić, the National Reading Club of Dubrovnik, the Workers Association of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and the review "Slovinac"; by the communities of Kuna and Orebić, the latter one getting the nationalist government even before Split. Unveiling of the Gundulić monument in 1893

In 1889, the Serb-Catholics circle supported Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola , the candidate of the Autonomous Party , vs the candidate of Popular Party Vlaho de Giulli , in the 1890 election to the Dalmatian Diet. The following year, during the local government election, the Autonomous Party won the municipal re-election with Francesco Gondola, who died in power in 1899. The alliance won the election again on 27 May 1894. Frano Getaldić-Gundulić
Frano Getaldić-Gundulić
founded the Società Philately on 4 December 1890.

In 1905, the Committee for establishing electric tram service , headed by Luko Bunić – certainly one of the most deserving persons who contributed to the realisation of the project – was established. Other members of the Committee were Ivo Papi, Miho Papi, Artur Saraka, Mato Šarić, Antun Pugliesi, Mato Gracić, Ivo Degiulli, Ernest Katić and Antun Milić. The tram service in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
existed from 1910 to 1970.

Pero Čingrija (1837–1921), one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia, played the main role in the merger of the People's Party and the Party of Right into a single Croatian Party in 1905.

1918–1991

With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
). Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
became one of the 33 oblasts of the Kingdom. When in 1929 Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was divided among 9 Banovina , the city became part of the Zeta Banovina . In 1939 Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
became part of the newly created Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
.

During World War II
World War II
, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
became part of the Nazi -puppet Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Yugoslav Partisans occupied Dubrovnik, arresting more than 300 citizens and executing 53 without trial; this event came to be known, after the small island on which it occurred, as the Daksa Massacre
Daksa Massacre
. Communist leadership during the next several years continued political prosecutions, which culminated on 12 April 1947 with the capture and imprisonment of more than 90 citizens of Dubrovnik.

Under communism Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
. In 1979, the city joined the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites.

SINCE 1991: BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA AND ITS AFTERMATH

Main article: Siege of Dubrovnik Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
shelling (black dots) 1991 to 1992

In 1991 Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Croatia
was renamed Republic of Croatia
Croatia
.

Despite demilitarisation of the old town in early 1970s in an attempt to prevent it from ever becoming a casualty of war, following Croatia's independence in 1991 Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
's Yugoslav People\'s Army (JNA), by then composed primarily of Serbs, attacked the city. The new Croatian government set up military outpost in the city itself. Montenegro
Montenegro
, led by president Momir Bulatović , and prime minister Milo Đukanović , coming to power in the Anti-bureaucratic revolution and allied to Slobodan Milošević in Serbia, declared that Dubrovnik would not remain in Croatia
Croatia
because they claimed it historically had never been part of Croatia
Croatia
. This was in spite of the large Croat majority in the city and that very few Montenegrins resided there, though Serbs accounted for 6.8 percent of the population.

On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was attacked by JNA with a siege of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
that lasted for seven months. The heaviest artillery attack was on December 6 with 19 people killed and 60 wounded. The number of casualties in the conflict, according to Croatian Red Cross , was 114 killed civilians, among them poet Milan Milišić . Foreign newspapers were criticised for placing heavier attention on the damage suffered by the old town than on human casualties. Nonetheless, the artillery attacks on Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
damaged 56% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds. The Croatian Army lifted the siege in May 1992, and liberated Dubrovnik\'s surroundings by the end of October, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years.

Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Adhering to UNESCO
UNESCO
guidelines, repairs were performed in the original style. Most of the reconstruction work was done between 1995 and 1999. The inflicted damage can be seen on a chart near the city gate , showing all artillery hits during the siege, and is clearly visible from high points around the city in the form of the more brightly coloured new roofs. ICTY indictments were issued for JNA generals and officers involved in the bombing.

General Pavle Strugar , who coordinated the attack on the city, was sentenced to a seven-and-a-half-year prison term by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
for his role in the attack.

