Richard Bruce Cheney (/ˈtʃeɪni/; born January 30, 1941) is an
American politician who served as the 46th Vice President of the
United States from 2001 to 2009.
Born in Lincoln, Nebraska, Cheney was primarily raised in Sumner,
Nebraska, and Casper, Wyoming. He attended
Yale and then the
University of Wyoming, at the latter of which he earned a BA and an MA
in Political Science. He began his political career as an intern for
Congressman William A. Steiger, eventually working his way into the
White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations, where he later
served as the
White House Chief of Staff, from 1975 to 1977. In 1978,
Cheney was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives representing
Wyoming's at-large congressional district
Wyoming's at-large congressional district from 1979 to 1989; he was
reelected five times, briefly serving as House Minority Whip in 1989.
Cheney was selected to be the Secretary of Defense during the
Presidency of George H. W. Bush, holding the position for the majority
of Bush's term from 1989 to 1993. During his time in the Department of
Defense, Cheney oversaw the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, among other
actions. Out of office during the Clinton administration, Cheney was
the Chairman and CEO of
Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000.
In July 2000, Cheney was chosen by presumptive Republican Presidential
George W. Bush
George W. Bush as his running mate in the 2000 Presidential
election. They defeated their Democratic opponents, incumbent Vice
Al Gore and Senator Joe Lieberman. In 2004, Cheney was
reelected to his second term as Vice President, defeating Senator John
Kerry's running mate, Senator John Edwards. During Cheney's tenure as
Vice President, he played a leading behind-the-scenes role in the
George W. Bush
George W. Bush administration's response to the September 11 attacks
and coordination of the Global War on Terrorism. He was an early
proponent of
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom and defender of
the Administration's anti-terrorism record. He became at odds with
President Bush's position against same-sex marriage in 2004. Cheney
was often criticized for the Bush Administration's policies regarding
the campaign against terrorism, wiretapping by the National Security
Agency (NSA), and so-called enhanced interrogation
In 2011, Cheney published his memoir In My Time: A Personal and
Political Memoir, written with daughter Liz Cheney, and in 2015,
published another book, Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful
America, again co-authored with his daughter. He has been cited as the
most powerful Vice President in U.S. history. At the same time
he has been among the least favored politicians in the history of the
United States: his approval rating when leaving office was only
1 Early life and education
White House appointments
3 U.S. House of Representatives (1979–1989)
3.3 Committee assignments
4 Secretary of Defense (1989–1993)
4.1 Early tenure
4.2 Budgetary practices
4.3 Political climate and agenda
4.4 International situations
4.4.1 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
220.127.116.11 U.S. and world reaction
18.104.22.168 Military action
5 Private sector career
6 2000 presidential election
7 Vice Presidency (2001–2009)
7.1 First term (2001–2005)
7.2 Second term (2005–2009)
7.2.1 Disclosure of documents
7.2.2 CIA leak scandal
7.2.3 Assassination attempt
7.2.4 Policy formulation
8 Post-Vice Presidency (2009–present)
8.1 Political activity
8.2 Views on President Obama
8.4 Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America
9 Public perception
10 Personal life
10.1 Health problems
10.2 Hunting incident
14 External links
Early life and education
Cheney was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, the son of Marjorie Lorraine
(née Dickey) and Richard Herbert Cheney. He is of predominantly
English, as well as Welsh, Irish, and French
Cheney's 8th great-grandfather, William Cheney, immigrated from
England to Massachusetts in the 17th century. Although not
a direct descendant, he is collaterally related to Benjamin Pierce
Cheney (1815–1895), the early American expressman. Cheney is a very
distant cousin of both
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman and Barack Obama; the three
share a common ancestor in Mareen Duvall, a
Huguenot who fled from
France to England in the 17th century and later settled in
Maryland. His father was a soil conservation agent for the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and his mother was a softball star in the
1930s; Cheney was one of three children.
He attended Calvert Elementary School before his family moved
to Casper, Wyoming, where he attended Natrona County High School.
Yale University, but by his own account had problems
adjusting to the college, and failed out twice. Among the
influential teachers from his days in New Haven was Professor H.
