The ORDER OF PREACHERS (
Latin : Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal
abbreviation O.P.), also known as the DOMINICAN ORDER, is a mendicant
Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of
France , approved by
Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III via the papal bull
Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are
referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O.P. after
their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order
of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars , nuns , active
sisters, and affiliated lay or secular Dominicans (formerly known as
tertiaries , though recently there has been a growing number of
associates who are unrelated to the tertiaries ).
Founded to preach the
Gospel and to oppose heresy , the teaching
activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the
Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages
. The order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced
many leading theologians and philosophers . The
Dominican Order is
headed by the Master of the Order , currently
Bruno Cadoré .
In the year 2000, there were 5,171 Dominican friars in solemn vows ,
917 student brothers, and 237 novices . By the year 2013 there were
6,058 Dominican friars, including 4,470 priests.
A number of other names have been used to refer to both the order and
England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred
to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear
over their white habits . Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed
to "Whitefriars" (i.e.,
Carmelites ) or "Greyfriars" (i.e.,
Franciscans ). They are also distinct from the Augustinian Friars (the
Austin friars ) who wear a similar habit.
France , the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their
Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques , now
disappeared, on the way to
Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas , which belonged
to the Italian
Order of Saint James of Altopascio
Order of Saint James of Altopascio (St. James )
Sanctus Iacobus in Latin.
Saint Dominic (1170–1221), portrayed in the
Fra Angelico . Galleria Nazionale dell\'Umbria ,
Perugia . Dominic
saw the need for a new type of organisation to address the needs of
his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education
of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the
burgeoning population of cities, but with more organisational
flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy .
* Their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they
were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord".
* 1 Foundation
* 1.2 Albigensians
* 1.3 Dominican convent established
* 2 History
* 2.2 Reformation to
* 2.3 19th century to present
* 3 Divisions
* 3.2 Sisters
* 3.3 Priestly Fraternities of St. Dominic
* 4 Spirituality
* 4.1 Dominican spirituality
* 4.2 Blessed Humbert
* 4.4 Charity and meekness
* 5 Missionary activity
* 5.1 Mysticism
* 5.2 Women
* 5.3 English Province
* 6 Mottoes
* 7 Famous members
* 8 By geography
* 9 Educational institutions
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 11.1 Works cited
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Saint Dominic on the front cover of Doctrina Christiana
catechism with an eight-pointed star (a symbol of the Blessed Virgin
Mary ) over his head. Woodcut cover, circa 1590
Dominican Order came into being in the
Middle Ages at a time when
religion began to be contemplated in a new way. Men of God were no
longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they
travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of
the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of
mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi
; the other, the Friars Preachers, by
Dominic of Guzman
Dominic of Guzman . Like his
contemporary, Francis, Dominic saw the need for a new type of
organization, and the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans
during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of
mendicant friars met a need.
Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring
the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders
Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the
burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational
flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy.
Dominic's new order was to be a preaching order, trained to preach in
the vernacular languages. Rather than earning their living on vast
farms as the monasteries had done, the new friars would survive by
begging, "selling" themselves through persuasive preaching.
Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a
deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the
religious state, and a highly developed governmental structure. At
the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a
"mixed" spirituality. They were both active in preaching, and
contemplative in study, prayer and meditation. The brethren of the
Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and
mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women
of the order, the nuns especially absorbed the latter characteristics
and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican
nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of
English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and
collective personality that set them apart.
The order's origins in battling heterodoxy influenced its later
development and reputation. Many later Dominicans battled heresy as
part of their apostolate. Indeed, many years after St. Dominic reacted
to the Cathars, the first Grand Inquistor of
Spain , Tomás de
Torquemada , would be drawn from the Dominican Order.
Saint Dominic (1170–1221), portrait by
El Greco , about 1600
As an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the
Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his
Palencia , Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine,
prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment
to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin
Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral
chapter and he became a regular canon under the Rule of Saint
Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of
Osma . At
the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the
In 1203, Dominic joined Prior
Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark
for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of
Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of
Denmark . At that time the south of
France was the stronghold of the
Albigensian heresy, named after the Duke of
Albi , a Cathar
sympathiser and opponent to the subsequent
(1209–1229). Dominic was fired by a reforming zeal after they
Albigensian Christians at
The Albigensians, more commonly known as the Cathars , were a
heretical gnostic sect, holding that matter was evil and only spirit
was good; this was a fundamental challenge to the notion of
incarnation , central to
Roman Catholic theology
Roman Catholic theology . Dominic saw the
need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the
Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought.
Prior Diego saw immediately one of the paramount reasons for the
spread of the unorthodox movement: the representatives of the Holy
Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
On the other hand, the Cathars lived in a state of self-sacrifice that
was widely appealing. For these reasons, Prior Diego suggested that
the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic life. The legates
agreed to change if they could find a strong leader. The prior took up
the challenge, and he and Dominic dedicated themselves to the
conversion of the Albigensians. Despite this particular mission, in
winning the Albigensians over by persuasion Dominic met limited
success, "for though in his ten years of preaching a large number of
converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such
as had been hoped for."
DOMINICAN CONVENT ESTABLISHED
Dominic became the spiritual father to several
Albigensian women he
had reconciled to the faith, and in 1206 he established them in a
convent in Prouille. This convent would become the foundation of the
Dominican nuns, thus making the Dominican nuns older than the
Dominican friars. Prior Diego sanctioned the building of a monastery
for girls whose parents had sent them to the care of the Albigensians
because their families were too poor to fulfill their basic needs.
The monastery was at
Prouille would later become Dominic's
headquarters for his missionary effort there. After two years on the
mission field, Prior Diego died while traveling back to Spain. When
his preaching companions heard of his death, all save Dominic and a
very small number of others returned to their homes.
The history of the order may be divided into three periods:
Middle Ages (from their foundation to the beginning of the
* The Modern Period up to the
French Revolution ;
* The Contemporary Period.
Doctor Angelicus, Saint
Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), considered
Catholic Church to be its greatest medieval theologian, is
girded by angels with a mystical belt of purity after his proof of
Saint Dominic established a religious community in
Toulouse in 1214,
to be governed by the rule of Saint Augustine and statutes to govern
the life of the friars, including the Primitive Constitution. (The
statutes borrowed somewhat from the Constitutions of Prémontré . )
The founding documents establish that the order was founded for two
purposes: preaching and the salvation of souls. Saint Dominic's
room at Maison Seilhan, in
Toulouse , is considered the place where
the Order was born.
In July 1215, with the approbation of Bishop Foulques of Toulouse,
Dominic ordered his followers into an institutional life. Its purpose
was revolutionary in the pastoral ministry of the Catholic Church.
These priests were organized and well trained in religious studies.
Dominic needed a framework—a rule—to organize these components.
Rule of Saint Augustine was an obvious choice for the Dominican
Order, according to Dominic's successor, Jordan of Saxony, because it
lent itself to the "salvation of souls through preaching". By this
choice, however, the Dominican brothers designated themselves not
monks, but canons-regular. They could practice ministry and common
life while existing in individual poverty.