The 1996 Croatia
Croatia
USAF CT-43 crash , near Dubrovnik Airport , killed everyone on a United States Air Force
United States Air Force
jet with United States
United States
Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown , The New York Times
The New York Times
Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash and 33 other people.

HERITAGE

OLD CITY OF DUBROVNIK

Native name Croatian : Stari grad Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik

The Old Harbour at Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik

LOCATION Dubrovnik-Neretva County , Croatia
Croatia

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

TYPE Cultural

CRITERIA i, iii, iv

DESIGNATED 1979 (3rd Session )

REFERENCE NO. 95

EXTENSION 1994

ENDANGERED 1991–1998

CULTURAL GOOD OF CROATIA

Official name: Stari grad Dubrovnik

The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a 45-day-long cultural event with live plays, concerts, and games. It has been awarded a Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade
Trade
Leaders Club.

The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise) , whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice. One of the larger churches in city is named after Saint Blaise. February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise) , who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days. Lapad peninsula Banje beach, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik

The Old Town of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.

The city boasts of many old buildings, such as the Arboretum Trsteno , the oldest arboretum in the world, dating back to before 1492. Also, the third oldest European pharmacy is located in the city, which dates back to 1317 (and is the only one still in operation today). It is located at Little Brothers monastery in Dubrovnik.

In history, many Conversos (Marranos ) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. Another admirer of Dubrovnik, George Bernard Shaw , visited the city in 1929 and said: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."

In the bay of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is the 72-hectare (180-acre) wooded island of Lokrum , where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart, King of England , was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden , monastery and naturist beach .

Among the many tourist destinations are a few beaches. Banje, Dubrovnik's main public beach , is home to the Eastwest Beach
Beach
Club. There is also Copacabana Beach, a stony beach on the Lapad peninsula, named after the popular beach in Rio de Janeiro .

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
has also been mentioned in popular film and theatre. In the 1997 film 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea with Michael Caine
Michael Caine
, one of the characters said to have been dreaming of fairy from Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(motive known from local legends and literature).

IMPORTANT MONUMENTS

Rooftops in Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Remote view of Dubrovnik Cathedral
Dubrovnik Cathedral
Bokar fortress Aerial view of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
from the southwest

Few of Dubrovnik's Renaissance buildings survived the earthquake of 1667 but fortunately enough remained to give an idea of the city's architectural heritage. The finest Renaissance highlight is the Sponza Palace which dates from the 16th century and is currently used to house the National Archives. The Rector\'s Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure that displays finely carved capitals and an ornate staircase. It now houses a museum. Its façade is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002. The St. Saviour Church is another remnant of the Renaissance period, next to the much-visited Franciscan Church and Monastery
Monastery
. The Franciscan monastery's library possesses 30,000 volumes, 216 incunabula, 1,500 valuable handwritten documents. Exhibits include a 15th-century silver-gilt cross and silver thurible , and an 18th-century crucifix from Jerusalem, a martyrology (1541) by Bemardin Gucetic and illuminated psalters .

Dubrovnik's most beloved church is St Blaise\'s church , built in the 18th century in honour of Dubrovnik's patron saint. Dubrovnik's Baroque Cathedral was built in the 18th century and houses an impressive Treasury with relics of Saint Blaise . The city's Dominican Monastery
Monastery
resembles a fortress on the outside but the interior contains an art museum and a Gothic-Romanesque church. A special treasure of the Dominican monastery is its library with 216 incunabula , numerous illustrated manuscripts, a rich archive with precious manuscripts and documents and an extensive art collection.

The Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava completed the aqueduct with two public fountains, both built in 1438. Close to the Pile Gate stands the Big Onofrio's Fountain in the middle of a small square. It may have been inspired by the former Romanesque baptistry of the former cathedral in Bunić Square. The sculptural elements were lost in the earthquake of 1667. Water jets gush out of the mouth of the sixteen mascarons . The Little Onofrio's Fountain stands at the eastern side of the Placa, supplying water the market place in the Luža Square. The sculptures ware made by the Milanese artist Pietro di Martino (who also sculpted the ornaments in the Rector's Palace and made a statue – now lost – for the Franciscan church).