Bradford Westerfield, whom Cheney repeatedly credited with having
helped to shape his approach to foreign policy. He later attended
the University of Wyoming, where he earned both a
Bachelor of Arts and
Master of Arts in political science. He subsequently started, but
did not finish, doctoral studies at the University of
In November 1962, at the age of 21, Cheney was convicted of driving
while intoxicated (DWI). He was arrested for DWI again the following
year. Cheney said that the arrests made him "think about where I
was and where I was headed. I was headed down a bad road if I
continued on that course".
In 1964, he married Lynne Vincent, his high school sweetheart, whom he
had met at age 14.
When Cheney became eligible for the draft, during the Vietnam War, he
applied for and received five draft deferments. In 1989, The
Washington Post writer George C. Wilson interviewed Cheney as the next
Secretary of Defense; when asked about his deferments, Cheney
reportedly said, "I had other priorities in the '60s than military
service". Cheney testified during his confirmation hearings in
1989 that he received deferments to finish a college career that
lasted six years rather than four, owing to sub-par academic
performance and the need to work to pay for his education. Initially,
Cheney was not drafted due to his marriage to Lynne Cheney. When
the draft was expanded to include married men without children, he
applied for four deferments in sequence. He applied for his fifth
exemption on January 19, 1966, when his wife was about 10 weeks
pregnant. He was granted 3-A status, the "hardship" exemption, which
excluded men with children or dependent parents. In January 1967,
Cheney turned 26 and was no longer eligible for the draft.
White House appointments
White House Chief of Staff
White House Chief of Staff
Donald Rumsfeld (left) and his assistant
Cheney (right) meet with President
Gerald Ford at the White House,
Cheney's political career began in 1969, as an intern for Congressman
William A. Steiger
William A. Steiger during the
Richard Nixon Administration. He then
joined the staff of Donald Rumsfeld, who was then Director of the
Office of Economic Opportunity from 1969–70. He held several
positions in the years that followed:
White House Staff Assistant in
1971, Assistant Director of the Cost of Living Council from 1971–73,
and Deputy Assistant to the president from 1974–1975. As deputy
assistant, Cheney suggested several options in a memo to Rumsfeld,
including use of the US Justice Department, that the Ford
administration could use to limit damage from an article, published by
The New York Times, in which investigative reporter Seymour Hersh
reported that Navy submarines had tapped into Soviet undersea
communications as part of a highly classified program, Operation Ivy
Cheney was Assistant to the President and
White House Deputy Chief of
Staff under Gerald Ford. When Rumsfeld was named Secretary of
Defense, Cheney became
White House Chief of Staff, succeeding
Rumsfeld. He later was campaign manager for Ford's 1976
U.S. House of Representatives (1979–1989)
In 1978, Cheney was elected to represent
Wyoming in the U.S. House of
Representatives and succeeded retiring Democratic Congressman Teno
Roncalio, having defeated his Democratic opponent, Bill Bailey. Cheney
was re-elected five times, serving until 1989.
In 1987, he was elected Chairman of the House Republican Conference.
The following year, he was elected House Minority Whip. He served
for two and a half months before he was appointed Secretary of Defense
instead of former U.S. Senator John G. Tower, whose nomination had
been rejected by the
U.S. Senate in March 1989.
Cheney meets with President Ronald Reagan, July 1983
He voted against the creation of the U.S. Department of Education,
citing his concern over budget deficits and expansion of the federal
government, and claiming that the Department was an encroachment on
states' rights. He voted against funding Head Start, but reversed
his position in 2000.
Cheney initially voted in 1978 against establishing a national holiday
in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., but supported creation of the
holiday five years later in 1983.
Cheney supported Bob Michel's (R-IL) bid to become Republican Minority
Leader. In April 1980, Cheney endorsed Governor
Ronald Reagan for
President, becoming one of Reagan's earliest supporters.
After the resignation of
James G. Watt
James G. Watt as
Interior Secretary in 1983,
Cheney was a top candidate to succeed him, but Reagan appointed
William Clark instead.
