Jean "Django" Reinhardt (French: [dʒãŋɡo ʁɛjnaʁt] or
[dʒɑ̃ɡo ʁenɑʁt]; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953) was a
Belgian-born Romani French jazz guitarist and composer, regarded as
one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century. He was the
first jazz talent to emerge from Europe and remains the most
With violinist Stéphane Grappelli, Reinhardt formed the
Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934. The group was
among the first to play jazz that featured the guitar as a lead
instrument. Reinhardt recorded in France with many visiting
American musicians, including
Coleman Hawkins and Benny Carter, and
briefly toured the United States with Duke Ellington's orchestra in
1946. He died suddenly of a stroke at the age of 43.
Reinhardt's most popular compositions have become standards within
gypsy jazz, including "Minor Swing", "Daphne", "Belleville",
"Djangology", "Swing '42", and "Nuages".
Jazz guitarist Frank Vignola
claims that nearly every major popular-music guitarist in the world
has been influenced by Reinhardt. Over the last few decades, annual
Django festivals have been held throughout Europe and the U.S., and a
biography has been written about his life. In February 2017, the
Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival held the world premiere of the
French film, Django.
1.1 Early life
1.2 Marriage and injury
1.3 Discovery of jazz
1.4 Formation of the quintet
1.5 World War II
1.6 United States tour
1.7 After the quintet
1.8 Final years
5 Reinhardt in popular culture
6.1 Releases in his lifetime
6.2 Posthumous compilations (LP, cassette and CD)
6.3 Unrecorded compositions
7 See also
Reinhardt was born on 23 January 1910 in Liberchies, Pont-à-Celles,
Belgium, into a Belgian family of
Manouche Romani descent.
His father was Jean Eugene Weiss, but domiciled in Paris with his
wife, he went by Jean-Baptiste Reinhardt, his wife's surname, to avoid
French military conscription. His mother, Laurence Reinhardt, was a
dancer. The birth certificate refers to "Jean Reinhart, son of Jean
Baptiste Reinhart, artist, and Laurence Reinhart, housewife, domiciled
A number of authors have repeated the claim that Reinhardt's nickname,
Django, is Romani for "I awake";:4–5 however, it may also simply
have been a diminutive, or local Walloon version, of "Jean".
Reinhardt spent most of his youth in Romani encampments close to
Paris, where he started playing the violin, banjo, and guitar. He
became adept at stealing chickens, which was viewed as a noble skill
by the Romani, because part of their means of survival on the road was
to steal from the non-Gypsy world around them.:5:14 His father
reportedly played music in a family band comprising himself and seven
brothers; a surviving photograph shows this band including his father
Reinhardt was attracted to music at an early age, first playing the
violin. At the age of 12 he received a banjo-guitar as a gift. He
quickly learned to play, mimicking the fingerings of musicians he
watched, who would have included local virtuoso players of the day
such as Jean "Poulette" Castro and Auguste "Gusti" Malha, as well as
from his uncle Guiligou, who played violin, banjo and guitar.:28
Reinhardt was able to make a living playing music by the time he was
15. He received little formal education and acquired the rudiments of
literacy only in adult life.:13
Marriage and injury
At the age of 17 Reinhardt married Florine "Bella" Mayer, a girl from
the same gypsy settlement, according to gypsy custom (although not an
official marriage under French law).:9 The following year he
recorded for the first time.:9 On these recordings, made in 1928,
Reinhardt plays the "banjo" (actually the banjo-guitar) accompanying
the accordionists Maurice Alexander, Jean Vaissade and Victor Marceau,
and the singer Maurice Chaumel. His name was now drawing international
attention, such as from British bandleader Jack Hylton, who came to
France just to hear him play.:10 He offered him a job on the spot,
and Reinhardt accepted.:10
Before he had a chance to start with the band, however, he nearly lost
his life when the caravan he and his wife lived in caught fire when he
knocked over a candle on his way to bed. His wife made artificial
flowers from extremely flammable celluloid. They caught fire,
engulfing the wagon in flames almost immediately. Reinhardt dragged
himself and his wife through the fire to safety, but suffered
extensive burns on his left hand and other areas. He received
first- and second-degree burns over half his body. His right leg was
paralyzed, and the fourth and fifth fingers of his left hand were
badly burned. Doctors believed that he would never play guitar again,
and they intended to amputate one of his legs.:43–44 Reinhardt
