The Info List - Diplomacy

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is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations[2] through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" also covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials.[3]


1 History

1.1 Asia

1.1.1 West Asia Ancient Egypt, Canaan, and Hittite Empire Ancient Persia Ancient Greece Ottoman Empire East Asia Ancient India

1.2 Europe

1.2.1 Ancient Greece and Hellenistic
period 1.2.2 Byzantine Empire 1.2.3 Medieval and Early Modern Europe

1.3 Rules of modern diplomacy

2 Diplomatic immunity 3 Espionage 4 Diplomatic resolution of problems

4.1 Arbitration and mediations 4.2 Conferences 4.3 Negotiations

5 Diplomatic recognition 6 Informal diplomacy 7 Small state diplomacy 8 Types

8.1 Preventive diplomacy 8.2 Public diplomacy 8.3 Soft power 8.4 Economic diplomacy 8.5 Counterinsurgency diplomacy 8.6 Gunboat diplomacy 8.7 Appeasement 8.8 Nuclear diplomacy

9 Diplomatic training institutions 10 See also 11 Notes and references 12 Bibliography 13 External links 14 Further reading

History[edit] Asia[edit] West Asia[edit] Ancient Egypt, Canaan, and Hittite Empire[edit]

The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, between the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
of ancient Egypt
and the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
of Anatolia

Some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
and the Amurru rulers of Canaan
during the 14th century BC. Following the [Battle of Kadesh] in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt
and the ruler of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now generally called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty.[4] Ancient Persia[edit] Further information: Foreign relations of Iran, Indo-Iranian relations, and Sino-Persian relations Ancient Greece[edit] Further information: Proxeny Ottoman Empire[edit] Further information: Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire

A French ambassador in Ottoman dress, painted by Antoine de Favray, 1766, Pera Museum, Istanbul.

Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(known to Italian states as the Sublime Porte) were particularly important to Italian states.[5] The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice
depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, and more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans.[5] Interactions between various merchants, diplomats and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft. Eventually the primary purpose of a diplomat, which was originally a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire.[5] One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. East Asia[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Imperial China Further information: Category:Chinese diplomats, Heqin, Haijin, Sino-Roman relations, Sino-Indian relations, Europeans in Medieval China, Jesuit China missions, Nanban trade, Luso-Chinese agreement (1554), History of Macau, Macartney Embassy, and Islam in China One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu
(d. 496 BC), author of The Art of War. He lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC) figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest. However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, and signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, and the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed.[6] From the Battle of Baideng (200 BC) to the Battle of Mayi
Battle of Mayi
(133 BC), the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute (in silk, cloth, grain, and other foodstuffs) to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu
that had been consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu
sent word to Emperor Wen of Han (r. 180–157) that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria
to the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese. The treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu
tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
(r. 141–87 BC) which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu
and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; under Wu, in 104 BC the Han armies ventured as far Fergana
in Central Asia
Central Asia
to battle the Yuezhi
who had conquered Hellenistic
Greek areas.

Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th-century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalites, Persia
to Langkasuka, Baekje(part of the modern Korea), Qiuci, and Wo (Japan).

The Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907 AD) looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an
as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance. The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion
An Shi Rebellion
from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang finally made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(960–1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
and Su Song
Su Song
who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the often hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was also a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty
Western Xia Dynasty
to the northwest of Song China (centered in modern-day Shaanxi). After warring with the Lý Dynasty
Lý Dynasty
of Vietnam
from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war. Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia, India, and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), the Chinese also became heavily invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Persia, Arabia, East Africa, and Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased dramatically during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, and an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1294) the Mongols
created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza. The paiza were in three different types (golden, silver, and copper) depending on the envoy's level of importance. With the paiza, there came authority that the envoy can ask for food, transport, place to stay from any city, village, or clan within the empire with no difficulties. From the 17th century the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
concluded a series of treaties with Czarist
Russia, beginning with the Treaty
of Nerchinsk in the year 1689. This was followed up by the Aigun Treaty
and the Convention of Peking in the mid-19th century. As European power spread around the world in the 18th and 19th centuries so too did its diplomatic model, and Asian countries adopted European diplomatic systems. Ancient India[edit] Ancient India, with its kingdoms and dynasties, had a long tradition of diplomacy. The oldest treatise on statecraft and diplomacy, Arthashastra, is attributed to Kautilya
(also known as Chanakya), who was the principal adviser to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty
Maurya dynasty
who ruled in the 3rd century BC. It incorporates a theory of diplomacy, of how in a situation of mutually contesting kingdoms, the wise king builds alliances and tries to checkmate his adversaries. The envoys sent at the time to the courts of other kingdoms tended to reside for extended periods of time, and Arthashastra
contains advice on the deportment of the envoy, including the trenchant suggestion that 'he should sleep alone'. The highest morality for the king is that his kingdom should prosper.[7]

India's Diplomatic Personnel

Europe[edit] Ancient Greece and Hellenistic
period[edit] Main article: Proxeny Further information: Category:Ancient Greek diplomats The ancient Greek city-states on some occasions sent envoys to each other in order to negotiate specific issues, such as war and peace or commercial relations, but did not have diplomatic representatives regularly posted in each other's territory. However, some of the functions given to modern diplomatic representatives were in Classical Greece filled by a proxenos, who was a citizen of the host city having a particular relations of friendship with another city – a relationship often hereditary in a particular family. In times of peace diplomacy was even conducted with rivals such as the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, though the latter eventually succumbed to the invasions of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great. The latter was also adept at diplomacy, realizing that in order to conquer certain territories it was important for his Macedonian and subject Greek troops to mingle and intermarry with native populations. For instance, Alexander even took a Sogdian woman of Bactria
as his wife, Roxana, after the siege of the Sogdian Rock, in order to quell the region (which had been troubled by local rebels such as Spitamenes). Diplomacy
was a necessary tool of statecraft for the great Hellenistic kingdoms such as the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
and Seleucid Empire, who fought several wars in the Near East and often negotiated a peace treaty through alliances through marriage. Byzantine Empire[edit]

Omurtag, ruler of Bulgaria, sends delegation to Byzantine emperor Michael II
Michael II
(Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).

Main article: Byzantine diplomacy The key challenge to the Byzantine Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its sundry neighbors, including the Georgians, Iberians, the Germanic peoples, the Bulgars, the Slavs, the Armenians, the Huns, the Avars, the Franks, the Lombards, and the Arabs, that embodied and so maintained its imperial status. All these neighbors lacked a key resource that Byzantium had taken over from Rome, namely a formalized legal structure. When they set about forging formal political institutions, they were dependent on the empire. Whereas classical writers are fond of making a sharp distinction between peace and war, for the Byzantines diplomacy was a form of war by other means. With a regular army of 120,000-140,000 men after the losses of the seventh century,[8] the empire's security depended on activist diplomacy. Byzantium's "Bureau of Barbarians" was the first foreign intelligence agency, gathering information on the empire’s rivals from every imaginable source.[9] While on the surface a protocol office—its main duty was to ensure foreign envoys were properly cared for and received sufficient state funds for their maintenance, and it kept all the official translators—it clearly had a security function as well. On Strategy, from the 6th century, offers advice about foreign embassies: "[Envoys] who are sent to us should be received honourably and generously, for everyone holds envoys in high esteem. Their attendants, however, should be kept under surveillance to keep them from obtaining any information by asking questions of our people."[10] Medieval and Early Modern Europe[edit] Further information: Category:Medieval diplomats, Niccolò Machiavelli, and The Prince In Europe, early modern diplomacy's origins[11] are often traced to the states of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the 13th century. Milan
played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza
Francesco Sforza
who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. Tuscany
and Venice
were also flourishing centres of diplomacy from the 14th century onwards. It was in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the presentation of an ambassador's credentials to the head of state. Rules of modern diplomacy[edit]

French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
is considered one of the most skilled diplomats of all time.

