JEAN "DJANGO" REINHARDT (French: or ; 23 January 1910 – 16 May
1953) was a Belgian -born, Romani French jazz guitarist and composer,
regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century. He
was the first jazz talent to emerge from Europe and remains the most
significant by far. :cover
After losing most of the control in two of his fingers in a fire in
his youth, he modified his technique to overcome his disability and
went on to forge an entirely new 'hot' jazz guitar style, now known as
gypsy jazz or jazz manouche and still a vibrant living musical
tradition within gypsy culture in
France and neighbouring countries.
Reinhardt's innovations on the guitar completely revolutionised the
instrument's potential, particularly within jazz, in which he elevated
it far above its prior position as a simple, often superfluous rhythm
Stéphane Grappelli , Reinhardt formed the
Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934. The group is one
of the most original in recorded jazz due to its then unique
foregrounding of the guitar. Reinhardt recorded in
France with many
visiting American musicians, including
Coleman Hawkins and Benny
Carter , and briefly toured the
United States with
Duke Ellington 's
orchestra in 1946. He died suddenly of a stroke at the age of 43.
Reinhardt's most popular compositions have become standards within
gypsy jazz , including "Minor Swing ", "Daphne", "Belleville",
"Djangology", "Swing '42", and "
Nuages ". According to jazz guitarist
Frank Vignola , nearly every major popular-music guitarist in the
world has been influenced by Django, including
Paul McCartney , Keith
Willie Nelson , and
Les Paul . Over the last few decades,
annual Django festivals have been held throughout Europe and the U.S.,
and a biography has been written about his life. In February 2017,
Berlin International Film Festival held the world premiere of the
French film, Django .
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Early life
* 1.2 Marriage and injury
* 1.3 Discovery of jazz
* 1.4 Formation of the quintet
World War II
World War II
United States tour
* 1.7 After the quintet
* 1.8 Final years
* 2 Family
* 3 Legacy
* 3.1 Tributes
* 4 Influence
* 5 Reinhardt in popular culture
* 6 Discography
* 6.1 Releases in his lifetime
* 6.2 Posthumous compilations (LP, cassette and CD)
* 6.3 Unrecorded compositions
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
Reinhardt was born on 23 January 1910 in
Liberchies , Pont-à-Celles
, Belgium, into a Belgian family of
Manouche Romani descent. His
father was Jean Eugene Weiss, but domiciled in
Paris with his wife, he
went by Jean-Baptiste Reinhardt, his wife's surname, to avoid French
military conscription. His mother, Laurence Reinhardt, was a dancer.
The birth certificate refers to "Jean Reinhart, son of Jean Baptiste
Reinhart, artist, and Laurence Reinhart, housewife, domiciled in Paris
A number of authors have repeated the claim that Reinhardt's
nickname, Django, is Romani for "I awake." :4–5, however it may also
simply have been a diminutive, or local Walloon version, of "Jean".
Reinhardt spent most of his youth in Romani encampments close to Paris
, where he started playing the violin, banjo , and guitar. He became
adept at stealing chickens, which was viewed as a noble skill by the
Romani, because part of their means of survival on the road was to
steal from the non-Gypsy world around them. :5 :14 His father
reportedly played music in a family band comprising himself and seven
brothers; a surviving photograph shows this band including his father
Reinhardt was attracted to music at an early age, first playing the
violin. At the age of 12 he received a banjo-guitar as a gift. He
quickly learned to play, mimicking the fingerings of musicians he
watched, who would have included local virtuoso players of the day
such as Jean "Poulette" Castro and Auguste "Gusti" Malha, as well as
from his uncle Guiligou, who played violin, banjo and guitar. :28
Reinhardt was able to make a living playing music by the time he was
15. He received little formal education and acquired the rudiments of
literacy only in adult life. :13
MARRIAGE AND INJURY
At the age of 17 Reinhardt married Florine "Bella" Mayer, a girl from
the same gypsy settlement. :9 The following year he recorded for the
first time. :9 On these recordings, made in 1928, Reinhardt plays the
"banjo" (actually the banjo-guitar) accompanying the accordionists
Maurice Alexander, Jean Vaissade and Victor Marceau, and the singer
Maurice Chaumel. His name was now drawing international attention,
such as from British bandleader
Jack Hylton , who came to
to hear him play. :10 He offered him a job on the spot, and Reinhardt
Before he had a chance to start with the band, however, he nearly
lost his life when the caravan he and his wife lived in caught fire
when he knocked over a candle on his way to bed. His wife made
artificial flowers from extremely flammable celluloid . They caught