refused to have the surgery and left the hospital after a short time;
he was able to walk within a year with the aid of a cane.:10
Two of his fingers remained paralyzed. By sheer will, he taught
himself to overcome his now permanent handicap by using only his thumb
and two fingers.:10 In 1929, his wife gave birth to a son,
Henri "Lousson" Reinhardt. As a result of the trauma and injuries, he
and Bella parted company soon after. His son later took the surname of
his mother's new husband, Baumgartner. He later recorded with
His brother, Joseph Reinhardt, also an accomplished guitarist, bought
Reinhardt a new guitar. With rehabilitation and practice, he
re-learned his craft in a completely new way. He played all his guitar
solos with only the index and middle fingers and used the two injured
fingers only for chord work.:31–35
Discovery of jazz
The years between 1925 and 1933 were formative for Reinhardt,
personally and musically. He had parted with his wife and had formed a
relationship with one of his distant cousins, Sophie Ziegler,
nicknamed "Naguine.":11 They traveled throughout France with
Reinhardt getting occasional jobs playing at small clubs. He had no
definite goals, living a hand-to-mouth existence.:11 The concept
of money and saving was foreign to him, and he spent his earnings as
quickly as he made them.:11
One change during this period was his abandonment of the banjo in
favor of the guitar. He was playing all types of music previously but
began to appreciate American jazz a little during this period, when an
acquaintance, Émile Savitry, played him a number of records from his
collection.:12 It was the first time Reinhardt heard leading
American jazz musicians, such as
Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington.
The new sounds gave Reinhardt a vision and goal of becoming a jazz
He later met Stéphane Grappelli, a young violinist with similar
musical interests. In the absence of paid work in their radical new
music, the two would jam together, along with a loose circle of other
musicians.:26 Finally, Reinhardt acquired his first Selmer guitar
in the mid-1930s. He used the volume and expressiveness of the
instrument as integral elements of his style.
Formation of the quintet
Reinhardt and Grappelli
From 1934 until the outbreak of
World War II
World War II in 1939, Reinhardt and
Grappelli worked together as the principal soloists of their newly
formed Hot Club, in Paris. It became the most accomplished and
innovative European jazz group of the period.
Reinhardt's brother Joseph and Roger Chaput also played on guitar, and
Louis Vola was on bass.:45–49 The Quintette was one of the few
well-known jazz ensembles composed only of stringed
In Paris on 14 March 1933, Reinhardt recorded two takes each of
"Parce-que je vous aime" and "Si, j'aime Suzy", vocal numbers with
lots of guitar fills and guitar support. He used three guitarists
along with an accordion lead, violin, and bass. In August 1934, he
made other recordings with more than one guitar (Joseph Reinhardt,
Roger Chaput, and Reinhardt), including the first recording by the
Quintette. In both years the great majority of their recordings
featured a wide variety of horns, often in multiples, piano, and other
instruments, but the all-string instrumentation is the one most
often adopted by emulators of the Hot Club sound.
Decca Records in the United States released three records of Quintette
songs with Reinhardt on guitar, and one other, credited to "Stephane
Grappelli & His Hot 4 with Django Reinhardt", in 1935.
Reinhardt also played and recorded with many American jazz musicians,
such as Adelaide Hall, Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, and Rex Stewart
(who later stayed in Paris). He participated in a jam session and
radio performance with Louis Armstrong. Later in his career, Reinhardt
Dizzy Gillespie in France. Also in the neighborhood was
the artistic salon R-26, at which Reinhardt and Grappelli performed
regularly as they developed their unique musical style.
In 1938 Reinhardt's quintet played to thousands at an all-star show
held in London's Kilburn State auditorium.:92 While playing, he
noticed American film actor
Eddie Cantor in the front row. When their
set ended, Cantor rose to his feet, then went up on stage and kissed
Reinhardt's hand, paying no concern to the audience.:93 A few
weeks later the quintet played at the London Palladium.:93
World War II
World War II
World War II broke out, the original quintet was on tour in the
United Kingdom. Reinhardt returned to Paris at once,:98–99
leaving his wife in the UK. Grappelli remained in the United Kingdom
for the duration of the war. Reinhardt re-formed the quintet, with
Hubert Rostaing on clarinet replacing Grappelli.