Dominic's education at
Palencia gave him the knowledge he needed to
overcome the Manicheans . With charity, the other concept that most
defines the work and spirituality of the order, study became the
method most used by the Dominicans in working to defend the Church
against the perils that hounded it, and also of enlarging its
authority over larger areas of the known world. In Dominic's
thinking, it was impossible for men to preach what they did not or
could not understand. When the brethren left Prouille, then, to begin
their apostolic work, Dominic sent Matthew of
Paris to establish a
school near the University of Paris. This was the first of many
Dominican schools established by the brethren, some near large
universities throughout Europe.
The Order of Preachers was approved in December 1216 and January 1217
Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III in the papal bulls
Religiosam vitam and Nos
attendentes . On January 21, 1217 Honorious issued the bull Gratiarum
omnium recognizing Saint Dominic's followers as an order dedicated to
study and universally authorized to preach, a power formerly reserved
to local episcopal authorization.
On August 15, 1217 Dominic dispatched seven of his followers to the
great university center of
Paris to establish a priory focused on
study and preaching. The
Convent of St. Jacques, would eventually
become the order's first studium generale .
Saint Dominic was to
establish similar foundations at other university towns of the day,
Bologna in 1218,
Montpellier in 1220, and
before his death in 1221.
Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III invited
Saint Dominic and his companions to
take up residence at the ancient Roman basilica of
Santa Sabina ,
which they did by early 1220. Before that time the friars had only a
temporary residence in
Rome at the convent of
San Sisto Vecchio
San Sisto Vecchio which
Honorius III had given to Dominic circa 1218 intending it to become a
convent for a reformation of nuns at
Rome under Dominic's guidance. In
May 1220 at
Bologna the order's first General Chapter mandated that
each new priory of the order maintain its own studium conventuale thus
laying the foundation of the Dominican tradition of sponsoring
widespread institutions of learning. The official foundation of the
Dominican convent at
Santa Sabina with its studium conventuale
occurred with the legal transfer of property from Honorius III to the
Order of Preachers on June 5, 1222. This studium was transformed into
the order's first studium provinciale by Saint
Thomas Aquinas in 1265.
Part of the curriculum of this studium was relocated in 1288 at the
Santa Maria sopra Minerva which in the 16th century world
be transformed into the College of Saint Thomas (
Latin : Collegium
Divi Thomæ). In the 20th century the college would be relocated to
the convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus and would be transformed into
the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum .
The Dominican friars quickly spread, including to
England , where
they appeared in
Oxford in 1221. In the 13th century the order
reached all classes of Christian society, fought heresy , schism , and
paganism by word and book, and by its missions to the north of Europe
Africa , and
Asia passed beyond the frontiers of Christendom. Its
schools spread throughout the entire Church; its doctors wrote
monumental works in all branches of knowledge, including the extremely
Albertus Magnus and
Thomas Aquinas . Its members included
popes, cardinals, bishops, legates, inquisitors, confessors of
princes, ambassadors, and paciarii (enforcers of the peace decreed by
popes or councils). The order was appointed by
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX the
duty to carry out the Inquisition. In his Papal Bull
Ad extirpanda of
Pope Innocent IV authorised the Dominicans' use of torture under
The expansion of the order produced changes. A smaller emphasis on
doctrinal activity favoured the development here and there of the
ascetic and contemplative life and there sprang up, especially in
Italy , the mystical movement with which the names of
Meister Eckhart ,
Heinrich Suso ,
Johannes Tauler , and Saint
Catherine of Siena are associated. (See
German mysticism , which has
also been called "Dominican mysticism.") This movement was the prelude
to the reforms undertaken, at the end of the century, by Raymond of
Capua , and continued in the following century. It assumed remarkable
proportions in the congregations of
Lombardy and the
Netherlands , and
in the reforms of
At the same time the order found itself face to face with the
Renaissance . It struggled against pagan tendencies in Renaissance
humanism , in
Italy through Dominici and Savonarola, in Germany
through the theologians of
Cologne but it also furnished humanism with
such advanced writers as
Francesco Colonna (probably the writer of the
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili ) and
Matteo Bandello . Many Dominicans took
part in the artistic activity of the age, the most prominent being Fra
Fra Bartolomeo .
REFORMATION TO FRENCH REVOLUTION
Bartolomé de Las Casas
Bartolomé de Las Casas (c.1484–1566)
Bartolomé de Las Casas
Bartolomé de Las Casas , as a settler in the
New World , was
galvanized by witnessing the brutal torture and genocide of the Native
Americans by the Spanish colonists. He became famous for his advocacy
of the rights of Native Americans, whose cultures, especially in the
Caribbean , he describes with care.
Gaspar da Cruz (c.1520–1570), who worked all over the Portuguese
colonial empire in Asia, was probably the first Christian missionary
to preach (unsuccessfully) in Cambodia . After a (similarly
unsuccessful) stint in Guangzhou , China, he eventually returned to
Portugal and became the first European to publish a book on China in
Malaueg Church in
The modern period consists of the three centuries between the
religious revolution at the beginning of the 16th century (the
Protestant Reformation ) and the
French Revolution and its
consequences. The beginning of the 16th century confronted the order
with the upheavals of Revolution. The spread of Protestantism cost it
six or seven provinces and several hundreds of convents , but the
discovery of the
New World opened up a fresh field of activity.
In the 18th century, there were numerous attempts at reform,
accompanied by a reduction in the number of devotees. The French
Revolution ruined the order in France, and crises that more or less
rapidly followed considerably lessened or wholly destroyed numerous
19TH CENTURY TO PRESENT
The contemporary period of the history of the Preachers begins with
restorations in provinces, undertaken after revolutions destroyed the
order in several countries of the Old and New World. This period
begins more or less in the early 19th century.
During this critical period, the number of Preachers seems never to
have sunk below 3,500. Statistics for 1876 show 3,748, but 500 of
these had been expelled from their convents and were engaged in
parochial work. Statistics for 1910 show a total of 4,472 nominally or
actually engaged in proper activities of the order. In the year 2000,
there were 5,171 Dominican friars in solemn vows, 917 student
brothers, and 237 novices. By the year 2013 there were 6058 Dominican
friars, including 4,470 priests.
In the revival movement
France held a foremost place, owing to the
reputation and convincing power of the orator, Jean-Baptiste Henri
Lacordaire (1802–1861). He took the habit of a
Friar Preacher at
Rome (1839), and the province of
France was canonically erected in
1850. From this province were detached the province of
Lyon , called
Occitania (1862), that of
Toulouse (1869), and that of
The French restoration likewise furnished many laborers to other
provinces, to assist in their organization and progress. From it came
the master general who remained longest at the head of the
administration during the 19th century, Père Vincent Jandel
(1850–1872). Here should be mentioned the province of Saint Joseph
United States . Founded in 1805 by
Edward Fenwick , afterwards
first Bishop of
Cincinnati, Ohio (1821–1832), this province has
developed slowly, but now ranks among the most flourishing and active
provinces of the order. In 1910 it numbered seventeen convents or
secondary houses. In 1905, it established a large house of studies at
Washington, D.C. , called the
Dominican House of Studies
Dominican House of Studies . There are
now four Dominican provinces in the United States.