The 31-metre-high (102 ft) bell tower, built in 1444, is one of the symbols of the free city state of Ragusa. It was built by the local architects Grubačević, Utišenović and Radončić. It was rebuilt in 1929 as it had lost its stability through an earthquake and was in danger of falling. The brass face of the clock shows the phases of the moon. Two human figures strike the bell every hour. The tower stands next to the House of the Main Guard, also built in Gothic style. It was the residence of the admiral, commander-in-chief of the army. The Baroque portal was built between 1706 and 1708 by the Venetian architect Marino Gropelli (who also built St Blaise's church).

The Republic of Ragusa, as Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was then named, erected in 1418 the statue of Roland (Ital. Orlando) as a symbol of loyalty to Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368–1437), King of Hungary and Croatia
Croatia
(as of 1387), Prince-Elector of Brandenburg (between 1378 and 1388 and again between 1411 and 1415), German King (as of 1411), King of Bohemia (as of 1419) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (as of 1433), who helped by a successful war alliance against Venice
Venice
to retain Ragusa's independence. It stands in the middle of Luža Square. Roland statues were typical symbols of city autonomy or independence, often erected under Sigismund in his Electorate of Brandenburg. In 1419 the sculptor Bonino of Milano , with the help of local craftsmen, replaced the first Roland with the present Gothic statue. Its forearm was for a long time the unit of measure in Dubrovnik: one ell of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is equal to 51.2 cm (20.2 in).

WALLS OF DUBROVNIK

Main article: Walls of Dubrovnik
Walls of Dubrovnik

A feature of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is its walls (1.1 million visitors in 2016) that run almost 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) around the city. The walls are 4 to 6 metres (13–20 feet) thick on the landward side but are much thinner on the seaward side. The system of turrets and towers were intended to protect the vulnerable city. The walls of Dubrovnik have also been a popular filming location for the fictional city of King's Landing in the HBO
HBO
television series, Game of Thrones .

DEMOGRAPHICS

Historical populations of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik

YEAR POP. ±%

1880 15,666 —

1890 15,329 −2.2%

1900 17,384 +13.4%

1910 18,396 +5.8%

1921 16,719 −9.1%

1931 20,420 +22.1%

1948 21,778 +6.7%

1953 24,296 +11.6%

1961 27,793 +14.4%

1971 35,628 +28.2%

1981 46,025 +29.2%

1991 51,597 +12.1%

2001 43,770 −15.2%

2011 42,615 −2.6%

Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005

Franjo Tuđman Bridge (Dubrovnik)

The total population of the city is 42,615 (census 2011), in the following settlements :

* Bosanka , population 139 * Brsečine , population 96 * Čajkovica , population 160 * Čajkovići , population 26 * Donje Obuljeno , population 210 * Dubravica , population 37 * DUBROVNIK, population 28,434 * Gornje Obuljeno , population 124 * Gromača , population 146 * Kliševo , population 54 * Knežica , population 133 * Koločep
Koločep
, population 163 * Komolac , population 320 * Lopud
Lopud
, population 249 * Lozica , population 146 * Ljubač , population 69 * Mokošica , population 1,924 * Mravinjac , population 88 * Mrčevo , population 90 * Nova Mokošica , population 6,016 * Orašac , population 631 * Osojnik , population 301 * Petrovo Selo , population 23 * Pobrežje , population 118 * Prijevor , population 453 * Rožat
Rožat
, population 340 * Suđurađ , population 207 * Sustjepan , population 323 * Šipanska Luka , population 211 * Šumet , population 176 * Trsteno , population 222 * Zaton , population 985

The population was 42,615 in 2011, down from 49,728 in 1991 In the 2011 census, 90.34% of the population was Croat .