In 1943, Reinhardt married Sophie "Naguine" Ziegler in Salbris. They
had a son, Babik Reinhardt, who later became a respected guitarist in
his own right. Thanks to his superior music talent, Reinhardt
would survive the war unscathed, unlike many Gypsies who were interned
and killed in the Porajmos, the
Nazi regime's systematic murder of
several hundred thousand European Gypsies.
In addition, the
German attitude toward jazz
German attitude toward jazz from the time of World
War I had been one of general hostility.:82 Between 1916 and 1920
all jazz was banned in Germany. From 1922 on, jazz was mostly
suppressed, and after 1933 Hitler banned most jazz, which he and his
minister, Goebbels, felt was part of an international conspiracy to
undermine Germany's greatness.:154 It would not be until the
mid-1950s that Germany reopened itself to European jazz.:82
But beginning in 1933, all
German Gypsies were doomed, states
Dregni.:168 They were barred from living in cities and were herded
into settlement camps.
Nazi doctors began sterilizing them, and like
the yellow Stars of David that Jews had to subsequently wear,
Gypsies were required to wear a brown
Gypsy ID triangle
Gypsy ID triangle sewn on their
chest.:168 By 1942, Gypsies and Jews were systematically being
killed at new camps such as Auschwitz.:169 Other Gypsies, such as
those in France, were used as slave labor on farms and
factories.:169 Some 600,000 Gypsies throughout Europe were
Because Reinhardt and his family were Gypsies, and he was also a jazz
musician, he tried to escape from occupied France with his family.
After his first attempt, he survived when a secretly jazz-loving
German, Luftwaffe officer Dietrich Schulz-Köhn, let him go back to
France after he was captured. But still desperate to get out of
France, knowing that Gypsies were being rounded up and killed in
concentration camps, he tried again to cross into Switzerland a few
days later, this time in the dead of night. But he was stopped by
Swiss border guards who forced him to return to Paris.
In this ["Nuages"] graceful and eloquent melody, Django evoked the
woes of the war that weighed on people's souls—and then transcended
biographer Michael Dregni:93
During the occupation of France, Reinhardt continued playing and
composing. One of his songs, "Nuages," became an unofficial anthem
in Paris to signify hope for liberation.:93 During a concert at
the Salle Pleyel, the popularity of the song was such that the crowd
made him replay the song three times in a row.:93 The 78 of the
song sold over 100,000 copies.:93
Since the Nazis officially disapproved of jazz, Reinhardt tried to
develop other musical directions. He tried to write a Mass for the
Gypsies and a symphony (he worked with an assistant to notate what he
was improvising). His modernist piece Rhythm Futur was intended to be
United States tour
Duke Ellington at the Aquarium in New York,
c. November 1946
After the war, Reinhardt rejoined Grappelli in the UK. In the autumn
of 1946, he made his first tour in the United States, debuting at
Cleveland Music Hall as a special guest soloist with Duke
Ellington and His Orchestra. He played with many notable musicians and
composers, such as Maury Deutsch. At the end of the tour, Reinhardt
played two nights at
Carnegie Hall in New York City; he received a
great ovation and took six curtain calls on the first night.
Despite his pride in touring with Ellington (one of two letters to
Grappelli relates his excitement), he was not fully integrated into
the band. He played a few tunes at the end of the show, backed by
Ellington, with no special arrangements written for him. After the
tour, Reinhardt secured an engagement at Café Society Uptown, where
he played four solos a day, backed by the resident band. These
performances drew large audiences.:138–139 Having failed to
bring his usual Selmer Modèle Jazz, he played on a borrowed electric
guitar, which he felt hampered the delicacy of his style.:138 He
had been promised jobs in California, but they failed to develop.
Tired of waiting, Reinhardt returned to France in February
After the quintet
After his return, Reinhardt re-immersed himself in Gypsy life, finding
it difficult to adjust to the postwar world. He sometimes showed up
for scheduled concerts without a guitar or amplifier, or wandered off
to the park or beach. On a few occasions he refused to get out of bed.