In 1986, after President
Ronald Reagan vetoed a bill to impose
economic sanctions on South Africa for its policy of apartheid, Cheney
was one of 83 Representatives to vote against overriding Reagan's
veto. In later years, he articulated his opposition to unilateral
sanctions against many different countries, stating "they almost never
work" and that in that case they might have ended up hurting the
In 1986, Cheney, along with 145 Republicans and 31 Democrats, voted
against a non-binding Congressional resolution calling on the South
African government to release
Nelson Mandela from prison, after the
Democrats defeated proposed amendments that would have required
Mandela to renounce violence sponsored by the African National
Congress (ANC) and requiring it to oust the communist faction from its
leadership; the resolution was defeated. Appearing on CNN, Cheney
addressed criticism for this, saying he opposed the resolution because
the ANC "at the time was viewed as a terrorist organization and had a
number of interests that were fundamentally inimical to the United
The federal building in Casper, a regional center of the fossil fuel
industry, is named the
Dick Cheney Federal Building. 
Originally declining, U.S. Congressman
Barber Conable persuaded Cheney
to join the moderate Republican Wednesday Group in order to move up
the leadership ranks. He was elected Chairman of the Republican Policy
Committee from 1981 to 1987. Cheney was the Ranking Member of the
Select Committee to investigate the Iran-Contra Affair. He
promoted Wyoming's petroleum and coal businesses as well.
Secretary of Defense (1989–1993)
Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, 1989–1993
Secretary Cheney with President Bush, 1991
Secretary of Defense Cheney delivering a speech before the launch of
destroyer USS Arleigh Burke
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush nominated Cheney for the office of
Secretary of Defense immediately after the
U.S. Senate failed to
John Tower for that position. The senate confirmed Cheney
by a vote of 92 to 0 and he served in that office from March 1989
to January 1993. He directed the
United States invasion of Panama
United States invasion of Panama and
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm in the Middle East. In 1991, he was awarded the
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom by Bush. Later that year, he
received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service
by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by
Cheney has said his time at the Pentagon was the most rewarding period
of his public service career, calling it "the one that stands out." In
2014, Cheney recounted that when he met with President George H. W.
Bush to accept the offer, he passed a painting in the private
residence entitled The Peacemakers, which depicted President Lincoln,
General Grant, and William Tecumseh Sherman. "My great-grandfather had
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman throughout the war," Cheney
said, "and it occurred to me as I was in the room as I walked in to
talk to the President about becoming Secretary of Defense, I wondered
what he would have thought that his great-grandson would someday be in
White House with the President talking about taking over the reins
of the U.S. military."
Cheney worked closely with Pete Williams, Assistant Secretary of
Defense for Public Affairs, and Paul Wolfowitz, Under Secretary of
Defense for Policy, from the beginning of his tenure. He focused
primarily on external matters, and left most of the internal DoD
management to Deputy Secretary of Defense Donald Atwood.
Cheney's most immediate issue as Secretary of Defense was the
Department of Defense budget. Cheney deemed it appropriate to cut the
budget and downsize the military, following the Reagan
Administration's peacetime defense buildup at the height of the Cold
War. As part of the fiscal year 1990 budget, Cheney assessed the
requests from each of the branches of the armed services for such
expensive programs as the Avenger II Naval attack aircraft, the B-2
stealth bomber, the
V-22 Osprey tilt-wing helicopter, the Aegis
destroyer and the MX missile, totaling approximately $4.5 billion in
light of changed world politics. Cheney opposed the V-22 program,
which Congress had already appropriated funds for, and initially
refused to issue contracts for it before relenting. When the 1990
Budget came before Congress in the summer of 1989, it settled on a
figure between the Administration's request and the House Armed
Services Committee's recommendation.
In subsequent years under Cheney, the proposed and adopted budgets
followed patterns similar to that of 1990. Early in 1991, he unveiled
a plan to reduce military strength by the mid-1990s to 1.6 million,
compared with 2.2 million when he entered office. Cheney's 1993
defense budget was reduced from 1992, omitting programs that Congress
had directed the Department of Defense to buy weapons that it did not
want, and omitting unrequested reserve forces.