TRANSPORT

Dubrovnik Airport is the third busiest airport in Croatia.

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
has an international airport of its own. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
city centre, near Čilipi . Buses connect the airport with the Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
old main bus station in Gruž . In addition, a network of modern, local buses connects all Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
neighbourhoods running frequently from dawn to midnight. However, Dubrovnik, unlike Croatia's other major centres, is not accessible by rail; until 1975 Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was connected to Mostar and Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by a narrow gauge railway (760 mm) built during the Austro-Hungarian rule of Bosnia .

The A1 highway, in use between Zagreb
Zagreb
and Ploče , is planned to be extended all the way to Dubrovnik. Because the area around the city is disconnected from the rest of Croatian territory, the highway will either cross the Pelješac Bridge
Pelješac Bridge
whose construction is currently stalled, or run through Neum
Neum
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and continue to Dubrovnik.

EDUCATION

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
has a number of educational institutions. These include Dubrovnik International University , the University of Dubrovnik , a Nautical College, a Tourism College, a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb
Zagreb
, American College of Management and Technology , Diocesan Classical Gymnasium "Ruđer Bošković" in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts .

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Franco Sacchetti (Ragusa, 1332 – San Miniato , 1400), poet and Italian novelist * Benedetto Cotrugli
Benedetto Cotrugli
(Ragusa, 1416 – L\'Aquila , 1469), humanist and economist. * Rajmund Zamanja
Rajmund Zamanja
(Ragusa, 1587 – Ragusa, 1647), theologist, philosopher and linguist. * Elio Lampridio Cerva (Ragusa, 1463 – 1520), humanist, poet and lexicographer of Latin language
Latin language
* Marin Držić (Ragusa, 1508 – Venice, 1567), playwright, poet and dramaturge, primarily in Shtokavian language * Nicolò Sagri (it) (Ragusa, ? – Manfredonia , 1573), mathematician and astronomer * Marino Ghetaldi (Ragusa, 1568 – 1626), mathematician * Giorgio Raguseo
Giorgio Raguseo
(Ragusa, 1580 – 1622), Italian philosopher, theologian, and orator * Fran Đivo Gundulić (Djivo, Gundulić) (Ragusa, 1588 – 1638), writer and poet, in Shtokavian * Anselmo Banduri (Ragusa, 1671 – Paris
Paris
, 1743), numismatist and antiquarian * Ante Tomić (Dubrovnik, 1987), basketball player * Matija Ban (Dubrovnik, 1818), poet, dramatist, and playwright, one of the first member of Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik * Mato Vodopić (Dubrovnik, 1816), bishop of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
* Konstantin Vojnović (Dubrovnik, 1832), politician, university professor and rector in the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
* Mario Hezonja
Mario Hezonja
(Dubrovnik, 1995), basketball player * Ana Konjuh (Dubrovnik, 1997), tennis player * Alen Halilović (Dubrovnik, 1996), football player * Emir Spahić (Dubrovnik, 1980), Bosnian football player * Nikola Prkačin (Dubrovnik, 1975), basketball player * Lukša Andrić (Dubrovnik, 1985), basketball player * Hrvoje Perić (Dubrovnik, 1985), basketball player * Andro Knego (Dubrovnik, 1956), basketball player * Nikša Dobud (Dubrovnik, 1985), water polo player, Olympic and World champion * Sandro Sukno (Dubrovnik, 1990), water polo player, Olympic and World champion * Paulo Obradović
Paulo Obradović
(Dubrovnik, 1986), water polo player, Olympic and World champion * Frano Vićan (Dubrovnik, 1976), water polo player, Olympic, World and European champion * Maro Joković (Dubrovnik, 1987), water polo player, Olympic, World and European champion * Miho Bošković (Dubrovnik, 1983), water polo player, Olympic, World and European champion * Andro Bušlje (Dubrovnik, 1986), water polo player, Olympic, World and European champion * Dragan Andrić (Dubrovnik, 1962), Serbian water polo player, two-time Olympic champion * Andrija Prlainović
Andrija Prlainović
(Dubrovnik, 1987), Serbian water polo player, Olympic, World and European champion * Vlado Georgiev (Dubrovnik, 1976), Serbian pop singer, composer, and songwriter