Reinhardt developed a reputation among his band, fans, and managers as
extremely unreliable. He skipped sold-out concerts to "walk to the
beach" or "smell the dew.":145 During this period he continued to
attend the R-26 artistic salon in Montmartre, improvising with his
devoted collaborator, Stéphane Grappelli.
In Rome in 1949, Reinhardt recruited three Italian jazz players (on
bass, piano, and snare drum) and recorded over 60 tunes in an Italian
studio. He united with Grappelli, and used his acoustic
Selmer-Maccaferri. The recording was issued for the first time in the
Back in Paris, in June 1950, Reinhardt was invited to join an
entourage to welcome the return of Benny Goodman. He also attended a
reception for Goodman, who after the war ended had asked Reinhardt to
join him in the U.S. He asked him again, and out of politeness,
Reinhardt agreed. But he later had second thoughts about what role he
could play alongside Goodman, who was the "King of Swing," and
remained in France.:251
Plaque commemorating Reinhardt at Samois-sur-Seine
In 1951, Reinhardt retired to Samois-sur-Seine, near Fontainebleau,
where he lived until his death. He continued to play in Paris jazz
clubs and began playing electric guitar. (He often used a Selmer
fitted with an electric pickup, despite his initial hesitation about
the instrument.) In his final recordings, made with his Nouvelle
Quintette in the last few months of his life, he had begun moving in a
new musical direction, in which he assimilated the vocabulary of bebop
and fused it with his own melodic style.
While walking from the Avon railway station after playing in a Paris
club, he collapsed outside his house from a brain hemorrhage.:160
It was a Saturday and it took a full day for a doctor to
arrive.:161 Reinhardt was declared dead on arrival at the hospital
in Fontainebleau, at the age of 43.
Reinhardt's second son, Babik, became a guitarist in the contemporary
jazz style. His first son, Lousson, was more of a traditionalist. He
followed the Romani lifestyle and rarely performed in public. After
Reinhardt died, his brother Joseph at first swore to abandon music,
but he was persuaded to perform and record again. Joseph's son Markus
Reinhardt is a violinist in the Romani style.
A third generation of direct descendants has developed as musicians:
David Reinhardt, Reinhardt's grandson (by his son Babik), leads his
own trio. Dallas Baumgartner, a great-grandson by Lousson, is a
guitarist who travels with the Romani and keeps a low public profile.
A slightly younger distant relative, violinist Schnuckenack Reinhardt,
became famous in Germany as a performer of gypsy music and gypsy jazz
up to his death in 2006, and also assisted in keeping Reinhardt's
legacy alive through the period following his death.
Main article: Gypsy jazz
Reinhardt is regarded as one of the greatest guitar players of all
time, and the first important European jazz musician to make a major
contribution with jazz guitar.[a] During his career he wrote
nearly 100 songs, according to jazz guitarist Frank Vignola
Using a Selmer Guitar in the mid-1930s, his style took on new volume
and expressiveness. Despite his physical handicap, he played
mainly using his index and middle fingers, and invented a distinctive
style of jazz guitar.
For about a decade after Reinhardt's death, interest in his musical
style was minimal. In the fifties, bebop superseded swing in jazz,
rock and roll took off, and electric instruments became dominant in
popular music. Since the mid-sixties, there has been a revival of
interest in Reinhardt's music, a revival that has extended into the
21st century, with annual festivals and periodic tribute concerts. His
devotees included classical guitarist
Julian Bream and country
guitarist Chet Atkins, who considered him one of the ten greatest
guitarists of the twentieth century.:cover[b]
Allman Brothers Band
Allman Brothers Band song "Jessica" was written by
Dickey Betts in
tribute to Reinhardt. Woody Allen's 1999 film Sweet and Lowdown,
the story of a Django Reinhardt-like character, mentions Reinhardt and
includes actual recordings in the film. "Django was the
definitive genius on the guitar, and the depth of his gift was so
spectacular," says Allen.