fire, engulfing the wagon in flames almost immediately. Django dragged
himself and his wife through the fire to safety, but suffered
extensive burns all over his left hand and other areas. He received
first- and second-degree burns over half his body. His right leg was
paralyzed, and the fourth and fifth fingers of his left hand were
badly burned. Doctors believed that he would never play guitar again,
and they intended to amputate one of his legs. :43–44 Reinhardt
refused to have the surgery and left the hospital after a short time;
he was able to walk within a year with the aid of a cane. :10
But two of his fingers remained paralyzed. By sheer will, he taught
himself to overcome his now permanent handicap by using only his thumb
and two fingers. :10 In 1929, his wife gave birth to a son, Henri
"Lousson" Reinhardt . But partly as a result of the trauma and
injuries, he and his wife divorced soon after. His son later took the
surname of his mother's new husband, Baumgartner. He later recorded
Joseph Reinhardt , also an accomplished guitarist,
bought Django a new guitar. With rehabilitation and practice, he
re-learned his craft in a completely new way. He played all his guitar
solos with only the index and middle fingers and used the two injured
fingers only for chord work. :31–35
DISCOVERY OF JAZZ
The years between 1925 and 1933 were formative for Reinhardt,
personally and musically. He had divorced his wife and had formed a
relationship with one of his distant cousins, Sophie Ziegler,
nicknamed "Naguine." :11 They traveled throughout
Reinhardt getting occasional jobs playing at small clubs. He had no
definite goals, living a hand-to-mouth existence. :11 The concept of
money and saving was foreign to him, and he spent his earnings as
quickly as he made them. :11
One change during this period was his abandonment of the banjo in
favor of the guitar. He was playing all types of music previously but
began to appreciate American jazz a little during this period, when an
Émile Savitry , played him a number of records from his
collection. :12 It was the first time Reinhardt heard leading American
jazz musicians, such as
Louis Armstrong and
Duke Ellington . The new
sounds gave Reinhardt a vision and goal of becoming a jazz
He later met
Stéphane Grappelli , a young violinist with similar
musical interests. In the absence of paid work in their radical new
music, the two would jam together, along with a loose circle of other
musicians. :26 Finally, Reinhardt acquired his first
Selmer guitar in
the mid-1930s. He used the volume and expressiveness of the instrument
as integral elements of his style.
FORMATION OF THE QUINTET
Reinhardt and Grappelli
From 1934 until the outbreak of
World War II
World War II in 1939, Reinhardt and
Grappelli worked together as the principal soloists of their newly
formed Hot Club , in Paris. It became the most accomplished and
innovative European jazz group of the period.
Reinhardt's brother Joseph and Roger Chaput also played on guitar,
Louis Vola was on bass. :45–49 The Quintette was one of the few
well-known jazz ensembles composed only of stringed instruments.
Paris on 14 March 1933, Reinhardt recorded two takes each of
"Parce-que je vous aime" and "Si, j'aime Suzy", vocal numbers with
lots of guitar fills and guitar support. He used three guitarists
along with an accordion lead, violin, and bass. In August 1934, he
made other recordings with more than one guitar (Joseph Reinhardt,
Roger Chaput, and Django), including the first recording by the
Quintette. In both years the great majority of their recordings
featured a wide variety of horns, often in multiples, piano, and other
instruments, but the all-string instrumentation is the one most often
adopted by emulators of the Hot Club sound.
Decca Records in the
United States released three records of
Quintette songs with Reinhardt on guitar, and one other, credited to
"Stephane Grappelli ">:92 While playing, he noticed American film
Eddie Cantor in the front row. When their set ended, Cantor rose
to his feet, then went up on stage and kissed Reinhardt's hand, paying
no concern to the audience. :93 A few weeks later the quintet played
London Palladium . :93
WORLD WAR II
World War II
World War II broke out, the original quintet was on tour in the
United Kingdom. Reinhardt returned to
Paris at once, :98–99 leaving
his wife in the UK. Grappelli remained in the United Kingdom for the
duration of the war. Reinhardt re-formed the quintet, with Hubert
Rostaing on clarinet replacing Grappelli.
In 1943, Reinhardt married Sophie "Naguine" Ziegler in
Salbris . They
had a son,
Babik Reinhardt , who later became a respected guitarist in
his own right. Thanks to his superior music talent, Reinhardt would
survive the war unscathed, unlike many Gypsies who were interned and
killed in the
Porajmos , the
Nazi regime's systematic murder of
several hundred thousand European Gypsies.
