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Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Originally named Dolby Stereo
Dolby Stereo
Digital until 1994, except for Dolby TrueHD, the audio compression is lossy. The first use of Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
was to provide digital sound in cinemas from 35mm film prints; today, it is now also used for other applications such as TV broadcast, radio broadcast via satellite, DVDs, Blu-ray
Blu-ray
discs and game consoles.

Contents

1 In the cinema 2 Versions

2.1 Dolby Digital 2.2 Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX 2.3 Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX 2.4 Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live 2.5 Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus 2.6 Dolby AC-4 2.7 Dolby TrueHD

3 Channel configurations 4 Applications 5 Dolby technologies in packaged media formats 6 Technical details 7 liba52 8 License 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

In the cinema[edit]

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Batman Returns
Batman Returns
was the first film to use Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
technology when it premiered in theaters in the summer of 1992.[1] Dolby Digital cinema soundtracks are optically recorded on a 35 mm
35 mm
release print using sequential data blocks placed between every perforation hole on the sound track side of the film. A constant bit rate of 320 kbit/s is used. A charge-coupled device (CCD) scanner in the image projector picks up a scanned video image of this area, and a processor correlates the image area and extracts the digital data as an AC-3 bitstream. The data is then decoded into a 5.1
5.1
channel audio source. All film prints with Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
data also have Dolby Stereo analogue soundtracks using Dolby SR
Dolby SR
noise reduction and such prints are known as Dolby SR-D prints. The analogue soundtrack provides a fall-back option in case of damage to the data area or failure of the digital decoding; it also provides compatibility with projectors not equipped with digital soundheads. Almost all current release cinema prints are of this type and may also include SDDS data and a timecode track to synchronize CD-ROMs carrying DTS soundtracks.

A Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Penthouse Soundhead mounted on a mid-1950s vintage Kalee model 20 projector

A photo of a 35 mm
35 mm
film print featuring all four audio formats (or quad track)- from left to right: Sony Dynamic Digital Sound
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound
(SDDS) (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
(grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby Double-D logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the DTS time code (the dashed line to the far right.)

The simplest way of converting existing projectors is to add a so-called penthouse digital soundhead above the projector head. However, for new projectors it made sense to use dual analogue/digital soundheads in the normal optical soundhead position under the projector head. To allow for the dual-soundhead arrangement the data is recorded 26 frames ahead of the picture. If a penthouse soundhead is used, the data must be delayed in the processor for the required amount of time, around 2 seconds. This delay can be adjusted in steps of the time between perforations, (approximately 10.4 ms). As of 2017[update], Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
in the cinema is being gradually replaced with Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
7.1, with the more advanced Dolby Atmos technology also gaining in popularity. Versions[edit] Dolby Digital[2] has similar technologies, included in Dolby Digital EX,[3] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live,[4] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus,[5] Dolby Digital Surround EX,[6] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Recording,[7] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Cinema,[8] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Stereo Creator[9] and Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
5.1
5.1
Creator.[10] Dolby Digital[edit]

Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
logo that is sometimes shown at the start of broadcasts, feature films, and video games

The former Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
logo

Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
is the common version containing up to six discrete channels of sound. The most elaborate mode in common use involves five channels for normal-range speakers (20 Hz – 20,000 Hz) (right, center, left, right surround, left surround) and one channel (20 Hz – 120 Hz allotted audio) for the subwoofer driven low-frequency effects.[11] Mono and stereo modes are also supported. AC-3 supports audio sample-rates up to 48 kHz. This format has different names:

Dolby Digital DD (an abbreviation for Dolby Digital, often combined with channel count; for instance, DD 2.0, DD 5.1) AC-3 (Audio Codec 3, Advanced Codec 3, Acoustic Coder 3. [These are backronyms. Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding
Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding
3 is a separate format developed by Sony.])[12] ATSC A/52 (name of the standard)[13] Before 1996, was marketed as Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
AC-3, Dolby Stereo Digital, and Dolby SRD.[14]