Over his four years as Secretary of Defense, Cheney downsized the
military and his budgets showed negative real growth, despite
pressures to acquire weapon systems advocated by Congress. The
Department of Defense's total obligational authority in current
dollars declined from $291 billion to $270 billion. Total military
personnel strength decreased by 19 percent, from about 2.2 million in
1989 to about 1.8 million in 1993. Notwithstanding the overall
reduction in military spending, Cheney directed the development of a
Pentagon plan to ensure U.S. military dominance in the post-Cold War
Political climate and agenda
Cheney publicly expressed concern that nations such as Iraq, Iran, and
North Korea, could acquire nuclear components after the collapse of
the Soviet Union in 1991. The end of the Cold War, the fall of the
Soviet Union, and the disintegration of the
Warsaw Pact obliged the
first Bush Administration to reevaluate the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization's (NATO's) purpose and makeup. Cheney believed that NATO
should remain the foundation of European security relationships and
that it would remain important to the United States in the long term;
he urged the alliance to lend more assistance to the new democracies
in Eastern Europe.
Cheney's views on NATO reflected his skepticism about prospects for
peaceful social development in the former
Eastern Bloc countries,
where he saw a high potential for political uncertainty and
instability. He felt that the Bush Administration was too optimistic
General Secretary of the CPSU
General Secretary of the CPSU
Mikhail Gorbachev and his
successor, Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Cheney worked to
maintain strong ties between the United States and its European
Cheney persuaded the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to allow bases for U.S.
ground troops and war planes in the nation. This was an important
element of the success of the Gulf War, as well as a lightning-rod for
Islamists, such as Osama bin Laden, who opposed having non-Muslim
armies near their holy sites.
Using economic sanctions and political pressure, the United States
mounted a campaign to drive Panamanian ruler General Manuel Antonio
Noriega from power after he fell from favor. In May 1989, after
Guillermo Endara had been duly elected President of Panama, Noriega
nullified the election outcome, drawing intensified pressure. In
October, Noriega suppressed a military coup, but in December, after
soldiers of the
Panamanian army killed a U.S. serviceman, the United
States invasion of
Panama began under Cheney's direction. The stated
reason for the invasion was to seize Noriega to face drug charges in
the United States, protect U.S. lives and property, and restore
Panamanian civil liberties. Although the mission was
controversial, U.S. forces achieved control of
Panama and Endara
assumed the Presidency; Noriega was convicted and imprisoned on
racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.
Secretary of Defense Cheney during a press conference on the Gulf War
In 1991, the
Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War drew the world's attention. In August
1992, the United States began to provide humanitarian assistance,
primarily food, through a military airlift. At President Bush's
direction, Cheney dispatched the first of 26,000 U.S. troops to
Somalia as part of the
Unified Task Force
Unified Task Force (UNITAF), designed to
provide security and food relief. Cheney's successors as Secretary
Les Aspin and William J. Perry, had to contend with both
the Bosnian and Somali issues.
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
On August 1, 1990, Iraqi President
Saddam Hussein sent the invading
Iraqi forces into neighboring Kuwait, a small petroleum-rich state
long claimed by
Iraq as part of its territory. This invasion sparked
the initiation of the Persian
Gulf War and it brought worldwide
condemnation. An estimated 140,000
Iraqi troops quickly took
Kuwait City and moved on to the Saudi Arabia/Kuwait
border. The United States had already begun to develop contingency
plans for the defense of
Saudi Arabia by the U.S. Central Command,
headed by General Norman Schwarzkopf, because of its important
U.S. and world reaction
Cheney meets with Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation in
Saudi Arabia to discuss how to handle the invasion of Kuwait
Cheney and Schwarzkopf oversaw planning for what would become a
full-scale U.S. military operation. According to General Colin Powell,
Cheney "had become a glutton for information, with an appetite we
could barely satisfy. He spent hours in the National Military Command
Center peppering my staff with questions."