In addition, the German attitude toward jazz from the time of World
War I had been one of general hostility. :82 Between 1916 and 1920 all
jazz was banned in Germany. From 1922 on, jazz was mostly suppressed,
and after 1933 Hitler banned most jazz, which he and his minister,
Goebbels, felt was part of an international conspiracy to undermine
Germany's greatness. :154 It would not be until the mid-1950s that
Germany reopened itself to European jazz. :82
But beginning in 1933, all German Gypsies were doomed, states Dregni.
:168 They were barred from living in cities and were herded into
Nazi doctors began sterilizing them, and like the
yellow Stars of David that Jews had to subsequently wear, Gypsies
were required to wear a brown Gypsy ID triangle sewn on their chest.
:168 By 1942, Gypsies and Jews were systematically being killed at new
camps such as Auschwitz. :169 Other Gypsies, such as those in France,
were used as slave labor on farms and factories. :169 Some 600,000
Gypsies throughout Europe were eventually killed. :154
Because Reinhardt and his family were Gypsies, and he was also a jazz
musician, he tried to escape from occupied
France with his family.
After his first attempt, he survived when a secretly jazz-loving
German, Luftwaffe officer Dietrich Schulz-Köhn, let him go back to
France after he was captured. But still desperate to get out of
France, knowing that Gypsies were being rounded up and killed in
concentration camps, he tried again to cross into Switzerland a few
days later, this time in the dead of night. But he was stopped by
Swiss border guards who forced him to return to Paris. In this
graceful and eloquent melody, Django evoked the woes of the war that
weighed on people's souls—and then transcended it all. biographer
Michael Dregni :93
During the occupation of France, Reinhardt continued playing and
composing. One of his songs, "Nuages," became an unofficial anthem in
Paris to signify hope for liberation. :93 During a concert at the
Salle Pleyel, the popularity of the song was such that the crowd made
him replay the song three times in a row. :93 The 78 of the song sold
over 100,000 copies. :93
Since the Nazis officially disapproved of jazz, Reinhardt tried to
develop other musical directions. He tried to write a Mass for the
Gypsies and a symphony (he worked with an assistant to notate what he
was improvising). His modernist piece Rhythm Futur was intended to be
UNITED STATES TOUR
Duke Ellington at the Aquarium in New York, c.
After the war, Reinhardt rejoined Grappelli in the UK. In the autumn
of 1946, he made his first tour in the United States, debuting at
Cleveland Music Hall as a special guest soloist with Duke Ellington
and His Orchestra. He played with many notable musicians and
composers, such as
Maury Deutsch . At the end of the tour, Reinhardt
played two nights at
Carnegie Hall in New York City; he received a
great ovation and took six curtain calls on the first night.
Despite his pride in touring with Ellington (one of his two letters
to Grappelli relates his excitement), he was not fully integrated into
the band. He played a few tunes at the end of the show, backed by
Ellington, with no special arrangements written for him. After the
tour, Reinhardt secured an engagement at Café Society Uptown, where
he played four solos a day, backed by the resident band. These
performances drew large audiences. :138–139 Having failed to take
along a Selmer Modèle Jazz, which he had made famous, he had to play
on a borrowed electric guitar, with which he was unable to express the
delicacy of his style. :138 He had been promised some jobs in
California, but they failed to develop. Tired of waiting, Reinhardt
France in February 1947. :141
AFTER THE QUINTET
After his return, Reinhardt became re-immersed in Gypsy life, finding
it difficult to adjust to the postwar world. He sometimes showed up
for scheduled concerts without a guitar or amplifier, or wandered off
to the park or beach. On a few occasions he refused to get out of bed.
Reinhardt developed a reputation among his band, fans, and managers as
being extremely unreliable. He skipped sold-out concerts to "walk to
the beach" or "smell the dew". :145 During this period he continued to
attend the R-26 artistic salon in Montmartre, improvising with his
devoted collaborator, Stéphane Grappelli.
In Rome in 1949, Reinhardt recruited three Italian jazz players (on
bass, piano, and snare drum) and recorded over 60 tunes in an Italian
studio. He was united with Grappelli, and used his acoustic
Selmer-Maccaferri. The recording was discovered in the late 1950s,
when it was issued for the first time.