In 1991, a limited experimental release of Star Trek 6
Star Trek 6
in Dolby Digital played in 3 US theatres.[14] In 1992, Batman Returns
Batman Returns
is the first movie to be released in Dolby Digital.[15][16] In 1995, the LaserDisc
LaserDisc
version of Clear and Present Danger featured the first home theater Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
mix, quickly followed by True Lies, Stargate, Forrest Gump, and Interview with the Vampire among others.[17][18] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX[edit] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX is similar in practice to Dolby's earlier Pro-Logic format, which utilized matrix technology to add a center surround channel and single rear surround channel to stereo soundtracks. EX adds an extension to the standard 5.1
5.1
channel Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
codec in the form of matrixed rear channels, creating 6.1 or 7.1 channel output. Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX[edit] It provides an economical and backwards-compatible means for 5.1 soundtracks to carry a sixth, center back surround channel for improved localization of effects. The extra surround channel is matrix encoded onto the discrete left surround and right surround channels of the 5.1
5.1
mix, much like the front center channel on Dolby Pro Logic encoded stereo soundtracks. The result can be played without loss of information on standard 5.1
5.1
systems, or played in 6.1 or 7.1 on systems with Surround EX decoding and added speakers. Dolby Digital Surround EX has since been used for the Star Wars
Star Wars
prequels on the DVD versions and also the remastered original Star Wars
Star Wars
trilogy. A number of DVDs have a Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX audio option. The cinema version of Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX was introduced in 1999, when Dolby and Skywalker Sound, a division of Lucasfilm Ltd., codeveloped Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX™ for the release of Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace.[15][19] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX has since been used for the Star Wars
Star Wars
prequels on the DVD
DVD
versions and also the remastered original Star Wars
Star Wars
trilogy.[19]