The province of
France has produced a large number of preachers. The
conferences of Notre-Dame-de-
Paris were inaugurated by Père
Lacordaire. The Dominicans of the province of
Lacordaire (1835–1836, 1843–1851),
Jacques Monsabré (1869–1870,
1872–1890), Joseph Ollivier (1871, 1897), Thomas Etourneau
(1898–1902). Since 1903 the pulpit of Notre Dame has been occupied
by a succession of Dominicans. Père
Henri Didon (d. 1900) was a
Dominican. The house of studies of the province of
L'Année Dominicaine (founded 1859), La Revue des Sciences
Philosophiques et Theologiques (1907), and La Revue de la Jeunesse
(1909). French Dominicans founded and administer the École Biblique
et Archéologique française de Jérusalem founded in 1890 by Père
Marie-Joseph Lagrange O.P. (1855–1938), one of the leading
international centres for Biblical research. It is at the École
Biblique that the famed
Jerusalem Bible (both editions) was prepared.
Likewise Yves Cardinal Congar , O.P. was a product of the French
province of the Order of Preachers. Dominican in habit
Doctrinal development has had an important place in the restoration
of the Preachers. Several institutions, besides those already
mentioned, played important parts. Such is the Biblical school at
Jerusalem , open to the religious of the order and to secular clerics,
which publishes the Revue Biblique. The faculty of theology at the
University of Fribourg , confided to the care of the Dominicans in
1890, is flourishing, and has about 250 students. The Pontificium
Collegium Internationale Angelicum, the future Pontifical University
of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum established at
Rome in 1908 by
Hyacinth Cormier , opened its doors to regulars and seculars
for the study of the sacred sciences. In addition to the reviews above
are the Revue Thomiste, founded by Père Thomas Coconnier (d. 1908),
and the Analecta Ordinis Prædicatorum (1893). Among numerous writers
of the order in this period are: Cardinals
Thomas Zigliara (d. 1893)
and Zephirin González (d. 1894), two esteemed philosophers; Alberto
Guillelmotti (d. 1893), historian of the Pontifical Navy, and Heinrich
Denifle , one of the most famous writers on medieval history (d.
The Friars, Nuns, Sisters, Members of Priestly Fraternities of Saint
Dominic and Dominican
Laity together form the Order of Preachers.
The Dominican nuns were founded by
Saint Dominic even before he had
established the friars. They are contemplatives in the cloistered
life. Properly speaking, the friars and nuns together form the Order
of Preachers. The nuns celebrated their 800th anniversary in 2006.
Women have been part of the
Dominican Order since the beginning, but
distinct active congregations of Dominican sisters in their current
form are largely a product of the nineteenth century and afterwards.
They draw their origins both from the Dominican nuns and the
communities of women tertiaries (lay women) who lived in their own
homes and gathered regularly to pray and study: the most famous of
these was the Mantellate attached to Saint Dominic's church in Siena,
to which Saint
Catherine of Siena belonged. In the seventeenth
century, some European Dominican monasteries (e.g. St Ursula's,
Augsburg) temporarily became no longer enclosed, so they could engage
in teaching or nursing or other work in response to pressing local
need. Any daughter houses they founded, however, became independent.
But in the nineteenth century, in response to increasing missionary
fervor, monasteries were asked to send groups of women to found
schools and medical clinics around the world. Large numbers of
Catholic women traveled to Africa, the America, and the East to teach
and support new communities of Catholics there, both settlers and
converts. Owing to the large distances involved, these groups needed
to be self-governing, and they frequently planted new self-governing
congregations in neighboring mission areas in order to respond more
effectively to the perceived pastoral needs. Following on from this
period of growth in the nineteenth century, and another great period
of growth in those joining these congregations in the 1950s, there are
currently 24,600 Sisters belonging to 150 Dominican Religious
Congregations present in 109 countries affiliated to Dominican Sisters
As well as the friars, Dominican sisters live their lives supported
by four common values, often referred to as the Four Pillars of
Dominican Life, they are: community life, common prayer, study and
Saint Dominic called this fourfold pattern of life the "holy
preaching". Henri Matisse was so moved by the care that he received
from the Dominican Sisters that he collaborated in the design and
interior decoration of their
Chapelle du Saint-Marie du Rosaire in
PRIESTLY FRATERNITIES OF ST. DOMINIC
The Priestly Fraternities of St. Dominic are diocesan priests who are
formally affiliated to the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) through a
Rule of life that they profess, and so strive for evangelical
perfection under the overall direction of the Dominican friars. The
origins of the Dominican fraternities can be traced from the Dominican
third Order secular, which then included both priests and lay persons
as members. With the cessation of terminological references to first,
second and third Orders in the
Dominican Order in 1968, there ensued
the creation of separate Rules for the laity and for the priests, and
the corresponding constitution of one and the other as distinct
fraternities. Now existing as a separate association from that of the
laity, and with its own distinct rule to follow, the Priestly
Fraternities of St. Dominic continues to be guided by the Order in
embracing the gift of the spirituality of
Saint Dominic in the unique
context of the diocesan priests. Along with the special grace of the
Sacrament of Holy Orders, which helps them to perform the acts of the
sacred ministry worthily, they receive new spiritual help from the
profession, which makes them members of the Dominican Family and
sharers in the grace and mission of the Order, to the sure advantage
of the local and universal Church. While the Order provides them with
these spiritual aids and directs them to their own sanctification, it
leaves them free for the complete service of the local Church, under
the jurisdiction of their own Bishop.
Mystic Marriage of Saint
Catherine of Siena (1347–1380) by
Giovanni di Paolo , ca. 1460 (
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York )
Lay Dominicans are governed by their own rule, the Rule of the Lay
Fraternities of St. Dominic, promulgated by the Master in 1987. It is
the fifth Rule of the Dominican Laity; the first was issued in 1285.
Lay Dominicans are also governed by the Fundamental Constitution of
the Dominican Laity, and their provinces provide a General Directory
and Statutes. According to their Fundamental Constitution of the
Dominican Laity, sec. 4, "They have a distinctive character in both
their spirituality and their service to God and neighbor. As members
of the Order, they share in its apostolic mission through prayer,
study and preaching according to the state of the laity."
Pope Pius XII, in Chosen Laymen, an Address to the Third Order of St.
Dominic (1958), said, "The true condition of salvation is to meet the
divine invitation by accepting the Catholic 'credo' and by observing
the commandments. But the Lord expects more from you , and the Church
urges you to continue seeking the intimate knowledge of God and His
works, to search for a more complete and valuable expression of this
knowledge, a refinement of the Christian attitudes which derive from
The two greatest saints among them are Saint
Catherine of Siena and
Rose of Lima , who lived ascetic lives in their family homes,
yet both had widespread influence in their societies.
Today, there is a growing number of Associates who share the
Dominican charism . Dominican Associates are Christian women and men;
married, single, divorced, and widowed; clergy members and lay persons
who were first drawn to and then called to live out the charism and
continue the mission of the
Dominican Order – to praise, to bless,
to preach. Associates do not take vows, but rather make a commitment
to be partners with vowed members, and to share the mission and
charism of the Dominican Family in their own lives, families,
churches, neighborhoods, workplaces, and cities. They are most often
associated with a particular apostolic work of a congregation of
active Dominican sisters.