Paris in June 1950, Reinhardt was invited to join an
entourage to welcome the return of
Benny Goodman . He also attended a
reception for Goodman, who after the war ended had asked Reinhardt to
join him in the U.S. He asked him again, and out of politeness,
Reinhardt agreed. But he later had second thoughts about what role he
could play alongside Goodman, who was the King of Swing, and instead
remained in France. :251
Stéphane Grappelli formed a successful Quintette-style band
with the British guitarists
Diz Disley and
Denny Wright . Grappelli
formed many other musical partnerships, including collaborations with
John Etheridge ,
Nigel Kennedy and
David Grisman , and became very
popular. He influenced other musicians, such as the Dutch violinist
Tim Kliphuis .
Plaque commemorating Reinhardt at
In 1951, Reinhardt retired to
Samois-sur-Seine , near
where he lived until his death. He continued to play in
clubs and began playing electric guitar. (He often used a Selmer
fitted with an electric pickup, despite his initial hesitation about
the instrument.) In his final recordings, made with his Nouvelle
Quintette in the last few months of his life, he had begun moving in a
new musical direction, in which he assimilated the vocabulary of bebop
and fused it with his own melodic style.
While walking from the Avon railway station after playing in a Paris
club, he collapsed outside his house from a brain hemorrhage . :160 It
was a Saturday and it took a full day for a doctor to arrive. :161
Reinhardt was declared dead on arrival at the hospital in
Fontainebleau, at the age of 43.
Reinhardt's second son, Babik , became a guitarist in the
contemporary jazz style. His first son, Lousson , was more of a
traditionalist. He followed the Romani lifestyle and rarely performed
in public. After Django died, his brother Joseph at first swore to
abandon music, but he was persuaded to perform and record again.
Joseph's son Markus Reinhardt is a violinist in the Romani style.
A third generation of direct descendants has developed as musicians:
David Reinhardt, Reinhardt's grandson (by his son Babik), leads his
own trio. Dallas Baumgartner, a great-grandson by Lousson, is a
guitarist who travels with the Romani and keeps a low public profile.
A slightly younger distant relative, violinist Schnuckenack Reinhardt
, became famous in Germany as a performer of gypsy music and gypsy
jazz up to his death in 2006, and also assisted in keeping Django's
legacy alive through the period following his death.
Django Reinhardt, born in a trailer and part of a gypsy nomadic
culture, is regarded as one of the greatest guitar players of all
time, and the first important European jazz musician to make a major
contribution with jazz guitar. During his career he wrote nearly 100
songs, according to jazz guitarist
Using a Selmer Guitar in the mid-1930s, his style took on new volume
and expressiveness. Despite his handicap after a fire which paralyzed
two fingers, he played using mainly his index and middle fingers, and
was able to invent a new style of jazz guitar now called "hot jazz."
For about a decade after Reinhardt's death, interest in his musical
style was minimal. In the fifties, bebop superseded swing in jazz,
rock and roll took off, and electric instruments became dominant in
popular music. Since the mid-sixties, there has been a revival of
interest in Reinhardt's music, a revival that has extended into the
21st century, with annual festivals and periodic tribute concerts. His
devotees included classical guitarist
Julian Bream and country
Chet Atkins , who considered him one of the ten greatest
guitarists of the twentieth century. :cover
Allman Brothers Band song "Jessica" was written by Dickey Betts
in tribute to Reinhardt.
Woody Allen 's 1999 film
Sweet and Lowdown ,
the story of a Django-like character, mentions
Django Reinhardt and
includes actual recordings during the film. "Django was the
definitive genius on the guitar, and the depth of his gift was so
spectacular," says Allen.
Among the reasons for the delayed recognition of Reinhardt in the
U.S. was because until recently the guitar was not considered a jazz
instrument, unlike the piano or horn. Recording artist David Grisman
states that there was a "prejudice against anything that's different
in jazz, and playing jazz on stringed instruments is just too
different." Reinhardt's five-piece band initially played only
strings, with three guitarists, a violinist and a bass player.
Guitarist Mike Peters notes that "the word 'genius' is bantered about
too much. But in jazz,
Louis Armstrong was a genius, Duke Ellington
was another one, and Reinhardt was also." Grisman adds, "As far as
I'm concerned, no one since has come anywhere close to Django
Reinhardt as an improviser or technician." Festival Django
The popularity of gypsy jazz has generated an increasing number of
festivals, such as the
Festival Django Reinhardt held every last
weekend of June since 1983 in
France ), the
various DjangoFests held throughout Europe and the USA, and Django in
June, an annual camp for
Gypsy jazz musicians and aficionados.
In February 2017, the
Berlin International Film Festival would hold
the world premiere of Django (2017), a French film directed by Etienne
Comar. The movie covers Django's escape from Nazi-occupied
1943 and the fact that even under "constant danger, flight and the
atrocities committed against his family," he continued composing and
performing. Django's music was re-recorded for the film by the Dutch
Rosenberg Trio with lead guitarist
Stochelo Rosenberg .