CLIMATE

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, since only one summer month has less than 40 mm (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. It has hot, muggy, moderately dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The Bora wind blows cold gusts down the Adriatic coast between October and April, and thundery conditions are common all the year round, even in summer, when they interrupt the warm, sunny days. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Typically, in July and August daytime maximum temperatures reach 28 °C (82 °F), and at night drop to around 23 °C (73 °F). In Spring and Autumn maximum temperatures are typically between 20 °C (68 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F). Winters are among the mildest of any Croatian city, with daytime temperatures around 13 °C (55 °F) in the coldest months. Snow in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is very rare.

* Air temperature

* average annual: 16.4 °C (61.5 °F) * average of coldest period: January, 10 °C (50 °F) * average of warmest period: August, 25.8 °C (78.4 °F)

* Sea temperature

* average May–September: 17.9–23.8 °C (64.2–74.8 °F)

* Salinity
Salinity

* approximately 3.8%

* Precipitation
Precipitation

* average annual: 1,020.8 mm (40.19 in) * average annual rain days: 109.2

* Sunshine

* average annual: 2629 hours * average daily hours: 7.2 hours

CLIMATE DATA FOR DUBROVNIK (1971–2000, EXTREMES 1961–2015)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.4 (65.1) 24.1 (75.4) 23.0 (73.4) 26.3 (79.3) 32.9 (91.2) 35.7 (96.3) 36.3 (97.3) 38.4 (101.1) 33.5 (92.3) 30.5 (86.9) 25.4 (77.7) 20.3 (68.5) 38.4 (101.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 12.3 (54.1) 12.6 (54.7) 14.4 (57.9) 16.9 (62.4) 21.5 (70.7) 25.3 (77.5) 28.2 (82.8) 28.5 (83.3) 25.1 (77.2) 21.1 (70) 16.6 (61.9) 13.4 (56.1) 19.7 (67.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 9.4 (48.9) 11.1 (52) 13.8 (56.8) 18.3 (64.9) 22.0 (71.6) 24.6 (76.3) 24.8 (76.6) 21.4 (70.5) 17.6 (63.7) 13.3 (55.9) 10.3 (50.5) 16.3 (61.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 6.8 (44.2) 8.4 (47.1) 11.0 (51.8) 15.3 (59.5) 18.9 (66) 21.4 (70.5) 21.6 (70.9) 18.4 (65.1) 14.9 (58.8) 10.7 (51.3) 7.8 (46) 13.5 (56.3)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.0 (19.4) −5.2 (22.6) −4.2 (24.4) 1.6 (34.9) 5.2 (41.4) 10.0 (50) 14.1 (57.4) 14.1 (57.4) 8.5 (47.3) 4.5 (40.1) −1.0 (30.2) −6.0 (21.2) −7.0 (19.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 98.3 (3.87) 97.9 (3.854) 93.1 (3.665) 91.4 (3.598) 70.1 (2.76) 44.0 (1.732) 28.3 (1.114) 72.5 (2.854) 86.1 (3.39) 120.1 (4.728) 142.3 (5.602) 119.8 (4.717) 1,064 (41.89)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 11.2 11.2 11.2 12.0 9.4 6.4 4.7 5.1 7.2 10.8 12.4 12.0 113.6

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 59.9 58.4 61.2 64.2 66.7 63.8 58.2 59.2 61.9 62.2 62.4 60.3 61.5

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 130.2 144.1 179.8 207.0 266.6 312.0 347.2 325.5 309.0 189.1 135.0 124.0 2,669.5

Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service
Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service