The spiritual tradition of Dominic's Order is punctuated not only by
charity, study and preaching, but also by instances of mystical union.
The Dominican emphasis on learning and on charity distinguishes it
from other monastic and mendicant orders. As the order first developed
on the European continent, learning continued to be emphasized by
these friars and their sisters in Christ. These religious also
struggled for a deeply personal, intimate relationship with God. When
the order reached England, many of these attributes were kept, but the
English gave the order additional, specialized characteristics. This
topic is discussed below. "Dominican Friars for Life" at the 2009
March for Life in
Dominic's search for a close relationship with God was determined and
unceasing. He rarely spoke, so little of his interior life is known.
What is known about it comes from accounts written by people near to
him. Saint Cecilia remembered him as cheerful, charitable and full of
unceasing vigor. From a number of accounts, singing was apparently one
of Dominic's great delights. Dominic practiced self-scourging and
would mortify himself as he prayed alone in the chapel at night for
'poor sinners.' He owned a single habit, refused to carry money, and
would allow no one to serve him.
The spirituality evidenced throughout all of the branches of the
order reflects the spirit and intentions of its founder, though some
of the elements of what later developed might have surprised the
Castilian friar. Fundamentally, Dominic was "... a man of prayer who
utilized the full resources of the learning available to him to
preach, to teach, and even materially to assist those searching for
the truth found in the gospel of Christ. It is that spirit which
bequeathed to his followers".
Humbert of Romans , the master general of the order from 1254 to
1263, was a great administrator, as well as preacher and writer. It
was under his tenure as master general that the sisters in the order
were given official membership. Humbert was a great lover of
languages, and encouraged linguistic studies among the Dominicans,
primarily Arabic, because of the missionary work friars were pursuing
amongst those led astray or forced to convert by
Muslims in the Middle
East . He also wanted his friars to reach excellence in their
preaching, and this was his most lasting contribution to the order.
The growth of the spirituality of young preachers was his first
priority. He once cried to his students: "... consider how excellent
this office is, because it is apostolic; how useful, because it is
directly ordained for the salvation of souls; how perilous, because
few have in them, or perform, what the office requires, for it is not
without great danger ..., vol. xxv. (Lyon, 1677)
Humbert is at the center of ascetic writers in the Dominican Order.
In this role, he added significantly to its spirituality. His writings
are permeated with "religious good sense," and he used uncomplicated
language that could edify even the weakest member. Humbert advised
his readers, " are also to be instructed not to be eager to see
visions or work miracles, since these avail little to salvation, and
sometimes we are fooled by them; but rather they should be eager to do
good in which salvation consists. Also, they should be taught not to
be sad if they do not enjoy the divine consolations they hear others
have; but they should know the loving Father for some reason sometimes
withholds these. Again, they should learn that if they lack the grace
of compunction or devotion they should not think they are not in the
state of grace as long as they have good will, which is all that God
The English Dominicans took this to heart, and made it the focal
point of their mysticism, as seen below.
Albertus Magnus (1206–1280) by
Justus van Gent ,
Another who contributed significantly to the spirituality of the
Albertus Magnus , the only person of the period to be given
the appellation "Great". His influence on the brotherhood permeated
nearly every aspect of Dominican life. Albert was a scientist,
philosopher, astrologer, theologian, spiritual writer, ecumenist, and
diplomat. Under the auspices of Humbert of Romans, Albert molded the
curriculum of studies for all Dominican students, introduced Aristotle
to the classroom and probed the work of
Neoplatonists , such as
Plotinus . Indeed, it was the thirty years of work done by Aquinas
and himself that allowed for the inclusion of Aristotelian study in
the curriculum of Dominican schools.
One of Albert's greatest contributions was his study of Dionysus the
Areopagite , a mystical theologian whose words left an indelible
imprint in the medieval period. Magnus' writings made a significant
contribution to German mysticism, which became vibrant in the minds of
Beguines and women such as
Hildegard of Bingen and Mechthild of
Magdeburg . Mysticism, for the purposes of this study, refers to the
conviction that all believers have the capability to experience God's
love. This love may manifest itself through brief ecstatic
experiences, such that one may be engulfed by God and gain an
immediate knowledge of Him, which is unknowable through the intellect
Albertus Magnus championed the idea, drawn from Dionysus, that
positive knowledge of God is possible, but obscure. Thus, it is easier
to state what God is not, than to state what God is: "... we affirm
things of God only relatively, that is, casually, whereas we deny
things of God absolutely, that is, with reference to what He is in
Himself. And there is no contradiction between a relative affirmation
and an absolute negation. It is not contradictory to say that someone
is white-toothed and not white".
Albert the Great wrote that wisdom and understanding enhance one's
faith in God. According to him, these are the tools that God uses to
commune with a contemplative. Love in the soul is both the cause and
result of true understanding and judgement. It causes not only an
intellectual knowledge of God, but a spiritual and emotional knowledge
as well. Contemplation is the means whereby one can obtain this goal
of understanding. Things that once seemed static and unchanging become
full of possibility and perfection. The contemplative then knows that
God is, but she does not know what God is. Thus, contemplation forever
produces a mystified, imperfect knowledge of God. The soul is exalted
beyond the rest of God's creation but it cannot see God Himself.
CHARITY AND MEEKNESS
As the image of God grows within man, he learns to rely less on an
intellectual pursuit of virtue and more on an affective pursuit of
charity and meekness. Meekness and charity guide Christians to
acknowledge that they are nothing without the One (God/Christ) who
created them, sustains them, and guides them. Thus, man then directs
his path to that One, and the love for, and of, Christ guides man's
very nature to become centered on the One, and on his neighbor as
well. Charity is the manifestation of the pure love of Christ, both
for and by His follower.
Although the ultimate attainment for this type of mysticism is union
with God, it is not necessarily visionary, nor does it hope only for
ecstatic experiences; instead, mystical life is successful if it is
imbued with charity. The goal is just as much to become like Christ as
it is to become one with Him. Those who believe in Christ should
first have faith in Him without becoming engaged in such overwhelming
Dominican Order was affected by a number of elemental influences.
Its early members imbued the order with a mysticism and learning. The
Europeans of the order embraced ecstatic mysticism on a grand scale
and looked to a union with the Creator. The English Dominicans looked
for this complete unity as well, but were not so focused on ecstatic
experiences. Instead, their goal was to emulate the moral life of
Christ more completely. The Dartford nuns were surrounded by all of
these legacies, and used them to create something unique. Though they
are not called mystics, they are known for their piety toward God and
their determination to live lives devoted to, and in emulation of,
Priory was established long after the primary period of
monastic foundation in
England had ended. It emulated, then, the
monasteries found in Europe—mainly
France and German—as well as
the monastic traditions of their English Dominican brothers. As
already stated, the first nuns to inhabit Dartford were sent from
Priory in France.