A Dolby home theater badge on a laptop

Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live[edit] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live (DDL) is a real-time encoding technology for interactive media such as video games. It converts any audio signals on a PC or game console into a 5.1-channel 16-bit/48 kHz Dolby Digital format at 640 kbit/s and transports it via a single S/PDIF cable.[20] A similar technology known as DTS Connect is available from competitor DTS. An important benefit of this technology is that it enables the use of digital multichannel sound with consumer sound cards, which are otherwise limited to digital PCM stereo or analog multichannel sound because S/PDIF
S/PDIF
over RCA, BNC, and TOSLINK can only support two-channel PCM, Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
multichannel audio, and DTS multichannel audio. HDMI
HDMI
was later introduced, and it can carry uncompressed multichannel PCM, lossless compressed multichannel audio, and lossy compressed digital audio. However, Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live is still useful with HDMI
HDMI
to allow transport of multichannel audio over HDMI
HDMI
to devices that are unable to handle uncompressed multichannel PCM. Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live is available in sound cards using various manufacturers' audio chipsets. The SoundStorm, used for the Xbox game console and certain nForce2 motherboards, used an early form of this technology. DDL is available on motherboards with codecs such as Realtek's ALC882D,[21] ALC888DD and ALC888H. Other examples include some C-Media
C-Media
PCI sound cards and Creative Labs' X-Fi and Z series sound cards, whose drivers have enabled support for DDL. NVIDIA later decided to drop DDL support in their motherboards due to the cost of involved royalties, leaving an empty space in this regard in the sound cards market. Then in June 2005 came Auzentech, which with its X-Mystique PCI card, provided the first consumer sound card with Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live support. Initially no Creative X-Fi based sound cards supported DDL (2005~2007) but a collaboration of Creative and Auzentech resulted in the development of the Auzentech Prelude, the first X-Fi card to support DDL. Originally planned to extend DDL support to all X-Fi based sound cards (except the 'Xtreme Audio' line which is incapable of DDL hardware implementation), the plan was dropped because Dolby licensing would have required a royalty payment for all X-Fi cards and, problematically, those already sold.[22] In 2008, Creative released the X-Fi Titanium series of sound cards which fully supports Dolby Digital Live while leaving all PCI versions of Creative X-Fi still lacking support for DDL. Since September 2008, all Creative X-Fi based sound cards support DDL (except the 'Xtreme Audio' and its based line such as Prodigy 7.1e, which is incapable of DDL in hardware). X-Fi's case differs. While they forgot about the plan, programmer Daniel Kawakami made a hot issue by applying Auzentech Prelude DDL module back to Creative X-Fi cards by disguising the hardware identity as Auzentech Prelude.[23] Creative Labs alleged Kawakami violated their intellectual property and demanded he cease distributing his modified drivers. [24][25][26] Eventually Creative struck an agreement with Dolby Laboratories regarding the Dolby license royalty by arranging that the licensing cost be folded into the purchase price of the Creative X-Fi PCI cards rather than as a royalty paid by Creative themselves.[22] Based on the agreement, in September 2008 Creative began selling the Dolby Digital Live packs enabling Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live on Creative's X-Fi PCI series of sound cards. It can be purchased and downloaded from Creative. Subsequently Creative added their DTS Connect pack to the DDL pack at no added cost.[27] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus[edit] Main article: Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus E-AC-3 ( Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus) is an enhanced coding system based on the AC-3 codec. It offers increased bitrates (up to 6.144 Mbit/s), support for more audio channels (up to 1 5.1
5.1
discrete channels[28] in the future), and improved coding techniques (only at low data rates) to reduce compression artifacts, enabling lower data rates than those supported by AC-3 (e.g. 5.1-channel audio at 256 kbit/s). It is not backward compatible with existing AC-3 hardware, though E-AC-3 codecs generally are capable of transcoding to AC-3 for equipment connected via S/PDIF. E-AC-3 decoders can also decode AC-3 bitstreams. The fourth generation Apple TV supports E-AC-3.[29] The discontinued HD DVD
DVD
system directly supported E-AC-3. Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc offers E-AC-3 as an option to graft added channels onto an otherwise 5.1
5.1
AC-3 stream, as well as for delivery of secondary audio content (e.g. director's commentary) that is intended to be mixed with the primary audio soundtrack in the Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc player. Dolby AC-4[edit] Main article: Dolby AC-4 Dolby AC-4 is an audio compression standard supporting multiple audio channels and/or audio objects. Support for 5.1
5.1
channel audio is mandatory and additional channels up to 7.1.4 are optional.[30] AC-4 provides a 50% reduction in bit rate over AC-3/ Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus.[30] Dolby TrueHD[edit] Main article: Dolby TrueHD Dolby TrueHD, developed by Dolby Laboratories, is an advanced lossless audio codec based on Meridian Lossless Packing. Support for the codec was mandatory for HD DVD
DVD
and is optional for Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc hardware. Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
supports 24-bit, 96 kHz audio channels at up to 18 Mbit/s over 14 channels (HD DVD
DVD
and Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc standards currently limit the maximum number of audio channels to eight). It supports metadata, including dialog normalization and Dynamic Range Control. Channel configurations[edit] Although commonly associated with the 5.1
5.1
channel configuration, Dolby Digital allows a number of different channel selections. The options are:

Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
1/0 - Mono (center only) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
2/0 - 2-channel stereo (left + right), optionally carrying matrixed Dolby Surround Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
3/0 - 3-channel stereo (left, center, right) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
2/1 - 2-channel stereo with mono surround (left, right, surround) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
3/1 - 3-channel stereo with mono surround (left, center, right, surround) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
2/2 - 4-channel quadraphonic (left, right, left surround, right surround) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
3/2 - 5-channel surround (left, center, right, left surround, right surround)