From Italy the practice was spread across Europe. Milan
was the first to send a representative to the court of France
in 1455. However, Milan
refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and that the French representatives would intervene in its internal affairs. As foreign powers such as France
and Spain
became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Soon the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain
was the first to send a permanent representative; it appointed an ambassador to the Court of St. James's (i.e. England) in 1487. By the late 16th century, permanent missions became customary. The Holy Roman Emperor, however, did not regularly send permanent legates, as they could not represent the interests of all the German princes (who were in theory all subordinate to the Emperor, but in practice each independent). In 1500-1700 rules of modern diplomacy were further developed.[12] French replaced Latin from about 1715. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to. Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation. In Rome, the most prized posting for a Catholic ambassador, the French and Spanish representatives would have a retinue of up to a hundred. Even in smaller posts, ambassadors were very expensive. Smaller states would send and receive envoys, who were a rung below ambassador. Somewhere between the two was the position of minister plenipotentiary. Diplomacy
was a complex affair, even more so than now. The ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex levels of precedence that were much disputed. States were normally ranked by the title of the sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount, then those from the kingdoms, then those from duchies and principalities. Representatives from republics were ranked the lowest (which often angered the leaders of the numerous German, Scandinavian and Italian republics). Determining precedence between two kingdoms depended on a number of factors that often fluctuated, leading to near-constant squabbling. Ambassadors were often nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy. They were supported by their embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country. Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees, including some dedicated to espionage. The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international law, French, and history at universities throughout Europe.

Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna.

At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were still far from their modern form, and many of them had extraneous internal responsibilities. Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until 1782. They were also far smaller than they are currently. France, which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only some 70 full-time employees in the 1780s. The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Russia, arriving by the early 18th century. The entire edifice would be greatly disrupted by the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the subsequent years of warfare. The revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state, and of those conquered by revolutionary armies. Ranks of precedence were abolished. Napoleon
also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against France. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. Disputes on precedence among nations (and therefore the appropriate diplomatic ranks used) were first addressed at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, but persisted for over a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm. In between that time, figures such as the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
were renowned for international diplomacy. Diplomats themselves and historians often refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz (Vienna), the Quai d’Orsay (Paris), the Wilhelmstraße (Berlin); and Foggy Bottom (Washington). For imperial Russia
to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge (St Petersburg). The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta.[13] Diplomatic immunity[edit]

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Main article: Diplomatic immunity The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity. While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the Mongols
were well known for strongly insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often wreak horrific vengeance against any state that violated these rights. Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-17th century in Europe and have spread throughout the world. These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission. If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted person). Such diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their homeland. Diplomatic communications are also viewed as sacrosanct, and diplomats have long been allowed to carry documents across borders without being searched. The mechanism for this is the so-called "diplomatic bag" (or, in some countries, the "diplomatic pouch"). While radio and digital communication have become more standard for embassies, diplomatic pouches are still quite common and some countries, including the United States, declare entire shipping containers as diplomatic pouches to bring sensitive material (often building supplies) into a country.[14] In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for reasons of personal safety, as well as in some cases when the host country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal dissidents. Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to express displeasure with the host country. In both cases, lower-level employees still remain to actually do the business of diplomacy. Espionage[edit]

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is closely linked to espionage or gathering of intelligence. Embassies are bases for both diplomats and spies, and some diplomats are essentially openly acknowledged spies. For instance, the job of military attachés includes learning as much as possible about the military of the nation to which they are assigned. They do not try to hide this role and, as such, are only invited to events allowed by their hosts, such as military parades or air shows. There are also deep-cover spies operating in many embassies. These individuals are given fake positions at the embassy, but their main task is to illegally gather intelligence, usually by coordinating spy rings of locals or other spies. For the most part, spies operating out of embassies gather little intelligence themselves and their identities tend to be known by the opposition. If discovered, these diplomats can be expelled from an embassy, but for the most part counter-intelligence agencies prefer to keep these agents in situ and under close monitoring. The information gathered by spies plays an increasingly important role in diplomacy. Arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance. Information gleaned from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy, everything from trade agreements to border disputes. Diplomatic resolution of problems[edit]