Jazz guitarists in the U.S., such as Charlie Byrd and Wes Montgomery,
were influenced by his style. In fact, Byrd, who lived from 1925 to
1999, said that Reinhardt was his primary influence. Guitarist Mike
Peters notes that "the word 'genius' is bantered about too much. But
Louis Armstrong was a genius,
Duke Ellington was another one,
and Reinhardt was also." Grisman adds, "As far as I'm concerned,
no one since has come anywhere close to
Django Reinhardt as an
improviser or technician."
Festival Django Reinhardt
Festival Django Reinhardt in France
The popularity of gypsy jazz has generated an increasing number of
festivals, such as the
Festival Django Reinhardt
Festival Django Reinhardt held every last
weekend of June since 1983 in
Samois-sur-Seine (France), the
various DjangoFests held throughout Europe and the USA, and Django
in June, an annual camp for
Gypsy jazz musicians and
In February 2017, the
Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival held the
world premiere of Django, a French film directed by Etienne Comar. The
movie covers Django's escape from Nazi-occupied Paris in 1943 and the
fact that even under "constant danger, flight and the atrocities
committed against his family", he continued composing and
performing. Reinhardt's music was re-recorded for the film by the
Dutch jazz band
Rosenberg Trio with lead guitarist Stochelo
The documentary film, Djangomania! was released in 2005. The hour-long
film was directed and written by Jamie Kastner, who traveled
throughout the world to show the influence of Django's music in
In 1984 the Kool
Jazz Festival, held in
Carnegie Hall and Avery Fisher
Hall, was dedicated entirely to Reinhardt. Performers included
Grappelli, Benny Carter, and Mike Peters with his group of seven
musicians. The festival was organized by George Wein. Reinhardt is
celebrated annually in the village of Liberchies, his birthplace.
Numerous musicians have written and recorded tributes to Reinhardt.
The instant I heard Django, I flipped. I chose his style because it
spoke to me. He was too far ahead of his time. He was something else.
French recording artist, Serge Krief
Many guitar players and other musicians have expressed admiration for
Reinhardt or have cited him as a major influence.
Jeff Beck described
Reinhardt as "by far the most astonishing guitar player ever" and
Jerry Garcia and Black Sabbath's Tony Iommi, both of
whom lost fingers in accidents, were inspired by Reinhardt's example
of becoming an accomplished guitar player despite his injuries. Garcia
was quoted in June 1985 in Frets Magazine:
His technique is awesome! Even today, nobody has really come to the
state that he was playing at. As good as players are, they haven't
gotten to where he is. There's a lot of guys that play fast and a lot
of guys that play clean, and the guitar has come a long way as far as
speed and clarity go, but nobody plays with the whole fullness of
expression that Django has. I mean, the combination of incredible
speed – all the speed you could possibly want – but also the thing
of every note have a specific personality. You don't hear it. I really
haven't heard it anywhere but with Django.
Denny Laine and Jimmy McCulloch, members of Paul McCartney's band
Wings, have mentioned him as an inspiration.
Django is still one of my main influences, I think, for lyricism. He
can make me cry when I hear him.
Andrew Latimer, of the band Camel, has stated that he was influenced
Willie Nelson has been a life-long Reinhardt fan, stating in his
memoir, "This was a man who changed my musical life by giving me a
whole new perspective on the guitar and, on an even more profound
level, on my relationship with sound...During my formative years, as I
listened to Django's records, especially songs like 'Nuages' that I
would play for the rest of my life, I studied his technique. Even
more, I studied his gentleness. I love the human sound he gave his
Reinhardt in popular culture
Reinhardt's style of playing is discussed by characters in the novel
From Here to Eternity.
His legacy is referred to in Woody Allen's 1999 Sweet and Lowdown.
This spoof biopic features a fictional American guitarist, Emmet Ray,
who is obsessed with Reinhardt, with a soundtrack featuring Howard
Reinhardt is portrayed by the guitarist
John Jorgenson in the movie
Head in the Clouds.
In the movie Swing Kids, the character Arvid has his hand damaged by a
member of the
Hitler Jugend but is inspired by Reinhardt's example to
Reinhardt's music has been used in the soundtrack of many films,
including in The Matrix, Rhythm Futur, Daltry Calhoun, Metroland,
Chocolat, The Aviator, Alex and the Gypsy,
Kate and Leopold
Kate and Leopold and
Gattaca; the score for Louis Malle's 1974 movie, Lacombe Lucien; the
background for the
Steve Martin movie L.A. Story; and the background
for a number of
Woody Allen movies, including Stardust Memories.