The documentary film, Djangomania! was released in 2005. The
hour-long film was directed and written by Jamie Kastner, who traveled
throughout the world to show the influence of Django's music in
In 1984 the Kool
Jazz Festival , held in
Carnegie Hall and Avery
Fisher Hall , was dedicated entirely to Django. Performers included
Benny Carter , and Mike Peters with his group of seven
musicians. The festival was organized by
George Wein .
Bucky Pizzarelli from New Jersey performed a tribute
concert in 2001.
In 2010, to celebrate Django's 100th birthday, guitarist Frank
Vignola and his Hot Club paid tribute with a concert in Rock Hall,
In 2011 French jazz guitarist and violinist
Dorado Schmitt and an
all-star ensemble held concerts named "The Spirit of Django," at
Segerstrom Center for the Arts near Los Angeles.
The instant I heard Django, I flipped. I chose his style because it
spoke to me. He was too far ahead of his time. He was something else.
French recording artist, Serge Krief
Many guitar players and other musicians have expressed admiration for
Reinhardt or have cited him as a major influence.
Jeff Beck described
Reinhardt as "by far the most astonishing guitar player ever" and
"quite superhuman". Beck recalls that he once came across a rare
black-and-white film of Django playing:
"It's the most glorious, but tantalizing short footage, but he is
playing like crazy. I've been studying it in slow motion, and all you
can see are these two grubby fingers going like lightning up and down
Grateful Dead 's
Jerry Garcia and Black Sabbath's
Tony Iommi , both
of whom lost fingers in accidents, were inspired by Reinhardt's
example of becoming an accomplished guitar player despite his
injuries. Garcia was quoted in June 1985 in Frets Magazine:
His technique is awesome! Even today, nobody has really come to the
state that he was playing at. As good as players are, they haven’t
gotten to where he is. There's a lot of guys that play fast and a lot
of guys that play clean, and the guitar has come a long way as far as
speed and clarity go, but nobody plays with the whole fullness of
expression that Django has. I mean, the combination of incredible
speed – all the speed you could possibly want – but also the thing
of every note have a specific personality. You don’t hear it. I
really haven’t heard it anywhere but with Django.
Denny Laine and
Jimmy McCulloch , members of
Paul McCartney 's
band Wings , have mentioned him as an inspiration.
Django is still one of my main influences, I think, for lyricism.
He can make me cry when I hear him.
* "Django", an instrumental guitar piece by the blues-rock guitarist
Joe Bonamassa, is in his honour.
* "Django," composed by John Lewis , has become a jazz standard,
performed by Miles Davis, among others. The Modern
Jazz Quartet titled
one of their albums Django in his honour.
Allman Brothers Band song "Jessica " was written by Dickey
Betts in tribute to Reinhardt.
Andrew Latimer , of the band Camel , has stated that he was
influenced by Reinhardt.
* The composer Jon Larsen has composed several crossover concerts
featuring Reinhardt-inspired music together with symphonic
arrangements, the most famous being "White Night Stories" (2002) and
* The Cuban composer and guitarist
Leo Brouwer wrote "Variations on
a Theme of Django Reinhardt" for solo guitar (1984), based on
* In 2005, Reinhardt was ranked 66th in the list of "The Greatest
De Grootste Belg ) in
Flanders and 76th in Le plus grand
Belge , the Walloon version of the same competition.
* Reinhardt is celebrated annually in the village of
Willie Nelson and
Merle Haggard released the album Django and
Jimmie in 2015 (the title refers to Reinhardt and the country singer
Jimmie Rodgers ).
The Lost Fingers , a French Canadian gypsy jazz band, owe their
name to Reinhardt.
REINHARDT IN POPULAR CULTURE
* Reinhardt's style of playing is discussed by characters in the
novel From Here to Eternity .
* Reinhardt is referred to in the opening sequence of the 2003
Les Triplettes de Belleville .
* His legacy is referred to in
Woody Allen 's 1999 Sweet and Lowdown
. This spoof biopic features a fictional American guitarist, Emmet
Ray, who is obsessed with Reinhardt, with a soundtrack featuring
Howard Alden .
* Reinhardt is portrayed by the guitarist
John Jorgenson in the
Head in the Clouds .
* In the movie Swing Kids , the character Arvid has his hand damaged
by a member of the
Hitler Jugend but is inspired by Reinhardt's
example to keep playing.