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Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes. Arbitration and mediations[edit] Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a specific question or point of contention in need of resolution. For most of history, there were no official or formal procedures for such proceedings. They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and protocols related to international law and justice. Sometimes these took the form of formal arbitrations and mediations. In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue, and to come some sort of ruling based on international law. In the modern era, much of this work is often carried out by the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
at The Hague, or other formal commissions, agencies and tribunals, working under the United Nations. Below are some examples.

Hay-Herbert Treaty
Enacted after the United States
United States
and Britain submitted a dispute to international mediation about the Canada–US border.


Anton von Werner, Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
(1881): Final meeting at the Reich Chancellery
Reich Chancellery
on 13 July 1878.

Other times, resolutions were sought through the convening of international conferences. In such cases, there are fewer ground rules, and fewer formal applications of international law. However, participants are expected to guide themselves through principles of international fairness, logic, and protocol. Some examples of these formal conferences are:

Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1815) – After Napoleon
was defeated, there were many diplomatic questions waiting to be resolved. This included the shape of the map of Europe, the disposition of political and nationalist claims of various ethnic groups and nationalities wishing to have some political autonomy, and the resolution of various claims by various European powers. The Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
(June 13 – July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize conditions in the Balkans.


Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar El Sadat

Sometimes nations convene official negotiation processes to settle a specific dispute or specific issue between several nations which are parties to a dispute. These are similar to the conferences mentioned above, as there are technically no established rules or procedures. However, there are general principles and precedents which help define a course for such proceedings. Some examples are

Camp David accord
Camp David accord
Convened in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
of the United States, at Camp David to reach an agreement between Prime Minister Mechaem Begin of Israel
and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt. After weeks of negotiation, agreement was reached and the accords were signed, later leading directly to the Israel- Egypt
Peace Treaty
of 1979. Treaty
of Portsmouth Enacted after President Theodore Roosevelt brought together the delegates from Russia
and Japan, to settle the Russo-Japanese War. Roosevelt's personal intervention settled the conflict, and caused him to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Diplomatic recognition[edit]

Palugyay Palace in Bratislava
- one of buildings of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic. ( Slovakia
as a new independent state was recognized by the international community during January 1993.)

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Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a nation is an independent state. Receiving recognition is often difficult, even for countries which are fully sovereign. For many decades after its becoming independent, even many of the closest allies of the Dutch Republic
refused to grant it full recognition.[citation needed] Today there are a number of independent entities without widespread diplomatic recognition, most notably the Republic
of China (ROC)/Taiwan on Taiwan Island. Since the 1970s, most nations have stopped officially recognizing the ROC's existence on Taiwan, at the insistence of the People's Republic
of China (PRC). Currently, the United States
United States
and other nations maintain informal relations through de facto embassies, with names such as the American Institute in Taiwan. Similarly, Taiwan's de facto embassies abroad are known by names such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office. This was not always the case, with the US maintaining official diplomatic ties with the ROC, recognizing it as the sole and legitimate government of "all of China" until 1979, when these relations were broken off as a condition for establishing official relations with PR China. The Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
has its own diplomatic service, however Palestinian representatives in most Western countries are not accorded diplomatic immunity, and their missions are referred to as Delegations General. Other unrecognized regions which claim independence include Abkhazia, Liberland, Transnistria, Somaliland, South Ossetia, Nagorno Karabakh, and the Turkish Republic
of Northern Cyprus. Lacking the economic and political importance of Taiwan, these territories tend to be much more diplomatically isolated. Though used as a factor in judging sovereignty, Article 3 of the Montevideo Convention
Montevideo Convention
states, "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by other states."[citation needed] Informal diplomacy[edit]