Evidence for the strength of the English Dominican nuns' vocation is
strong itself. Even on the eve of the Dissolution, Prioress Jane Vane
wrote to Cromwell on behalf of a postulant, saying that though she had
not actually been professed, she was professed in her heart and in the
eyes of God. This is only one such example of dedication. Profession
Priory seems, then, to have been made based on personal
commitment, and one's personal association with God.
Throughout the centuries, the Holy
Rosary has been an important
element among the Dominicans.
Pope Pius XI stated that: The Rosary
of Mary is the principle and foundation on which the very Order of
Saint Dominic rests for making perfect the life of its members and
obtaining the salvation of others.
Histories of the Holy
Rosary often attribute its origin to Saint
Dominic himself through the
Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary . Our Lady of the
Rosary is the title received by the Marian apparition to Saint Dominic
in 1208 in the church of
Prouille in which the Virgin Mary gave the
Rosary to him. For centuries, Dominicans have been instrumental in
spreading the rosary and emphasizing the Catholic belief in the power
of the rosary .
On January 1, 2008, the master of the order declared a year of
dedication to the Rosary.
By 1300, the enthusiasm for preaching and conversion within the order
lessened. Mysticism, full of the ideas
Albertus Magnus expostulated,
became the devotion of the greatest minds and hands within the
organization. It became a "powerful instrument of personal and
theological transformation both within the Order of Preachers and
throughout the wider reaches of Christendom.
Albertus Magnus did much to instill mysticism in the Order
of Preachers, it is a concept that reaches back to the Hebrew Bible.
In the tradition of Holy Writ, the impossibility of coming face to
face with God is a recurring motif, thus the commandment against
graven images (Exodus 20.4–5). As time passed, Jewish and early
Christian writings presented the idea of 'unknowing,' where God's
presence was enveloped in a dark cloud. These images arose out of a
confusing mass of ambiguous and ambivalent statements regarding the
nature of God and man's relationship to Him.
Other passages attest to the opposite circumstance: that of seeing
God and talking with Him. The conflict between seeing and not-seeing
exists in early texts as well as later ones. It also permeates the
Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. The consequence is a paradox that
emerges repeatedly throughout Christian Scripture and the mysticism
found in the early foundations of the Church. Catherine of Siena
(1347–1380), portrait by
Andrea Vanni , late 14th or early 15th
All of these ideas associated with mysticism were at play in the
spirituality of the Dominican community, and not only among the men.
In Europe, in fact, it was often the female members of the order, such
Catherine of Siena ,
Mechthild of Magdeburg , Christine of Stommeln
Margaret Ebner , and Elsbet Stagl, that gained reputations for
having mystical experiences. Notable male members of the order
associated with mysticism include
Meister Eckhart and
Henry Suso .
Although Dominic and the early brethren had instituted female
Dominican houses at
Prouille and other places by 1227, houses of women
attached to the Order became so popular that some of the friars had
misgivings about the increasing demands of female religious
establishments on their time and resources. Nonetheless, women's
houses dotted the countryside throughout Europe. There were
seventy-four Dominican female houses in Germany, forty-two in Italy,
nine in France, eight in Spain, six in Bohemia, three in Hungary, and
three in Poland. Many of the German religious houses that lodged
women had been home to communities of women, such as
Beguines , that
became Dominican once they were taught by the traveling preachers and
put under the jurisdiction of the Dominican authoritative structure. A
number of these houses became centers of study and mystical
spirituality in the 14th century. There were one hundred and
fifty-seven nunneries in the order by 1358. After that year, the
number lessened considerably due to the Black Death.
In places besides Germany, convents were founded as retreats from the
world for women of the upper classes. These were original projects
funded by wealthy patrons, including other women. Among these was
Countess Margaret of Flanders who established the monastery of Lille,
while Val-Duchesse at Oudergem near Brussels was built with the wealth
of Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant (1262).
Female houses differed from male Dominican houses in that they were
enclosed. The sisters chanted the Divine Office and kept all the
monastic observances. The nuns lived under the authority of the
general and provincial chapters of the order. They shared in all the
applicable privileges of the order. The friars served as their
confessors, priests, teachers and spiritual mentors. Dominican
martyrs killed by Mongols during the second Mongol invasion of Poland
Women could be professed to the Dominican religious life at the age
of thirteen. The formula for profession contained in the Constitutions
Priory (1250) requires that nuns pledge obedience to God,
the Blessed Virgin, their prioress and her successors according to the
Rule of Saint Augustine and the institute of the order, until death.
The clothing of the sisters consisted of a white tunic and scapular, a
leather belt, a black mantle, and a black veil. Candidates to
profession were tested to reveal whether they were actually married
women who had merely separated from their husbands. Their intellectual
abilities were also tested.
Nuns were to be silent in places of
prayer, the cloister, the dormitory, and refectory. Silence was
maintained unless the prioress granted an exception for a specific
cause. Speaking was allowed in the common parlor, but it was
subordinate to strict rules, and the prioress, subprioress or other
senior nun had to be present.
As well as sewing, embroidery and other genteel pursuits, the nuns
participated in a number of intellectual activities, including reading
and discussing pious literature. In the Strassburg monastery of Saint
Margaret, some of the nuns could converse fluently in Latin. Learning
still had an elevated place in the lives of these religious. In fact,
Margarette Reglerin, a daughter of a wealthy Nuremberg family, was
dismissed from a convent because she did not have the ability or will
As heirs of the Dominican priory of Poissy in France, the nuns of
England were also heirs to a tradition of profound
learning and piety. Sections of translations of spiritual writings in
Dartford's library, such as Suso's Little Book of Eternal Wisdom and
Laurent du Bois' Somme le Roi, show that the "ghoostli" link to Europe
was not lost in the crossing of the Channel. It survived in the minds
of the nuns. Also, the nuns shared a unique identity with Poissy as a
religious house founded by a royal house. The English nuns were proud
of this heritage, and aware that many of them shared in England's
great history as members of the noble class.
Devotion to the Virgin Mary was another very important aspect of
Dominican spirituality. As an order, the Dominicans believed that they
were established through the good graces of Christ's mother, and
through prayers she sent missionaries to save the souls of
nonbelievers. Dominican brothers and sisters who were unable to
participate in the Divine Office sang the Little Office of the Blessed
Virgin each day and saluted her as their advocate.
During the Reformation, many of the monasteries of Dominican nuns
were forced to close. One which managed to survive, and afterwards
founded many new houses, was St Ursula's in Augsburg. In the
seventeenth century, monasteries of Dominican women were often asked
by their bishops to undertake apostolic work, particularly educating
girls and visiting the sick. St Ursula's returned to an enclosed life
in the eighteenth century, but in the nineteenth century, after
Napoleon had closed many European women's monasteries, King Louis I of
Bavaria in 1828 restored the Religious Orders of women in his realm,
provided that the nuns undertook some active work useful to the State
(usually teaching or nursing). In 1877, Bishop Ricards in South
Africa requested that Augsburg send a group of nuns to start a
teaching mission in King Williamstown. From this mission were founded
many Third Order Regular congregations of Dominican sisters, with
their own constitutions, though still following the Rule of Saint
Augustine and affiliated to the Dominican Order. These include the
Dominican Sisters of Oakford, KwazuluNatal (1881), the Dominican
Missionary Sisters, Zimbabwe, (1890) and the Dominican Sisters of
Newcastle, KwazuluNatal (1891).