Noddy Holder of the glam rock band
Slade and his wife, Suzan
Price, named their son Django in honour of Reinhardt.
Black Sabbath guitarist
Tony Iommi recounted that he suffered an
industrial accident at 17 and lost the tips of two fingers. His boss
played a Reinhardt record to inspire him to pursue his dream of being
* Reinhardt's music has been used in the soundtrack of many films,
The Matrix , Rhythm Futur ,
Daltry Calhoun , Metroland ,
Chocolat , The Aviator , Alex and the Gypsy ,
Kate and Leopold and
Gattaca ; the score for
Louis Malle 's 1974 movie,
Lacombe Lucien ;
the background for the
Steve Martin movie
L.A. Story ; and the
background for a number of
Woody Allen movies, including Stardust
* Reinhardt's music has been featured in the soundtracks of several
video games, such as the 2002 game Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven ,
Mafia II and in the 2007, 2010, and 2013 games
BioShock Infinite .
* Reinhardt's music is used in the 1978 film King of the Gypsies
(film) . His long-time friend
Stéphane Grappelli appeared in the film
in a cameo, performing as a violinist in a gypsy band.
* In the
Martin Scorsese film Hugo (2011), a character who is
credited as Reinhardt plays guitar in a combo in the station café.
The character identified as Django is played by Emil Lager.
* "Django" (1954) is a gypsy-flavoured piece written by the jazz
pianist John Lewis , of the Modern
Jazz Quartet , in honour of
Reinhardt. Numerous versions of the song have been recorded, including
one on the 1973 album
Buckingham Nicks , by
Lindsey Buckingham and
Stevie Nicks .
* Saxophonist James Carter released Chasin\' the Gypsy (Atlantic,
2000) in tribute to Reinhardt.
* "Tango for Django", a track on
Robbie Robertson 's 2011 album How
to Become Clairvoyant , is a tribute.
* Reinhardt inspired
Harlan Ellison 's short story "Django",
published in the collections Shatterday and Dreams with Sharp Teeth.
* On January 23, 2010, the French and Belgian
Google home pages
displayed a logo commemorating the centenary of Reinhardt's birth.
* The Django web framework is named after Reinhardt, as is version
3.1 of the blog software
* The Belgian government issued a commemorative coin in 92.5%
sterling silver in 2010 coinciding with the 100th anniversary of his
birth. It is a silver 10-Euro coin with a color image of Reinhardt on
the reverse side.
* Reinhardt is mentioned in the opening line of The Statler Brothers
' song "Chet Atkins' Hand". The opening line is "Thank you Les Paul,
thank you Django, thank you Merle".
* Reinhardt appears as a character in the fiction novel The Magic
Strings of Frankie Presto (2015).
* The film Django , by the French filmmaker
Étienne Comar ,
depicting Reinhardt's life during wartime will be released in 2017,
with the French actor
Reda Kateb performing the role of Reinhardt. It
will open the 67th
Berlin International Film Festival .
* In episode 2.3 of Amazon's series "Catastrophe", "Minor Swing"
with Reinhardt and Grappelli is played during a segment in France.
RELEASES IN HIS LIFETIME
Reinhardt recorded over 900 sides in his recording career, from 1928
to 1953, the majority as sides of the then-prevalent 78-RPM records,
with the remainder as acetates, transcription discs, private and
off-air recordings (of radio broadcasts), and part of a film
soundtrack. Only one session (eight tracks) from March 1953 was ever
recorded specifically for album release by Norman Granz in the
then-new LP format, but Reinhardt died before the album could be
released. In his earliest recordings Reinhardt played banjo (or, more
accurately, banjo-guitar) accompanying accordionists and singers on
dances and popular tunes of the day, with no jazz content, whereas in
the last recordings before his death he played amplified guitar in the
bebop idiom with a pool of younger, more modern French musicians. A
full chronological listing of his lifetime recorded output is
available from the source cited here, and an index of individual
tunes is available from the source cited here. A few fragments of
film performance (without original sound) also survive, as does one
complete performance with sound, of the tune "J'Attendrai" performed
with the Quintet in 1938 for the short film Le
POSTHUMOUS COMPILATIONS (LP, CASSETTE AND CD)
Reinhardt's recorded output has been re-released on a large number of
LPs, cassettes and CDs since his death and also the start of the LP
era. Of particular mention is Intégrale Django Reinhardt, volumes
1–20 (40 CDs), released by the French company Frémeaux from 2002 to
2005, which attempted to include every known track on which he played.
The following list of reissues is only a selection; as at December
2015, www.discogs.com listed more than 560 such albums; a full listing
is available from the source cited here.