Reinhardt's music has been featured in the soundtracks of several
video games, such as the 2002 game Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, and
its 2010 sequel Mafia II. It was also featured in the 2007, 2010
and 2013 games BioShock,
BioShock 2 and
Reinhardt's music is used in the 1978 film King of the Gypsies. His
Stéphane Grappelli appeared in the film in a cameo,
performing as a violinist in a gypsy band.
Martin Scorsese film Hugo (2011), a character named
Reinhardt—played by Emil Lager—plays guitar in a combo in the
Django (1954) is a gypsy-flavoured piece written by the jazz pianist
John Lewis, of the Modern
Jazz Quartet, in honour of Reinhardt.
Numerous versions of the song have been recorded, including one on the
1973 album Buckingham Nicks, by
Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks.
Saxophonist James Carter released
Chasin' the Gypsy
Chasin' the Gypsy (Atlantic, 2000)
in tribute to Reinhardt.
Tango for Django, a track on Robbie Robertson's 2011 album How to
Become Clairvoyant, is a tribute.
Reinhardt inspired Harlan Ellison's short story Django, published in
the collections Shatterday and Dreams with Sharp Teeth.
On 23 January 2010, the French and Belgian Google home pages displayed
a logo commemorating the centenary of Reinhardt's birth.
The Django web framework is named after Reinhardt, as is version 3.1
of the blog software WordPress.
The Belgian government issued a commemorative coin in 92.5% sterling
silver in 2010 coinciding with the 100th anniversary of his birth. It
is a silver 10-Euro coin with a color image of Reinhardt on the
Reinhardt is mentioned in the opening line of The Statler Brothers'
song "Chet Atkins' Hand". The opening line is "Thank you Les Paul,
thank you Django, thank you Merle".
Reinhardt appears as a character in the fiction novel The Magic
Strings of Frankie Presto (2015).
The film Django, by the French filmmaker Étienne Comar, depicting
Reinhardt's life during wartime was released in 2017, with the French
Reda Kateb performing the role of Reinhardt. It opened the
67th Berlin International Film Festival.
Releases in his lifetime
Reinhardt recorded over 900 sides in his recording career, from 1928
to 1953, the majority as sides of the then-prevalent 78-RPM records,
with the remainder as acetates, transcription discs, private and
off-air recordings (of radio broadcasts), and part of a film
soundtrack. Only one session (eight tracks) from March 1953 was ever
recorded specifically for album release by Norman Granz in the
then-new LP format, but Reinhardt died before the album could be
released. In his earliest recordings Reinhardt played banjo (or, more
accurately, banjo-guitar) accompanying accordionists and singers on
dances and popular tunes of the day, with no jazz content, whereas in
the last recordings before his death he played amplified guitar in the
bebop idiom with a pool of younger, more modern French musicians. A
full chronological listing of his lifetime recorded output is
available from the source cited here, and an index of individual
tunes is available from the source cited here. A few fragments of
film performance (without original sound) also survive, as does one
complete performance with sound, of the tune "J'Attendrai" performed
with the Quintet in 1938 for the short film Le
Posthumous compilations (LP, cassette and CD)
Reinhardt's recorded output has been re-released on a large number of
LPs, cassettes and CDs since his death and also the start of the LP
era. Of particular mention is Intégrale Django Reinhardt, volumes
1–20 (40 CDs), released by the French company Frémeaux from 2002 to
2005, which strove to include every known track on which he
The following list of reissues is only a selection; as at December
2015, www.discogs.com listed more than 560 such albums; a full listing
is available from the source cited here.