These configurations optionally include the extra low-frequency effects (LFE) channel. The last two with stereo surrounds optionally use Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX matrix encoding to add an extra Rear Surround channel. Many Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
decoders are equipped with downmixing to distribute encoded channels to speakers. This includes such functions as playing surround information through the front speakers if surround speakers are unavailable, and distributing the center channel to left and right if no center speaker is available. When outputting to separate equipment over a 2-channel connection, a Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
decoder can optionally encode the output using Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
to preserve surround information. The '.1' in 5.1, 7.1 etc. refers to the LFE channel, which is also a discrete channel. Applications[edit] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
audio is used on DVD-Video
DVD-Video
and other purely digital media, like home cinema. In this format, the AC-3 bitstream is interleaved with the video and control bitstreams. The system is used in bandwidth-limited applications other than DVD-Video, such as digital TV. The AC-3 standard allows a maximum coded bit rate of 640 kbit/s. 35mm film prints use a fixed rate of 320 kbit/s, which is the same as the maximum bit rate for 2-channel MP3. DVD-Video
DVD-Video
discs are limited to 448 kbit/s, although many players can successfully play higher-rate bitstreams (which are non-compliant with the DVD
DVD
specification). HD DVD limits AC-3 to 448 kbit/s. ATSC and digital cable standards limit AC-3 to 448 kbit/s. Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc, the PlayStation 3 and the Xbox game console can output an AC-3 signal at a full 640 kbit/s. Some Sony PlayStation 2 console games are able to output AC-3 standard audio as well, primarily during pre-rendered cutscenes. Dolby is part of a group of organizations involved in the development of AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), part of MPEG specifications, and considered the successor to MP3. Dolby Digital Plus
Dolby Digital Plus
(DD-Plus) and TrueHD are supported in HD DVD, as mandatory codecs, and in Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc, as optional codecs. Dolby technologies in packaged media formats[edit]

HD DVD Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc DVD-Video DVD-Audio LaserDisc

Codec Player support Channels (max) Max bit rate Player support Channels (max) Max bit rate Player support Channels (max) Max bit rate Player support Channels (max) Max bit rate Player support Channels (max) Max bit rate

Dolby Digital Mandatory 5.1 504 kbit/s Mandatory 5.1 640 kbit/s Mandatory 5.1 448 kbit/s Optional in video zone for playback compatibility on DVD-Video
DVD-Video
players 5.1 448 kbit/s Optional 5.1 384 kbit/s

Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus 7.1 3 Mbit/s Optional 7.1 1.7 Mbit/s

N/A

Dolby TrueHD 7.1 18 Mbit/s 7.1 18 Mbit/s

Technical details[edit] The data layout of AC-3 is described by simplified "C-like" language in official specifications. An AC-3 stream is a series of frames; The frame size code is used along with the sample rate code to determine the number of (2-byte) words before the next syncword. Channel blocks can be either long, in which case the entire block is processed as single modified discrete cosine transform or short, in which case two half length transforms are performed on the block. Below is a simplified AC-3 header. A detailed description is in the ATSC "Digital Audio Compression (AC-3) (E-AC-3) Standard", section 5.4.

Field Name # of bits Description

Syncword 16 0x0B77, data transmission is left bit first: big endian

Cyclic redundancy check 16

Sampling frequency 2 '11'=reserved '10'=32 kHz '01'=44.1 '00'=48

Frame size code 6

Bit stream identification 5

Bit stream mode 3 '000'=main audio service

Audio coding mode 3 '010'=left, right channel ordering

Center mix level 2

Surround mix level 2

Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
mode 2 '00'=not indicated '01'= Not surround encoded '10'= Yes, surround encoded

liba52[edit] A free ATSC A/52 stream decoder, liba52, is available under the GPL license. License[edit] Audio codec AC3 is covered by patents (though these are now expired[31]). Patents are used to ask to pay a commercial license to publish an application that decodes AC3. This leads some audio app developers to ban AC3 from their apps, although the open source VLC media player supports AC-3 audio without having paid for any kind of patent license.[32] In Dolby's 2005 original and amended S-1 filings with the SEC, Dolby acknowledged that "Patents relating to our Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
technologies expire between 2008 and 2017."[33][34][35] The last patent covering AC-3 expired March 20, 2017, so it is now generally free to use.[36] See also[edit]

C-Media
C-Media
– producer of DDL audio chipsets used in many sound cards and motherboards Dialnorm Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
metadata parameter controlling decoder gain Dolby Laboratories
Dolby Laboratories
– company history and technology development Dolby noise-reduction system
Dolby noise-reduction system
– analogue recording on magnetic tape, including compact cassette tapes Dolby Stereo
Dolby Stereo
– first cinema analogue surround sound system Dolby SR
Dolby SR
- professional analogue recording on magnetic tape Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
- renamed Pro Logic in 1987 Dolby Pro Logic
Dolby Pro Logic
– consumer version of the Dolby Stereo
Dolby Stereo
analogue surround sound system Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
– lossless codec for HD DVD
DVD
and Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc Dolby E
Dolby E
- allows 6 to 8 channels of audio to be compressed into an AES-EBU
AES-EBU
digital audio stream DTS (sound system)
DTS (sound system)
– formerly Digital Theater Systems Home cinema Loudspeaker SoundStorm
SoundStorm
– a real-time AC-3 encoder included in certain nForce2 motherboards THX

