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_DRAVYASAṃGRAHA_ (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text
Jain text
in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit
Prakrit
by Acharya Nemicandra belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 _gathas _ (verses) giving an exposition of the six _dravyas _ (substances) that characterize the Jain
Jain
view of the world: sentient _(jīva )_, non-sentient _(pudgala )_, principle of motion _(dharma )_, principle of rest _(adharma)_, space _(ākāśa)_ and time _(kāla )_. It is one of the most important Jain
Jain
works and has gained widespread popularity. _Dravyasaṃgraha_ has played an important role in Jain
Jain
education and is often memorized because of its comprehensiveness as well as brevity.

CONTENTS

* 1 Author * 2 Influence

* 3 Contents and overview

* 3.1 The six dravyas * 3.2 Tattvas * 3.3 Moksa

* 4 Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * 5 Commentaries * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References

AUTHOR

Main article: Nemichandra

10th century Jain
Jain
Acarya , Nemicandra Siddhānta Cakravartin is regarded as the author of _Dravyasaṃgraha_. He was the teacher of Camundaraya —the general of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka
Karnataka
. Nemicandra was a prolific author and a specialist in summarizing and giving lucidly the essence of teachings in various fields; _saṃgrahas_ (compendium) and _sāras_ (essence) were his specialty. He also wrote _Trilokasāra_ (essence of cosmology), _Labdhisāra_ (essence of attainments), _Kṣapaṇasāra_ (essence on destruction of karmas), and _Gommaṭasāra_ (essence of Gommata, a treatise on soul and Karma). Although not much is known about him from his own works, at the end of the _Trilokasāra_ and of the _Gommaṭasāra_, he introduces himself as a pupil of Abhayanandi, Vīranandi, Indranandi and Kanakanandi. He is said to have inspired Camundaraya to build the famous Bāhubali statue at Shravanabelagola . _Vahuvali Charitra_ (a Jain
Jain
work based on collection of traditions) notes that Nemicandra belonged to the monastic order of Desiya gana. After establishing the statue of Bāhubali, Camundaraya offered villages yielding a revenue of 96,000 gold coins to Nemicandra for daily worship of and festivals for Gommatesvara (Lord Bāhubali).

INFLUENCE

English translation by Nalini Balbir

_Dravyasaṃgraha_ has played an important role in Jain
Jain
education and is often memorized because of its comprehensiveness and brevity. The composition of _Dravyasaṃgraha_ is influenced from the earlier Jain works such as Umāsvāti’s _Tattvārthasūtra _ and Kundakunda 's _Pañcāstikāyasara _ because these works are based on the same topics as the _Dravyasaṃgraha_.

CONTENTS AND OVERVIEW

According to Nalini Balbir , the _Dravyasaṃgraha_ is largely a work of definitions of concepts with mnemonic perspective. In its 58 verses, the author makes skillful use of _āryā metre _. Nemicandra’s presentation is often articulated around the opposition between the conventional and the absolute points of view (_vyavahāra_ and _niścaya-naya_), or around the contrast between the material and the spiritual angles (_dravya_ and _bhāva_). Sarat Chandra Ghoshal, the translator of _Dravyasaṃgraha_, divides the entire text in three convenient parts—the first part deals with six dravyas (verses 1–27), the second with seven tattvas (verses 28–39) and the third part describes the way to attain liberation (verses 40–57).

THE SIX DRAVYAS

Main article: Dravya
Dravya
(Jainism)

In tine opening verse, along with the usual _mangalacharana_ (eulogy), it is mentioned that dravya consists of _jiva _ and _ajiva _. In the second verse Jiva is defined:

The sentient substance (soul) is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions (doer), is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer (of its actions), located in the world of rebirth (samsara ) (or) emancipated _(moksa )_ (and) has the intrinsic movement upwards. — Dravyasamgraha—2

The various characteristics of Jiva mentioned in the definition are taken up one by one in verses 3–14. _Dravyasaṃgraha_ classifies the embodied souls on the basis of the number of senses possessed by it: from one to five senses. After this detailed description of Jivas the author proceeds to describe Ajivas —_ Pudgala
Pudgala
, Dharma , adharma, Akasa_ and _Kala,_ each of which is defined in verses 16–22. Among these, as per verse 23, the _Jiva, pudgala, dharma, adharma,_ and _akasa_ are called _astikayas_, the extensibles or conglomerates.