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Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership. In some situations, such as between the United States
United States
and the People's Republic
of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks. This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do not wish to express a formal position. Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building. Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments; such exchanges are called Track III. On some occasion a former holder of an official position continues to carry out an informal diplomatic activity after retirement. In some cases, governments welcome such activity, for example as a means of establishing an initial contact with a hostile state of group without being formally committed. In other cases, however, such informal diplomats seek to promote a political agenda different from that of the government currently in power. Such informal diplomacy is practiced by former US Presidents Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and (to a lesser extent) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and by the former Israeli diplomat and minister Yossi Beilin
Yossi Beilin
(see Geneva
Initiative). Small state diplomacy[edit]

Czech (originally Czechoslovak) Embassy in Berlin.

Small state diplomacy is receiving increasing attention in diplomatic studies and international relations. Small states are particularly affected by developments which are determined beyond their borders such as climate change, water security and shifts in the global economy. Diplomacy
is the main vehicle by which small states are able to ensure that their goals are addressed in the global arena. These factors mean that small states have strong incentives to support international cooperation. But with limited resources at their disposal, conducting effective diplomacy poses unique challenges for small states.[15][16] Types[edit] There are a variety of diplomatic categories and diplomatic strategies employed by organizations and governments to achieve their aims, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Preventive diplomacy[edit] Main article: Preventive diplomacy Preventive diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Since the end of the Cold War the international community through international institutions has been focusing on preventive diplomacy. Public diplomacy[edit] Main article: Public diplomacy Public diplomacy is exercising influence through communication with the general public in another nation, rather than attempting to influence the nation's government directly. This communication may take the form of propaganda, or more benign forms such as citizen diplomacy, individual interactions between average citizens of two or more nations. Technological advances and the advent of digital diplomacy now allow instant communication with foreign publics, and methods such as Facebook diplomacy and Twitter diplomacy
Twitter diplomacy
are increasingly used by world leaders and diplomats.[16] Soft power[edit] Main article: Soft power Soft power, sometimes called hearts and minds diplomacy, as defined by Joseph Nye, is the cultivation of relationships, respect, or even admiration from others in order to gain influence, as opposed to more coercive approaches. Often and incorrectly confused with the practice of official diplomacy, soft power refers to non-state, culturally attractive factors that may predispose people to sympathize with a foreign culture based on affinity for its products, such as the American entertainment industry, schools and music. Economic diplomacy[edit] Main article: Economic diplomacy Economic diplomacy
Economic diplomacy
is the use of foreign aid or other types of economic policy as a means to achieve a diplomatic agenda. Counterinsurgency diplomacy[edit] Counterinsurgency diplomacy or Expeditionary Diplomacy, developed by diplomats deployed to civil-military stabilization efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan, employs diplomats at tactical and operational levels, outside traditional embassy environments and often alongside military or peacekeeping forces. Counterinsurgency diplomacy may provide political environment advice to local commanders, interact with local leaders, and facilitate the governance efforts, functions and reach of a host government.[17] Gunboat diplomacy[edit] Main article: Gunboat diplomacy Gunboat diplomacy
Gunboat diplomacy
is the use of conspicuous displays of military strength as a means of intimidation in order to influence others. It must also be stated that since gunboat diplomacy lies near the edge between peace and war, victory or defeat in an incident may foster a shift into political and psychological dimensions: a standoff between a weaker and a stronger state may be perceived as a defeat for the stronger one. This was the case in the Pueblo Incident in which the Americans lost face with regard to North Korea. Appeasement[edit] Main article: Appeasement Appeasement
is a policy of making concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid confrontation; because of its failure to prevent World War 2, appeasement is not considered a legitimate tool of modern diplomacy. Nuclear diplomacy[edit]

The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne
for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015).