References[edit]

^ "COMPANY NEWS: A Sound Idea; Dolby Theater Format Adapted to Home Uses". The New York Times.  ^ "Dolby - Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Details". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - What is Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
EX?". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - What is Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live?". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - Dolby Digital Plus
Dolby Digital Plus
Details". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - What is Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Surround EX?". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - What is Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Recording?". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Cinema Details". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Stereo Creator Details". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby - What is Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
5.1
5.1
Creator?". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ "Dolby-Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Dolby Laboratories.  ^ " Sony
Sony
USA". Sony.  ^ "A/52B: Digital Audio Compression (AC-3) (E-AC-3) Standard, Rev. B". Advanced Television Systems Committee.  ^ a b "Movie Sound Chronology". spannerworks.net. Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ a b "History: 50 YEARS OF INNOVATION". Dolby Laboratories. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "`Batman Returns` To Try Double Dolby". The Chicago Tribune. May 13, 1992. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Laserdisc Database Search By Date". Laserdisc Database. Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ " LaserDisc
LaserDisc
Database Clear and Present Danger". LaserDisc
LaserDisc
Database. Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ a b "Dolby Launches Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Cinema in Theatres Worldwide with Star Wars
Star Wars
Episode III: Revenge of the Sith". Dolby Investor Relations. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ " Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live". Dolby Laboratories.  ^ Key, Gary (June 8, 2006). "Nvidia nForce 500: Biostar and MSI Aim for the Gold". AnandTech.  ^ a b "A Korean reply comment (the fifth), which explains Dolby license royalty issue of X-Fi. Since the information leaked from SoundPrime, the Korean partner of Auzentech, all sources about this information are Korean".  ^ "What Daniel_K wrote to the public is "This utility was written from scratch and does not contain any copyrighted code. Creative's director of developer relations, George Thorn told me, in a chat session, that is OK to provide mods as patches. It does not modify any executable or DLL, so it is NOT a crack." Daniel_K's driver MOD itself did not include any DDL module, until it began to support Creative's official DDL pack. Daniel_K's 'DDLUnlocker.exe' merely used disguise to install Auzentech Prelude DDL module".  ^ Beschizza, Rob (April 1, 2008). "Daniel_K, Who Fixed Creative's Broken Vista Drivers, Speaks Out". Wired.com.  ^ "There is BrokenBlaster blame about CL - Creative Labs, its much later than the issue but show common case who blame Creative Labs and admire Daniel_K". Creative Technology.  ^ Beschizza, Rob (March 31, 2008). "Silence From Sound Card Maker After Customer Revolt". Wired.  ^ " Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live pack, its DDL pack but also say "Get DTS Connect Pack FREE! for every purchase of Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Live Pack."". Creative Technology.  ^ " Dolby Digital Plus
Dolby Digital Plus
Audio Coding Tech Paper" (PDF).  ^ "Apple TV - Tech Specs". Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ a b "Dolby AC-4: Audio Delivery for Next-Generation Entertainment Services" (PDF). Dolby Laboratories. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2016-04-26.  ^ https://ac3freedomday.org/ ^ VideoLAN. "VideoLAN - VLC - Features". Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ "SEC Form S-1". ADOBE investor relations website. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "SEC Form S-1". United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) EDGAR system, filed November 19, 2004. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Amendment No. 1 to SEC Form S-1". United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) EDGAR system, amended February 12, 2005. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "The last patent on AC-3 (Dolby Digital) expires at midnight Hacker News". news.ycombinator.com. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dolby Digital.