SISTER CITIES

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia
Croatia

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is twinned with:

* Ravenna
Ravenna
, Italy
Italy
(since 1967) * Vukovar
Vukovar
, Croatia
Croatia
(since 1993) * Graz
Graz
, Austria
Austria
(since 1994)

* Helsingborg
Helsingborg
, Sweden
Sweden
(since 1996) * Ragusa , Italy
Italy
(since 2000) * Bad Homburg , Germany
Germany
(since 2002)

* Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 2007)' * Monterey , California
California
, United States
United States
(since 2007) * Rueil-Malmaison
Rueil-Malmaison
, France
France
since (2011)

GALLERY

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

PANORAMA

Panoramic view of the Old Town of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Aerial view

IN POPULAR CULTURE

The HBO
HBO
series Game of Thrones used Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
as a filming location , representing the cities of King\'s Landing and Qarth . Locations used in filming include Arboretum Trsteno , St. Dominic Street, Lokrum Island, The Knežev dvor and Sponza palaces, Lovrijenac , the abandoned Hotel Belvedere, Fort Bokar, and the Minčeta tower. Parts of Star Wars: The Last Jedi were filmed in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
in March 2016. Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was one of the European sites used in the Bollywood movie Fan (2016), starring Shah Rukh Khan . In early 2017, Robin Hood was filmed on locations in Dubrovnik. In Kander and Ebb's song "Ring Them Bells," the protagonist, Shirley Devore, goes to Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
to look for a husband and meets her neighbor from New York.

SEE ALSO

* Croatia
Croatia
portal

* Dalmatia
Dalmatia
* Dubrovnik chess set * List of people from Dubrovnik * Republic of Ragusa * Tourism in Croatia
Croatia
* Walls of Dubrovnik
Walls of Dubrovnik
* Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik

REFERENCES

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Dubrovnik
bombing". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2017. * ^ "Anniversary Of Attack On Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Peterjon Cresswell; Ismay Atkins & Lily Dunn (2006). Time Out Croatia
Croatia
(First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd. & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1 . Retrieved 10 March 2010. * Robin Harris (2003). Dubrovnik, A History. London: Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-332-5 . * Adriana Kremenjaš-Daničić, ed. (2006). Roland's European Paths. Dubrovnik: Europski dom Dubrovnik. ISBN 953-95338-0-5 . * Marko Kovac (February 4, 2003). "Dubrovnik\'s Heritage Under Threat". BBC News Online
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. * Frank McDonald (July 18, 2008). "The \'Pearl\' loses its lustre". The Irish Times
The Irish Times
. Retrieved March 2, 2017. * Joshua Wright (June 7, 2004). "Will greed tarnish Croatia\'s gem?". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved March 2, 2017.

FURTHER READING

* "Ragusa", Bradshaw\'s Hand-Book to the Turkish Empire , 1: Turkey in Europe, London: W.J. Adams, c. 1872 * David Kay (1880), "Principal Towns: Ragusa", Austria-Hungary, Foreign Countries and British Colonies, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington * R. Lambert Playfair
Lambert Playfair
(1892). "Ragusa". Handbook to the Mediterranean (3rd ed.). London: J. Murray . * "Ragusa". Austria-Hungary, Including Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Bosnia. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. 1905. OCLC
OCLC
344268 . * F. K. Hutchinson (1909). "Ragusa". Motoring in the Balkans. Chicago: McClurg & Co. OCLC
OCLC
8647011 . Retrieved 2016-02-10. * Trudy Ring, ed. (1996). "Dubrovnik". Southern Europe. International Dictionary of Historic Places. 3. Fitzroy Dearborn. OCLC 31045650 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to DUBROVNIK .

* Official website * UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre: Old City of Dubrovnik * Encyclopædia Britannica.com: Dubrovnik * Youtube.com: Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
— digital video reconstruction — by GRAIL at Washington University. * The dictionary definition of dubrovnik at Wiktionary *

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