Django Reinhardt et Ses Rythmes
* 1954 The Great Artistry of Django Reinhardt
* 1954 Le
* 1955 Django's Guitar
Django Reinhardt and His Rhythm
* 1963 The Immortal
Django Reinhardt Guitar
* 1980 Routes to Django Reinhardt
Django Reinhardt – Pêche à la Mouche: The Great Blue Star
Disques Vogue (F)EPL7740) and 1961 ("Djalamichto" and
Disques Vogue (F)EPL7829). The first four are now
available on Matelo's CD Tziganskaïa and Other Rare Recordings,
released by Hot Club Records (subsequently reissued as Tziganskaïa:
Django Reinhardt Waltzes).
* Biography portal
* Music portal
* Django à
DjangodOr (Golden Django)
Festival Django Reinhardt
* Festivals de jazz Django Reinhardt, a French list of worldwide
festivals dedicated to the guitarist
* List of Belgian bands and artists
* List of Belgian musicians and singers
List of compositions by Django Reinhardt
* List of
* ^ Professor of music and guitarist, Mark White, of Berklee
College , writes: "
Django Reinhardt with his Hot Club of
was a hotbed of great guitar playing. Eventually, Django would play
electric guitar, and become one of the greatest guitar stylists of all
Jimmy Page said "
Django Reinhardt was fantastic. he must have
been playing all the time to be that good."
* ^ A B C "
Django Reinhardt Jattendrai Swing 1939 live".
2015-11-23. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Dregni, Michael (2004). Django: The
Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* ^ A B Jean-Baptiste BARONIAN (2015-10-08). Dictionnaire amoureux
de la Belgique. Books.google.be. p. 376. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Jurek, Thom. "The Hot Jazz: Le Hot Club de France, Vols.
1–4". Allmusic. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt - Minor Swing - HD *1080p".
2013-03-28. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ A B C "Mainstay presents Frank Vignola," Record Observer
(Easton, Maryland), March 18, 2010
* ^ A B Balen, Noël (2003). Django Reinhart: Le Génie vagabond.
ISBN 978-2268045610 .
* ^ A B "
Django Reinhardt and the Illustrated History of Gypsy
Jazz". All About Jazz. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
* ^ "Official birth certificate of Jean Reinhardt". Django Station.
Retrieved 3 February 2013.
Sinti culture, language & the origin of the name Django
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Delaunay, Charles (1961).
Django Reinhardt. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80171-X .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Fogg, Rod. Django Reinhardt: Know the
Man, Play the Music, Hal Leonard Corp. (2005)
* ^ "Gypsy
Jazz and Django Reinhardt". Flatpick.com. 1928-11-02.
* ^ Marty, Pierre (2005). Django ressuscité: contribution à
l'étude d'une auto-rééducation fonctionnelle en 1925. Copédit.
ISBN 2906030910 .
* ^ "Lousson Reinhardt". Gypsy
Jazz Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April
* ^ "Stephane Grappelli is Europe's gift to jazz", The Ottawa
Journal, June 9, 1980
* ^ A B C D E Dregni, Michael (2006).
Django Reinhardt and the
Illustrated History of Gypsy Jazz. Speck Press. ISBN 978-1-933108-10-0
* ^ Rousseau, François. "Welcome". Django Montreal. Retrieved 30
* ^ "DECCA (USA) 78rpm numerical listing discographyL 23000 -
23500". 78discography.com. 2015-09-26. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Tranchant, Jean (1969). La Grande Roue. Paris: Éditions de la
* ^ A B Sharp, Fred. "Babik Reinhardt". The
Django Reinhardt Swing
Page. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
* ^ A B Budds, Michael J.
Jazz ">(JPG). 65.media.tumblr.com.
* ^ "Jews wearing Star of David" (JPG).
S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com. Retrieved 2017-05-30. ]
* ^ Kington, Miles. "Playing a Dangerous Game: Django,
Jazz and the
Nazis". BBC. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
* ^ Kater, Michael H. Different Drummers:
Jazz in the Culture of
Nazi Germany, Oxford Univ. Press (1992) p. 178
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt -
Nuages - Paris, 13.12.1940".
1940-12-13. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Fackler, Guido. "
Jazz Under the Nazis". Music and the
Holocaust. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
* ^ Meiksins, Robin. "
Django Reinhardt at the Music Hall".
Cleveland Historical. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Tranchant, Jean: pg. 116, La Grande Roue; Éditions de la Table
Ronde, Paris, 1969.