Nuclear diplomacy is the area of diplomacy related to preventing nuclear proliferation and nuclear war. One of the most well-known (and most controversial) philosophies of nuclear diplomacy is mutually assured destruction (MAD). Diplomatic training institutions[edit]

The Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation at 53/2 Ostozhenka Street in Moscow.

Main article: List of diplomatic training institutions Most countries provide professional training for their diplomats and some run establishments specifically for that purpose. Private institutions also exist as do establishments associated with organisations like the European Union and the United Nations. See also[edit]

Citizen diplomacy Commercial diplomacy Cowboy diplomacy Digital diplomacy Diplomacy
Monitor, a tool for tracking Internet-based public diplomacy Diplomatic capital Diplomatic flag Diplomatic gift Diplomatic history Diplomatic law Diplomatic mission Diplomatic passport Diplomatic rank Economic diplomacy Foreign minister Foreign policy analysis Foreign policy doctrine Foreign policy Gunboat diplomacy International relations Paradiplomacy Peace makers Peacemaking Preventive diplomacy Protocol (diplomacy) Public diplomacy Shuttle diplomacy Track II diplomacy Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

Notes and references[edit]

^ (in French) François Modoux, "La Suisse engagera 300 millions pour rénover le Palais des Nations", Le Temps, Friday 28 June 2013, page 9. ^ Ronald Peter Barston, Modern diplomacy, Pearson Education, 2006, p. 1 ^ "The Diplomats" in Jay Winter, ed. The Cambridge History of the First World War: Volume II: The State (2014) vol 2 p 68. ^ "Ancient Discoveries: Egyptian Warfare". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-27. Egyptian monuments and great works of art still astound us today. We will reveal another surprising aspect of Egyptian life--their weapons of war, and their great might on the battlefield. A common perception of the Egyptians is of a cultured civilization, yet there is fascinating evidence which reveals they were also a war faring people, who developed advanced weapon making techniques. Some of these techniques would be used for the very first time in history and some of the battles they fought were on a truly massive scale.  ^ a b c Goffman, Daniel. "Negotiating with the Renaissance
State: The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the New Diplomacy." In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–74. ^ Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L., eds. (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: from the origins of civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge University Press. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8. Retrieved 2011-09-01. The writings that preserve information about the political history of the [Warring States] period [...] define a set of idealized roles that constitute the Warring States polity: the monarch, the reforming minister, the military commander, the persuader/diplomat, and the scholar.  ^ See Cristian Violatti, "Arthashastra" (2014) ^ Gabriel 2002, p. 281; Haldon 1999, p. 101. ^ Antonucci 1993, pp. 11–13. ^ Dennis 1985, Anonymous, Byzantine Military Treatise on Strategy, para. 43, p. 125 ^ Historical discontinuity between diplomatic practice of the ancient and medieval worlds and modern diplomacy has been questioned; see, for instance, Pierre Chaplais, English Diplomatic Practice in the Middle Ages (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003), p. 1 online. ^ Gaston Zeller, "French diplomacy and foreign policy in their European setting." in The New Cambridge Modern History (1961) 5:198-221 ^ David Std Stevenson, "The Diplomats" in Jay Winter, ed. The Cambridge History of the First World War: Volume II: The State (2014) vol 2 p 68. ^ "Diplomatic Pouches". www.state.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ Corgan, Michael (2008-08-12). "Small State Diplomacy". e-International Relations.  ^ a b "Tutt, A. (2013), E- Diplomacy
Capacities within the EU-27: Small States and Social Media". www.grin.com. Retrieved 2015-09-17.  ^ Green, Dan. "Counterinsurgency Diplomacy: Political Advisors at the Operational and Tactical levels." , Military Review, May–June 2007. Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.


