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All Finnish diphthongs are falling. Notably, Finnish has true opening diphthongs (e.g. /uo/), which are not very common crosslinguistically compared to centering diphthongs (e.g. /uə/ in English). Vowel combinations across syllables may in practice be pronounced as diphthongs, when an intervening consonant has elided, as in näön [næøn] instead of [næ.øn] for the genitive of näkö ('sight').

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All Finnish diphthongs are falling. Notably, Finnish has true opening diphthongs (e.g. /uo/), which are not very common crosslinguistically compared to centering diphthongs (e.g. /uə/ in English). Vowel combinations across syllables may in practice be pronounced as diphthongs, when an intervening consonant has elided, as in näön [næøn] instead of [næ.øn] for the genitive of näkö ('sight').

closing
  • [ɑi̯] as in laiva (ship)
  • [ei̯] as in keinu (swing)
  • [oi̯] as in poika (boy)
  • Northern Sami varies considerably from one dialect to another. The Western Finnmark dialects distinguish four different qualities of opening diphthongs:

    • /eæ/ as in leat "to be"
    • /ie/ as in giella "language"
    • /oa/ as in boahtit "to come"
    • /uo/ as in vuodjat "to swim"

    In terms of quantity, Northern Sami shows a three-way contrast between long, short and finally stressed diphthongs. The last are distinguished from long and short diphthongs by a markedly long and stressed second component. Diphthong quantity is not indicated in spelling.

    Semitic languages

    Maltese

    Maltese has seven falling diphthongs, though they may be considered VC sequences phonemically.[46]

    • [ɛɪ̯] ej or għi
    • [ɐɪ̯] aj or għi
    • [ɔɪ̯] oj
    • [ɪʊ̯] iw
    • [ɛʊ̯] ew
    • [ɐʊ̯] aw or għu
    • [ɔʊ̯] ow or għu

    Sino-Tibetan languages

    Maltese

    Cantonese has eleven diphthongs.

    • aai: [aːi̯], as in gaai1 (街, street)
    • aau: [aːu̯], as in baau3 (爆, explode)
    • ai: [ɐi̯], as in gai1 (雞, chicken)
    • au: [ɐu̯], as in au1 (勾, hook)
    • ei

      Cantonese has eleven diphthongs.

      • aai: [aːi̯], as in gaai1 (街, street)
      • aau: [aːu̯], as in baau3 (爆, explode)
      • ai: [ɐi̯], as in gai1 (雞, chicken)
      • au: [ɐu̯], as in au1 (勾, hook)
      • ei: [ei̯], as in gei1 (機, machine)
      • eu: [ɛːu̯], as in deu6 (掉, throw)In addition to vowel nuclei following or preceding /j/ and /w/, Thai has three diphthongs which exist as long-short pairs:[47]

        • เอีย ia [iːa̯, ia̯]
        • เอือ üa [ɯːa̯, ɯa̯]
        • อัว ua [uːa̯, ua̯]

        Mon-Khmer languages

        Vietnamese

        In addition to vowel nuclei following or preceding /j/ and /w/, Vietnamese has three diphthongs:

        • [iə̯] ia~iê
        • [ɨə̯] ưa~ươ
        • [uə̯] ua~uô

        Khmer

        Khmer language has rich vocalics with an extra distinction of long and short register to the vowels and diphthongs.

        • [iə̯]
        • [ei̯]
        • <

          In addition to vowel nuclei following or preceding /j/ and /w/, Vietnamese has three diphthongs:

          • [iə̯] ia~iê
          • [ɨə̯] ưa~ươ
          • [uə̯] ua~uô

          Khmer

          Khmer language has rich vocalics with an extra distinction of long and short register to the vowels and diphthongs.

          • [iə̯]
          • Khmer language has rich vocalics with an extra distinction of long and short register to the vowels and diphthongs.

            • [iə̯]
            • [ei̯]
            • [ɐe̯]
            • [ɨə̯]
            • [əɨ̯]
            • [ɐə̯]
            • Zulu has only monophthongs. Y and w are semi-vowels:

              • [ja] as in [ŋijaɠuˈɓɛːɠa] ngiyakubeka (I am placing it)
              • [wa] as in [ŋiːwa] ngiwa (I fall/I am falling)

              Austronesian languages

              Indonesian

              Indonesian language, has four native diphthong and may be located at the beginning, middle and end of the words.[48] they are:

              • /ai̯/: balairung ('hall') , kedai ('shop'), pandai ('clever')
              • /au̯/: autodidak ('autodidact'), taufik (Indonesian first name),kerbau ('buffalo'), limau ('lemon')
              • /oi̯/ (or Indonesian language, has four native diphthong and may be located at the beginning, middle and end of the words.[48] they are:

                • /ai̯/: balairung ('hall') , kedai ('shop'), pandai ('clever')
                • /au̯/: autodidak ('autodidact'), taufik (Indonesian first name),kerbau ('buffalo'), limau ('lemon')
                • /oi̯/ (or /ʊi̯/ in Indonesian): boikot ('boycott') , amboi (an expression when amazed)
                • /ei̯/: eigendom ('property') , survei ('survey')

                See also