* ^ De Visscher, Éric. R. vingt-six.
Django Reinhardt - Swing De
Paris. Musée de la musique (Cité de la musique), Paris. 6 October
* ^ Chester, Paul Vernon. "Django in Rome: The 1949-50 Sessions".
Manouche Maestro. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
* ^ Givan, Benjamin (2010). The Music of Django Reinhardt.
University of Michigan Press. pp. 158–94. ISBN 978-0-472-03408-6 .
* ^ A B C D E Fetherolf, Bob. The Guitar Story: From Ancient to
Modern Times, BookBaby (2014) e-book
* ^ White, Mark. The Practical
Jazz Guitarist: Essential Tools for
Soloing, Comping and Performing, Hal Leonard Corp. (2012) p. 9
* ^ Kitts, Jeff; Tolinski, Brad. Guitar World Presents the 100
Greatest Guitarists of All Time!, Hal Leonard Corp. (2002) p. 60
* ^ "
Sweet and Lowdown scene".
YouTube . 2012-12-16. Retrieved
* ^ A B C D E "
Woody Allen movie resurrects music of jazz great
Reinhardt", Courier-Post, (Camden, New Jersey), Jan. 18, 2000
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 August 2016.
Retrieved 9 August 2016.
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt Festival poster" (JPG).
S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ "Poster of
Django Reinhardt Fest in Athens" (JPG).
Gypsyjazz.gr. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt New York City Festival - Dark Eyes". YouTube
. 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ "Poster of
DjangoFest in Washington state" (PNG).
Djangofest.com. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ "French film Django to open Berlin Film Festival, USNews,
January 4, 2017
* ^ "World Premiere of Django to Open the Berlinale, 2017, Press
Release, Berlinale, January 4, 2017
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt documentary".
YouTube . 2016-01-09. Retrieved
* ^ "Djangomania! (2005)". IMDB.com. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Asbury Park Press, (Asbury Park, New Jersey), June 27, 1984
* ^ The Courier-News, (Bridgewater, New Jersey), May 31, 2001
* ^ Los Angeles Times, Nov. 16, 2011
* ^ "
Django Reinhardt documentary".
YouTube . 2016-01-09. Retrieved
* ^ A B "
Jeff Beck on Django". Djangobooks.com. Retrieved 13 May
* ^ "YouTube".
YouTube . Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ "Django Reinhardt: Three-Fingered Lightning".
2012-04-18. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
* ^ Field, Kim. Harmonicas, Harps, and Heavy Breathers: the
Evolution of the People's Instrument, Rowman & Littlefield (1993) pp.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 December
2014. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
* ^ "Accueil". Djangoliberchies.be. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
* ^ Davis, Francis (5 December 1999). "Faithful to the Love of His
Life: Hot 30\'s Jazz". New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
* ^ Iommi, Tony (1997). ""Never Say Die: Overcoming Overwhelming
Odds, and the Right Way to Play \'Paranoid\' Archived 16 March 2012 at
Wayback Machine .. GuitarWorld. August 1997.
* ^ "
Mafia II - Official Community". Mafia2game.com. 19 August
2010. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
* ^ "Version 3.1 «
WordPress Codex". Codex.wordpress.org. 23
February 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
* ^ "10 euro 100. birthday of
Django Reinhardt – 2010 – Series:
Silver 10 euro coins –
Belgium – Collector Coin Database".
Coin-database.com. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
* ^ "Mitch Albom\'s \'The Magic Strings Of Frankie Presto\' On
World Cafe .
WXPN . 27 November 2015. Retrieved 18 May
* ^ "
Reda Kateb e Cécile de
France in Django". Cineuropa.org.
* ^ "World Premiere of Django to Open the Berlinale 2017".
Berlinale. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
* ^ Hasegawa, Hikaru. "The Complete
Django Reinhardt Discography
1928–1953". Retrieved 10 December 2015.
* ^ "Django\'s Full Discography". Djangopedia. Retrieved 10
* ^ "News: All Known Film Footage of
Django Reinhardt Now Available
on DVD at Last". All About Jazz. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
* ^ "
Jazz ‘Hot’: The Rare 1938 Short Film with
Django Reinhardt". Open Culture. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
* ^ "Django Reinhardt\'s Life on Record". Fretboard Journal.
Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December
* ^ "Django Reinhardt". Discogs. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
Paris 1945 (1945)
Jazz in Paris:
* "Minor Swing " (1937)
Nuages " (1940)
Babik Reinhardt (son)
Lousson Reinhardt (son)
Quintette du Hot Club de France (