Black, Jeremy. A History of Diplomacy
(U. of Chicago Press, 2010) ISBN 978-1-86189-696-4 Berridge, G. R. Diplomacy: Theory & Practice, 3rd edition, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-9311-4 Cunningham, George. Journey to Become a Diplomat: With a Guide to Careers in World Affairs FPA Global Vision Books 2005, ISBN 0-87124-212-5 Dorman, Shawn, ed. Inside a U.S. Embassy: How the Foreign Service Works for America by American Foreign Service Association, Second edition February 2003, ISBN 0-9649488-2-6 Callieres, Francois De. The Practice of Diplomacy
(1919) Hayne, M. B. The French Foreign Office and the Origins of the First World War, 1898–1914 (1993); Hill, Henry Bertram. The Political Testament of Cardinal Richeleiu: The Significant Chapters and Supporting Selections (1964) Jackson, Peter "Tradition and adaptation: the social universe of the French Foreign Ministry in the era of the First World War", French History, 24 (2010), 164–96; Kissinger, Henry. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problem of Peace: 1812-1822 (1999) Henry Kissinger. Diplomacy
(1999) Kurbalija J. and Slavik H. eds. Language and Diplomacy
DiploProjects, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, Malta, 2001, ISBN 99909-55-15-8; papers by experts. Macalister-Smith Peter, Schwietzke, Joachim, ed., Diplomatic Conferences and Congresses. A Bibliographical Compendium of State Practice 1642 to 1919 W. Neugebauer, Graz, Feldkirch 2017 ISBN 978-3-85376-325-4 MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (2003). Garrett Mattingly, Renaissance
Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-25570-5 Maulucci Jr., Thomas W. Adenauer's Foreign Office: West German Diplomacy
in the Shadow of the Third Reich (2012). Nicolson, Sir Harold George. Diplomacy
(1988) Nicolson, Sir Harold George. The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822 (2001) Nicolson, Sir Harold George. The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1977) Otte, Thomas G. The Foreign Office Mind: The Making of British Foreign Policy, 1865–1914 (2011). Rana, Kishan S. and Jovan Kurbalija, eds. Foreign Ministries: Managing Diplomatic Networks and Optimizing Value DiploFoundation, 2007, ISBN 978-99932-53-16-7 Rana, Kishan S. The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive DiploFoundation,2004, ISBN 99909-55-18-2 Roeder, Larry W. "Diplomacy, Funding and Animal Welfare", Springer, Hamburg, 2011 Ernest Satow. A Guide to Diplomatic Practice by Longmans, Green & Co. London & New York, 1917. A standard reference work used in many embassies across the world (though not British ones). Now in its fifth edition (1998) ISBN 0-582-50109-1 Seldon, Anthony. Foreign Office (2000), history of the British ministry and its headquarters building. Steiner, Zara S. The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1898–1914 (1969) on Britain. Stevenson, David. "The Diplomats" in Jay Winter, ed. The Cambridge History of the First World War: Volume II: The State (2014) vol 2 ch 3, pp 66–90. Fredrik Wesslau, The Political Adviser's Handbook (2013), ISBN 978-91-979688-7-4 Wicquefort, Abraham de. The Embassador and His Functions (2010) Jovan Kurbalija and Valentin Katrandjiev, Multistakeholder Diplomacy: Challenges and Opportunities. ISBN 978-99932-53-16-7 Rivère de Carles, Nathalie, and Duclos, Nathalie, Forms of Diplomacy (16th-21st c.), Toulouse, Presses Universitaires du Midi, 2015. ISBN 978-2-8107-0424-8. A study of alternative forms of diplomacy and essays on cultural diplomacy by Lucien Bély et al.

External links[edit]

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has the property: diplomatic relation (P530) (see talk; uses)

Foreign Affairs Manual and associated Handbooks - the Foreign Affairs Manual (and related handbooks) of the United States
United States
Department of State Frontline Diplomacy: The Foreign Affairs Oral History Collection of the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training – American diplomats describe their careers on the American Memory
American Memory
website at the Library of Congress

Further reading[edit]

Pashakhanlou, Arash Heydarian (2017). "Intelligence and Diplomacy
in the Security Dilemma: Gauging Capabilities and Intentions". International Politics. doi:10.1057/s41311-017-0119-8. 

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