Official website, Dolby Laboratories ATSC standards Digital Audio Compression Standard (AC-3, E-AC-3) at the ATSC website

v t e

Dolby Laboratories

Technologies and products

Dolby Atmos Dialnorm Dolby 3D Dolby Cinema Dolby Digital Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus Dolby E Dolby Headphone Dolby noise-reduction system Dolby Surround/Pro Logic/Pro Logic II Dolby SR Dolby Stereo Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
7.1 Dolby TrueHD

Doremi Labs

CineAsset CineExport CinePlayer

People

Ray Dolby

v t e

Multimedia
Multimedia
compression and container formats

Video compression

ISO/IEC

MJPEG Motion JPEG 2000 MPEG-1 MPEG-2

Part 2

MPEG-4

Part 2/ASP Part 10/AVC

MPEG-H

Part 2/HEVC

ITU-T

H.120 H.261 H.262 H.263 H.264 H.265

SMPTE

VC-1 VC-2 VC-3 VC-5

Alliance for Open Media

AV1

Others

Apple Video AVS Bink Cinepak Daala Dirac DV DVI FFV1 Huffyuv Indeo Lagarith Microsoft Video
Video
1 MSU Lossless OMS Video Pixlet ProRes 422 ProRes 4444 QuickTime

Animation Graphics

RealVideo RTVideo SheerVideo Smacker Sorenson Video, Spark Theora Thor VP3 VP6 VP7 VP8 VP9 WMV XEB YULS

Audio compression

ISO/IEC

MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer III (MP3) MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer II

Multichannel

MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer I AAC

HE-AAC AAC-LD

MPEG Surround MPEG-4 ALS MPEG-4 SLS MPEG-4 DST MPEG-4 HVXC MPEG-4 CELP MPEG-D USAC MPEG-H 3D Audio

ITU-T

G.711 (A-law, µ-law) G.718 G.719 G.722 G.722.1 G.722.2 G.723 G.723.1 G.726 G.728 G.729 G.729.1

IETF

Opus iLBC

3GPP

AMR AMR-WB AMR-WB+ EVRC EVRC-B EVS GSM-HR GSM-FR GSM-EFR

Others

ACELP AC-3 AC-4 ALAC Asao ATRAC CELT Codec2 DRA DTS FLAC iSAC Monkey's Audio TTA

True Audio

MT9 Musepack OptimFROG OSQ QCELP RCELP RealAudio RTAudio SD2 SHN SILK Siren SMV Speex SVOPC TwinVQ VMR-WB Vorbis VSELP WavPack WMA MQA aptX LDAC

Image compression

IEC, ISO, ITU-T, W3C, IETF

CCITT Group 4 GIF HEIF HEVC JBIG JBIG2 JPEG JPEG-LS JPEG
JPEG
2000 JPEG
JPEG
XR JPEG
JPEG
XT PNG TIFF TIFF/EP TIFF/IT

Others

APNG BPG DjVu EXR FLIF ICER MNG PGF QTVR WBMP WebP

Containers

ISO/IEC

MPEG-ES

MPEG-PES

MPEG-PS MPEG-TS ISO base media file format MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) Motion JPEG 2000 MPEG-21 Part 9 MPEG media transport

ITU-T

H.222.0 T.802

IETF

RTP

Others

3GP and 3G2 AMV ASF AIFF AVI AU BPG Bink

Smacker

BMP DivX Media Format EVO Flash Video GXF IFF M2TS Matroska

WebM

MXF Ogg QuickTime File
File
Format RatDVD RealMedia RIFF

WAV

MOD and TOD VOB, IFO and BUP

Collaborations

NETVC MPEG-LA

See Compression methods for methods and Compression software for codecs

v t e

High-definition (HD)

Concepts

High-definition television High-definition video Ultra-high-definition television

Analog broadcast (All defunct)

819 line system HD MAC MUSE (Hi-Vision)

Digital broadcast

ATSC DMB-T/H DVB ISDB SBTVD

Audio

Dolby Digital Surround sound DSD DXD DTS

Filming and storage

DCI HDV

HD media and compression

Blu-ray CBHD D-VHS DVD-Audio H.264 H.265 HD DVD HD VMD MPEG-2 MVC Super Audio CD Ultra HD Blu-ray Uncompressed VC-1

Connectors

Component DisplayPort DVI HDMI VGA

Deployments

List of digital television deployments by country

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC 3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio Layer II MPEG Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (A

.