England , the Dominican Province began at the second general
chapter of the
Dominican Order in
Bologna during the spring of 1221.
Dominic dispatched twelve friars to
England under the guidance of
their English prior, Gilbert of Fresney. They landed in Dover on
August 5, 1221. The province officially came into being at its first
provincial chapter in 1230.
The English Province was a component of the international order from
which it obtained its laws, direction, and instructions. It was also,
however, a group of Englishmen. Its direct supervisors were from
England, and the members of the English Province dwelt and labored in
English cities, towns, villages, and roadways. English and European
ingredients constantly came in contact. The international side of the
province's existence influenced the national, and the national
responded to, adapted, and sometimes constrained the international.
The first Dominican site in
England was at Oxford, in the parishes of
St. Edward and St. Adelaide. The friars built an oratory to the
Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary and by 1265, the brethren, in keeping with their
devotion to study, began erecting a school. Actually, the Dominican
brothers likely began a school immediately after their arrival, as
priories were legally schools. Information about the schools of the
English Province is limited, but a few facts are known. Much of the
information available is taken from visitation records. The
"visitation" was a section of the province through which visitors to
each priory could describe the state of its religious life and its
studies to the next chapter. There were four such visits in England
and Wales—Oxford, London, Cambridge and York. All Dominican
students were required to learn grammar, old and new logic, natural
philosophy and theology. Of all of the curricular areas, however,
theology was the most important. This is not surprising when one
remembers Dominic's zeal for it.
English Dominican mysticism in the late medieval period differed from
European strands of it in that, whereas European Dominican mysticism
tended to concentrate on ecstatic experiences of union with the
divine, English Dominican mysticism's ultimate focus was on a crucial
dynamic in one's personal relationship with God. This was an essential
moral imitation of the Savior as an ideal for religious change, and as
the means for reformation of humanity's nature as an image of
divinity. This type of mysticism carried with it four elements. First,
spiritually it emulated the moral essence of Christ's life. Second,
there was a connection linking moral emulation of Christ's life and
humanity's disposition as images of the divine. Third, English
Dominican mysticism focused on an embodied spirituality with a
structured love of fellow men at its center. Finally, the supreme
aspiration of this mysticism was either an ethical or an actual union
For English Dominican mystics, the mystical experience was not
expressed just in one moment of the full knowledge of God, but in the
journey of, or process of, faith. This then led to an understanding
that was directed toward an experiential knowledge of divinity. It is
important to understand, however, that for these mystics it was
possible to pursue mystical life without the visions and voices that
are usually associated with such a relationship with God. They
experienced a mystical process that allowed them, in the end, to
experience what they had already gained knowledge of through their
The center of all mystical experience is, of course, Christ. English
Dominicans sought to gain a full knowledge of Christ through an
imitation of His life. English mystics of all types tended to focus on
the moral values that the events in Christ's life exemplified. This
led to a "progressive understanding of the meanings of
Scripture—literal, moral, allegorical, and anagogical" —that was
contained within the mystical journey itself. From these
considerations of Scripture comes the simplest way to imitate Christ:
an emulation of the moral actions and attitudes that Jesus
demonstrated in His earthly ministry becomes the most significant way
to feel and have knowledge of God.
The English concentrated on the spirit of the events of Christ's
life, not the literality of events. They neither expected nor sought
the appearance of the stigmata or any other physical manifestation.
They wanted to create in themselves that environment that allowed
Jesus to fulfill His divine mission, insofar as they were able. At the
center of this environment was love: the love that Christ showed for
humanity in becoming human. Christ's love reveals the mercy of God and
His care for His creation. English Dominican mystics sought through
this love to become images of God. Love led to spiritual growth that,
in turn, reflected an increase in love for God and humanity. This
increase in universal love allowed men's wills to conform to God's
will, just as Christ's will submitted to the Father's will.
Concerning humanity as the image of Christ, English Dominican
spirituality concentrated on the moral implications of image-bearing
rather than the philosophical foundations of the imago Dei . The
process of Christ's life, and the process of image-bearing, amends
humanity to God's image. The idea of the "image of God" demonstrates
both the ability of man to move toward God (as partakers in Christ's
redeeming sacrifice), and that, on some level, man is always an image
of God. As their love and knowledge of God grows and is sanctified by
faith and experience, the image of God within man becomes ever more
bright and clear.
* Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare To praise, to bless and to preach
(from the Dominican Missal, Preface of the Blessed Virgin Mary)
* Veritas Truth
* Contemplare et Contemplata Aliis Tradere To study and to hand on
the fruits of study (or, to contemplate and to hand on the fruits of
* One in faith, hope, and love
The following people belonging to the order have been proclaimed
saints throughout history: Death of
Peter of Verona (1206–1252)
Girolamo Savoldo , ca. 1530–35 Louis Bertrand
(1526–1581), portrait by
Francisco de Zurbarán
Francisco de Zurbarán , 1640
Francisco Coll Guitart (1812–1875)
Saint Dominic (d. 1221)
* Saint Peter Martyr (d. 1252)
Zedislava Berkiana (d. 1252)
* Saint Hyacinth (d. 1257)
Saint Margaret of Hungary (d. 1271)
Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274)
Raymond of Peñafort (d. 1275)
Albert the Great (d. 1280)
Agnes of Montepulciano (d. 1317)
Catherine of Siena (d. 1380)
Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419)
* Saint Antoninus (d. 1459)
Pius V (d. 1572)
* Saint Louis Bertrand (d. 1581)
* Saint Catherine de Ricci (d. 1590)
* Saint John of
Cologne (d. 1600)
Rose of Lima (d. 1617)
Domingo Ibáñez de Erquicia (d. 1633)
Lorenzo Ruiz (d. 1637)
Martin de Porres (d. 1639)
John Macias (d. 1645)
Thomasian Martyrs (
Asia and Spain, 17th and 18th centuries)
Louis de Montfort (d. 1716)
Francisco Coll Guitart (d. 1875)
* Saint Thomas Khoung (d. 1600+)
Numerous Dominicans were included in the canonization of the 117
martyrs of Vietnam and a group of martyrs in
Nagasaki , including
Lorenzo Ruiz .