Django Reinhardt et Ses Rythmes
1954 The Great Artistry of Django Reinhardt
1955 Django's Guitar
Django Reinhardt and His Rhythm
1963 The Immortal
Django Reinhardt Guitar
1980 Routes to Django Reinhardt
Django Reinhardt – Pêche à la Mouche: The Great Blue Star
Jazz & Blues Collection, Editions Atlas, 1937–1940
1997 Django Reinhardt: Nuages, with Coleman Hawkins
1998 The Complete
Django Reinhardt HMV Sessions
2000 The Classic Early Recordings in Chronological Order (five-CD
2001 All Star Sessions
Jazz in Paris: Swing 39
2002 Djangology, recorded in 1948 and remastered and released by
2002–2005 Intégrale Django Reinhardt, vols. 1–20, Frémeaux et
Associés, 20 two-CD volumes
Jazz in Paris: Nuages
Jazz in Paris: Nuits de Saint-Germain des-Prés
2004 Le Génie Vagabond
2005 Djangology, rereleased by Bluebird)
2008 Django on the Radio, radio broadcasts, 1945–1953
A small number of waltzes composed by Reinhardt in his youth were
never recorded by the composer, but were retained in the repertoire of
his associates and several are still played today. They came to light
via recordings by
Matelo Ferret in 1960 (the waltzes "Montagne
Sainte-Genevieve", "Gagoug", "Chez Jacquet" and "Choti"; Disques Vogue
(F)EPL7740) and 1961 ("Djalamichto" and "En Verdine"; Disques Vogue
(F)EPL7829). The first four are now available on Matelo's CD
Tziganskaïa and Other Rare Recordings, released by Hot Club Records
(subsequently reissued as Tziganskaïa: The
Django Reinhardt Waltzes);
"Chez Jacquet" was also recorded by
Baro Ferret in 1966. The names
"Gagoug" and "Choti" were reportedly conferred by Django's widow
Naguine on request from Matelo, who had learned the tunes without
names. Django also worked on composing a Mass for use by the gypsies,
which was not completed although an 8-minute extract exists, played by
the organist Léo Chauliac for Reinhardt's benefit, via a 1944 radio
broadcast; this can be found on the CD release "Gipsy
Jazz School" and
also on volume 12 of the "Intégrale Django Reinhardt" CD
DjangodOr (Golden Django)
Festivals de jazz Django Reinhardt, a French list of worldwide
festivals dedicated to the guitarist
List of Belgian bands and artists
List of Belgian musicians and singers
List of compositions by Django Reinhardt
List of Romani people
^ Professor of music and guitarist, Mark White, of Berklee College,
Django Reinhardt with his Hot Club of France group was a
hotbed of great guitar playing. Eventually, Django would play electric
guitar, and become one of the greatest guitar stylists of all
Jimmy Page said "
Django Reinhardt was fantastic. he must have been
playing all the time to be that good."
^ Here is Lauren Oliver's transcript of the interview from the radio
broadcast: Introduction: VO: In the Chapel of the National Institute
for Blind Children,
Django Reinhardt will, for the first time, hear
his mass played on the organ, which he has written especially for the
gypsies. (Organ begins to play) Interview: Announcer: Could you tell
me Mr Reinhardt, what has compelled you to write this mass? DR: All
the gypsies in the entire world have made use of foreign masses for
many centuries. I have written this mass to be interpreted by choir
and organ. A: And in what surroundings do you isolate yourself in
order to write – it's not a question of surroundings. For you
certainly cannot do it after a jazz concert? DR: I prefer to write in
the evening very late or in the morning in my bed. A: And did you
notate the music? DR: No, it's not I who notates the music. It's my
clarinetist in the Quintet of the Hot Club of France, Gerard Leveque.
I dictate it to him. A: And is today the first recital of your mass?
DR: It is an extract of my mass. I particularily don't know the
ending. It's the first time I have heard the composition on the organ.
A: Certainly you know, Mr Reinhardt, that in the world and
particularily in France, it is said that you are the king of the
gypsies. Is that accurate? DR: No, no, no, don't think that. But it
might come to pass, perhaps one day. I am very loved by them, and I
thank them by offering to them this mass. (Organ continues to play)
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Paris 1945 (1945)
Jazz in Paris:
"Minor Swing" (1937)
Babik Reinhardt (son)
Joseph Reinhardt (brother)
Lousson Reinhardt (son)
Quintette du Hot Club de France (
Django (2017 film)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2136 7088
BNF: cb13898907n (data)