TATTVAS

Main article: Tattva (Jainism)

The second part deals with the seven tattvas (fundamental principles or verities): jīva (soul), ajīva (non soul), āsrava (karmic inflow), bandha (bondage of karmas), saṃvara (stoppage of karmas), nirjarā (shedding of karmas) and mokṣa (emancipation or liberation). Together with puṇya (merit or beneficial karma) and pāpa (demerit or harmful karma) they form nine _padartha_. Some call all nine as _navatattava_ or nine _tattvas_.

MOKSA

Main article: Moksa (Jainism)

The third part of _Dravyasaṃgraha_ begins with verse 39 describing the means to attain liberation from conventional and real point of views. The three jewels of Jainism
Jainism
also known as _Ratnatraya _—Samyak darśana (rational perception), samyak jñāna (rational knowledge) and samyak cāritra (rational conduct)—which are essential in achieving liberation—are defined and the importance of _dhyāna _ (meditation) is emphasized. On meditation, Nemicandra says:

Do not be deluded, do not be attached, do not feel aversion for things which are (respectively) dear or not dear (to you), if you desire a steady mind for the attainment of extraordinary meditation. — Dravyasamgraha—48

Do not act, do not talk, do not think at all, so that the soul is steady and is content in the self. This indeed is supreme meditation. — Dravyasaṃgraha (56)

PAñCA-PARAMEṣṭHI

Main article: Pañca-Parameṣṭhi Obeisance to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings)

Verses 49 to 54 of the Dravyasaṃgraha, succinctly characterizes the five Supreme Beings (_Pañca-Parameṣṭhi_) and their characteristics.

Having destroyed the four inimical varieties of karmas (ghātiyā karmas), possessed of infinite faith, happiness, knowledge and power, and housed in most auspicious body (paramaudārika śarīra), that pure soul of the World Teacher (Arhat) should be meditated on. — _Dravyasaṃgraha_ (50)

COMMENTARIES

One of the most popular commentaries of _Dravyasaṃgraha_ is that by Brahmadeva from around the 14th century. Other commentaries on the work include:

* Balacandra (1142) – Tika on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha * Mallisena (1292) – Commentary on Nemicandra Siddhantin's Dravyasamgraha * Brahmadeva (1300) – Vrtti on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha * Hamsaraja (1750) – Commentary on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha. * Ramacandra – Commentary on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha.

Wikisource has original text related to this article: DRAVYASAMGRAHA

SEE ALSO

* Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
* Jainism
Jainism
* List of Jain
Jain
texts

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 1 of Introduction * ^ Nemicandra; Brahmadeva, Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 2 of Introduction * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Nemicandra; Brahmadeva, Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 4 * ^ Nemicandra; Brahmadeva, Brahmadeva, Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 20 * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 22 * ^ Nemicandra; Brahmadeva, & Ghoshal, Sarat Chandra (1989) pg. xlv- xlvi of introduction * ^ Jain
Jain
2013 , p. 177-196. * ^ Jain
Jain
2013 , p. 177. * ^ Potter, Prof. Karl. "Bibliography of Indian Philosophies: 10th to 14th centuries and 15th century – present (Texts whose authors can be dated)". _The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies_. University of Washington. Retrieved 2010-01-14.

REFERENCES

* Jain, Vijay K. (2013), _Ācārya Nemichandra\'s Dravyasaṃgraha_, ISBN 9788190363952 , Non-copyright * Acarya Nemicandra; Brahmadeva (1989), Ghoshal, Sarat Chandra, ed., _Dravya-saṃgraha of Nemichandra Siddhānta-Chakravarttī_ (in English, Prakrit, and Sanskrit), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ, ISBN 81-208-0634-4 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010), _Dravyasamgrha: Exposition of the Six Substances_, Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series (vol-19) (in Prakrit
Prakrit
and English), Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay , ISBN 978-81-88769-30-8 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * _श्रीमद् नेमिचन्द्र सिद्धान्तदेव जी विरचित: "श्री द्रव्यसंग्रह जी"_, Aadhyatmik Prayogshala

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