Numerous Dominicans have been beatified, including:
Jordan of Saxony
* Blessed Mannes de Guzman, Brother of
St. Dominic de Guzman
* Blessed Alanus dela Rupe
Giles of Santarém
Margaret of Castello
Margaret of Castello
Sadok and 48 Dominican martyrs from Sandomierz
Pier Giorgio Frassati
Robert Nutter , English Reformation martyr
* Blessed Reginald of Orleans (also known as Reginald of
Jan Franciszek Czartoryski
Gonçalo de Amarante , priest and hermit
Joan of Aza , mother of St. Dominic de Guzmán
Joanna, Princess of Portugal
Catherine of Racconigi
Bartholomew of Braga
Bartholomew of Braga
Jordan of Pisa
Adrian Fortescue (martyr)
Columba of Rieti
Stephana de Quinzanis
Stephana de Quinzanis
Osanna of Mantua
Osanna of Cattaro
John of Vercelli
Blessed Margaret of Savoy
Five Dominican friars have served as Bishop of
Pope Innocent V
Pope Benedict XI
Pope Benedict XIII
There are two Dominicans in the College of Cardinals:
Christoph Cardinal Schönborn
Christoph Cardinal Schönborn Austrian Archbishop of Vienna
Dominik Duka , Czech Archbishop of Prague
Other notable Dominicans include:
Frei Betto , (1944) Brazilian friar, theologian, political
activist and former government adviser
Meister Eckhart (c.1260–c.1328) German mystic and preacher
Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), scientist as a haeretic condemned
and burned in Rome
Anne Buttimer , University College Dublin
* Brian Davies (Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Fordham
University; former Regent of Blackfriars, Oxford)
Francisco de Vitoria
Francisco de Vitoria (one of the founders of International Law)
Bartolomé de las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas (1484–1566) Spanish bishop in the West,
Protector of the Indians
Marie-Dominique Chenu (1895–1990) French theologian of the
Yves Congar (1904–1995) French theologian of the Nouvelle
Théologie, later cardinal
Anthony Fisher (b.1960) Archbishop of Sydney , Australia
Bernard Gui (1261–1331) French bishop and inquisitor of the
Jean Jérôme Hamer (1916–1996) Belgian theologian and Curia
Henrik Kalteisen , the 24th Archbishop of Nidaros
Heinrich Kramer (1430–1505) German author of the Malleus
Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches), handbook of witch hunting
Dominique Pire (George) (1910–1969) Nobel Peace Prize
Vincent McNabb (1868–1943) Irish scholar, apologist and
Timothy Radcliffe (1945) 85th Master of the Order of Preachers
Savonarola (1452–1498) Italian pre-reformation
theologian, dictatorial ruler of Florentine Republic, burned by the
Edward Schillebeeckx (1914–1998) Belgian theologian
Tomás de Torquemada (1420–1498) Spanish theologian,
Grand-Inquisitor, expelled the Jews
Gustavo Gutierrez (1928) Peruvian liberation theologian
Herbert McCabe (1926–2001) English theologian and scholar
* Jeanine Deckers, "
The Singing Nun " (1933–1985) shortly famous
Belgian nun and chanson singer; left the order, lived with her
girlfriend, both committed suicide
Croatian Dominican Province
Dominicans in Ireland
Dominicans in Ireland
Dominican Order in the United States
Dominican Order in the United States
Young Dominican in 2012
Albertus Magnus College ,
New Haven ,
Connecticut , United States
Angelicum College ,
Quezon City ,
Philippines – est. 1972
Angelicum School Iloilo ,
Iloilo City ,
Philippines – est. 1978
Aquinas College (Michigan) ,
Grand Rapids ,
Michigan , USA –
Aquinas Institute of Theology ,
St. Louis ,
Missouri , USA –
Aquinas School ,
San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila ,
Philippines – est.
Barry University ,
Miami Shores ,
United States - est.
Blackfriars Hall ,
* Blessed Imelda School ,
Taiwan est. 1916
* Catholic Dominican School , Yigo, Guam - est. 1995
Colegio de San Juan de Letran ,
Philippines – est.
Colegio de San Juan de Letran , Calamba , Philippines
Colegio de San Juan de Letran ,
Bataan , Abucay,
Colegio de San Juan de Letran , Manaoag (formerly Our Lady of
Manaoag, Pangasinan , Philippines
* Colegio Lacordaire ,
Colombia – est. 1956
* Dominican College of San Juan,
San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila ,
Dominican College of Santa Rosa ,
Santa Rosa, Laguna , Philippines
– est. 1994
Dominican College of Tarlac ,
Capas, Tarlac ,
Philippines – est.
Dominican International School ,
Taiwan - est. 1953
Dominican International School ,
Taipei City ,
Taiwan – est.
Dominican School Manila
Dominican School Manila , Sampaloc ,
Philippines – est.
* Dominican School of Calabanga , Calabanga ,
Metro Naga , Camarines
Sur , Philippines
Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology , Berkeley ,
California , USA – est. 1861
Dominican University (Illinois) , River Forest ,
Illinois , USA
– est. 1901
Dominican University College ,
* Dominican University of
California , San Rafael , California, USA
– est. 1890
Edgewood College , Madison ,
Wisconsin , USA – est. 1927
* Fenwick High School , Oak Park , Illinois, USA – est. 1929
Holy Trinity University ,
Puerto Princesa City ,
Marian Catholic High School ,
Chicago Heights , Illinois, USA –
Molloy College ,
Rockville Centre , New York , USA-est. 1955
Mount Saint Mary College , Newburgh, New York, USA
Newbridge College , Newbridge, Co. Kildare, Republic of Ireland
Ohio Dominican University , Columbus, Ohio, USA
* Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception
* Pontifical University of Saint
* PP Dominicos Colegio San Martín , Caracas - Venezuela
San Pedro College , Davao City
* Siena College of
Siena College of Taytay , Taytay, Rizal
* St Agnes Academy ,
Houston, Texas ,
United States - est. 1905
* St Dominic\'s College, Henderson ,
* St Dominic\'s College, Wanganui , New Zealand
St. Catharine College , St. Catharine, Kentucky, USA
* St. Mary\'s Dominican High School , New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
* St. Michael Academy ,
Northern Samar , Philippines
* Superior Institute of Religious Sciences of St.
* The Pontifical and Royal
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas , The Catholic
University of the
Philippines – est. 1611
Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino , Bogota, Colombia
Anglican Order of Preachers
Blackfriars (other) , many name places in Britain
testifying to former Dominican presence
Chinese Rites controversy
Community of the Lamb , a new branch of the Dominican Order,
founded in 1983
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
Dominican Rite , the Separate Use for Dominicans in the Latin
Dominican Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist
Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia
Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia
Malaueg Church , the famous Dominican Church in the Philippines
Master of the Order of Preachers
Sainte Marie de La Tourette , modernist Dominican monastery
designed by Le Corbusier
* St Dominic\'s
Priory Church , the residence of the Provincial of
the Dominican friars in
England and Scotland
The Blackfriars of Shrewsbury
* Third Order of
Thomistic sacramental theology
Thomistic sacramental theology
* Thought of
* ^ A B C "Order of Friars Preachers – Dominicans".
Catholic-Hierarchy.org . David M. Cheney. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
* ^ The word friar is etymologically related to the word for
Latin . "friar – Definition from the Merriam-Webster
Online Dictionary". Retrieved 2008-10-21.
* ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Order of Preachers".
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ Marshall, Taylor. "Scoreboard for the Doctors of the Church".
Taylor Marshall. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-05.
* ^ A B "Historical Data Worldwide" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on June 27, 2008.
Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "Black friar"
Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "Jacobin"(1)
* ^ The reference to "hounds " draws on the tradition that Saint
Dominic's mother, while pregnant with him, had a vision of a black and
white dog with a torch in its mouth; wherever the dog went, it set
fire to the earth. It was explained that the vision was fulfilled when
Dominic and his followers went forth, clad in black and white, setting
fire to the earth with the
Gospel . In English, the word "hound" has
two further meanings that may be drawn upon. A hound is loyal, and the
Dominicans have a reputation as obedient servants of the faith. And a
hound pursues its quarry ("hounds"), with perhaps a sometimes negative
connotation or reference to the order's involvement with the Holy
* ^ Little, Lester K. (March 1983). Religious Poverty and the
Profit Economy in Medieval Europe.
Cornell University Press
Cornell University Press . ISBN
0-8014-9247-5 . argues the Dominicans and other mendicant orders were
an adaptation to the rise of the profit economy in medieval Europe.
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, 7.
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, 17.
* ^ Tugwell, 53
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, 19.
* ^ A B Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "St. Dominic"
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, p. 23.
* ^ "Saint Dominic". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-09-15. Retrieved
* ^ A B Tugwell, 54–55
* ^ Woods, 29–30
Rule of Saint Augustine (pdf) Archived December 13, 2009, at
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Primitive Constitution". Domcentral.org. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
* ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Order of Preachers"
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, 44.
* ^ Hinnebusch, The History of the Dominican Order, 44. See also
* ^ Bennett,52.
* ^ The women of the order also established schools for the
children of the local gentry.
* ^ For the
Latin text see Omnia disce: medieval studies in memory
of Leonard Boyle, O.P. by Anne Duggan, Joan Greatrex, Brenda Bolton,
Leonard E. Boyle, 2005, p. 202.
* ^ http://www.domcentral.org/study/opstudy.htm Accessed June 2,
* ^ William Hinnebusch, The Dominicans: A Short History, 1975,
Chapter 1: "By requiring that each priory have a professor it laid the
foundation for the Order's schools." "Archived copy". Archived from
the original on 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2012-09-03. Accessed 6-9-2011.
See also Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 10, p. 701. "In
each convent there was also a studium particulare.
Conrad of Metz could not have alluded to Saint Sixtus, therefore, when
he said in 1221: "the
Pope has conferred on them a house in Rome"
(Laurent no. 136). It is possible that the
Pope was waiting for the
completion of the building that he was having done at Santa Sabina,
before giving the title to the property, on June 5, 1222, to the new
Master of the Order, elected not many days before."
* ^ Morgan, Kenneth O. (Ed.) (1993). The
Oxford History of Britain.
Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-19-285202-7 . CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* ^ Van Helden, Al. "The Inquisition". The Galileo Project. Rice
University. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
* ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Inquisition". Catholic
Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ Lach, Donald F. (1965),
Asia in the making of Europe, Volume I,
Book Two, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 742–743
* ^ "Dominican Charism". Order of preachers. Retrieved 3 April
* ^ "OP 800 – Home". 800.op.org. 2006-03-16. Retrieved
* ^ Catherine of Siena. Available Means. Ed. Joy Ritchie and Kate
Ronald. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. Print
* ^ Sister Mariette Gouws, O.P., All for God's People, chapter 1
* ^ Columba Cleary, Eleanora Murphy, Flora McGlynn, Being Driven
Forward: The Story of Mother Rose Niland and the Foundation of
Newcastle Dominican Sisters, Boksburg, 1997
* ^ http://www.dsiop.org/index.php/who-are-we
* ^ "Information from the
Laity Office at Rome" (PDF).
* ^ See also the Lay Dominican Web Library. Archived August 19,
2011, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ http://www.domlife.org/beingdominican/WhoWeAre/Associates.htm
* ^ Woods, 31–32.
* ^ Woods, 32.
* ^ Woods, 34.
* ^ Woods, 35.
* ^ Woods, 37.
* ^ Woods, 37. Quoted from
Benedict Ashley , The Dominicans
(Collegeville, MN, 1990).
* ^ Woods, 38.
* ^ Bennett, 66.
* ^ Woods, 39.
* ^ A B C Ross, 162
* ^ Tugwell, 153. See also, Wood, 41.
* ^ Hinnebusch, History of the Dominican Order, 299. See also,
Tugwell, 40–95, 134–98.
* ^ Ross, 169.
* ^ A B Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 13.
* ^ Lee, Monastic and Secular Learning, 61.
* ^ See Guy Bedouelle, Saint Dominic. The Grace of the Word
* ^ Robert Feeney, The Rosary: "The Little Summa" ISBN
* ^ Catherine Beebe, St. Dominic and the
Rosary ISBN 0-89870-518-5
* ^ History of the Dominicans
* ^ Re-discovering the
Rosary as a means of contemplation
International Dominican Information Archived May 14, 2008, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Randal, Felix (2008-01-06). "Dominican Year of the Rosary".
Felixrandal.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
* ^ Bennett, 71. This was especially true of the Dominicans in
Germany and France.
* ^ Woods, 44.
Albertus Magnus helped shape English Dominican
thought through his idea that God is knowable, but obscure.
Additionally, the English friars shared his belief that wisdom and
understanding enhance one's faith in God. The English Dominicans also
studied classical writers. This was also part of his legacy.
* ^ Woods, 45–47.
* ^ Woods, 48.
* ^ Woods, 110.
* ^ Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 14.
* ^ Hinnebusch, History of the Dominican Order, 337.
* ^ Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 70–73.
* ^ Hinnebsch, History of the Domiican Order, 382
* ^ Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 30.
* ^ Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 31.
* ^ Hinnebusch, History of the Dominican Order, 384
* ^ A B Lee, Nunneries, Learning, and Spirituality, 152.
* ^ http://kwtdominicans.co.za/history/
* ^ A B
* ^ http://oakforddominicans.org/our-congregation/
* ^ http://dominicansisters.co.uk/our-story/mother-rose-niland/
* ^ William Hinnebusch. The Early English Friars Preachers, 1.
* ^ William Hinnebusch. The Early English Friars Preachers, 2.
* ^ William Hinnebusch. The Early English Friars Preachers, 4.
* ^ Hinnebusch, Early English Friars Preachers, 6. There was a
dispute over this oratory in 1228.
* ^ Hinnebusch, Early English Friars Preachers, 8–9.
* ^ Maura O'Carroll, The Educational Organisation of the Dominicans
England and Wales 1221–1348: A Multidisciplinary Approach,
Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 50 (1980): 32.
* ^ O'Carroll,33
* ^ O'Carroll,57.
* ^ Ross, 160
* ^ Ross, 163
* ^ A B Ross, 164
* ^ The appearance of Saint Francis 's and
Catherine of Siena 's
stigmata is well known.
* ^ Clark, 83
* ^ Clark, 90–98. See also, Ross, 165
* ^ Ross, 166–167
Dominican University College
* Tugwell, Simon, ed. (1982). Early Dominicans : selected writings.
Classics of Western Spirituality. London: SPCK. ISBN 0-281-04024-9 .
* Hinnebusch, William A. (1975). The Dominicans : a short history.
New York: Society of St Paul. ISBN 0818903015 . Retrieved 2015-02-22.
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