Shortly after the Iraqi invasion, Cheney made the first of several
Saudi Arabia where
King Fahd requested U.S. military
assistance. The United Nations took action as well, passing a series
of resolutions condemning Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the UN Security
Council authorized "all means necessary" to eject
Iraq from Kuwait,
and demanded that the country withdraw its forces by January 15,
1991. By then, the United States had a force of about 500,000
Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf. Other nations,
including Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Syria, and Egypt,
contributed troops, and other allies, most notably Germany and Japan,
agreed to provide financial support for the coalition effort, named
Operation Desert Shield.
On January 12, 1991, Congress authorized Bush to use military force to
enforce Iraq's compliance with UN resolutions on Kuwait.
The first phase of Operation Desert Storm, which began on January 17,
1991, was an air offensive to secure air superiority and attack Iraqi
forces, targeting key Iraqi command and control centers, including the
Baghdad and Basra. Cheney turned most other Department of
Defense matters over to Deputy Secretary Atwood and briefed Congress
during the air and ground phases of the war. He flew with Powell
to the region to review and finalize the ground war plans.
After an air offensive of more than five weeks, UN Coalition forces
launched the ground war on February 24. Within 100 hours, Iraqi forces
had been routed from Kuwait and Schwarzkopf reported that the basic
objective—expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait—had been met on
February 27. After consultation with Cheney and other members of
his national security team, Bush declared a suspension of
hostilities. On working with this national security team, Cheney
has said, "there have been five Republican presidents since
Eisenhower. I worked for four of them and worked closely with a
fifth—the Reagan years when I was part of the House leadership. The
best national security team I ever saw was that one. The least
friction, the most cooperation, the highest degree of trust among the
A total of 147 U.S. military personnel died in combat, and another 236
died as a result of accidents or other causes.
Iraq agreed to
a formal truce on March 3, and a permanent cease-fire on April 6.
There was subsequent debate about whether UN Coalition forces should
have driven as far as
Baghdad to oust
Saddam Hussein from power. Bush
agreed that the decision to end the ground war when they did was
correct, but the debate persisted as Hussein remained in power and
rebuilt his military forces. Arguably the most significant debate
concerned whether U.S. and Coalition forces had left
soon. In an April 15, 1994 interview with C-SPAN, Cheney was
asked if the U.S. and UN forces should have moved into Baghdad. Cheney
replied that occupying and attempting to take over the country would
have been a "bad idea" and would have led to a "quagmire", explaining
Because if we'd gone to
Baghdad we would have been all alone. There
wouldn't have been anybody else with us. There would have been a U.S.
occupation of Iraq. None of the Arab forces that were willing to fight
with us in Kuwait were willing to invade Iraq. Once you got to Iraq
and took it over, took down Saddam Hussein's government, then what are
you going to put in its place? That's a very volatile part of the
world, and if you take down the central government of Iraq, you could
very easily end up seeing pieces of
Iraq fly off: part of it, the
Syrians would like to have to the west, part of it—eastern
Iraq—the Iranians would like to claim, they fought over it for eight
years. In the north you've got the Kurds, and if the Kurds spin loose
and join with the Kurds in Turkey, then you threaten the territorial
integrity of Turkey. It's a quagmire if you go that far and try to
take over Iraq. The other thing was casualties. Everyone was impressed
with the fact we were able to do our job with as few casualties as we
had. But for the 146 Americans killed in action, and for their
families—it wasn't a cheap war. And the question for the president,
in terms of whether or not we went on to Baghdad, took additional
casualties in an effort to get Saddam Hussein, was how many additional
dead Americans is Saddam worth? Our judgment was, not very many, and I
think we got it right.
Cheney regarded the
Gulf War as an example of the kind of regional
problem the United States was likely to continue to face in the
We're always going to have to be involved [in the Middle East]. Maybe
it's part of our national character, you know we like to have these
problems nice and neatly wrapped up, put a ribbon around it. You
deploy a force, you win the war and the problem goes away. But it
doesn't work that way in the Middle East. It never has, and isn't
likely to in my lifetime.
Private sector career
Between 1987 and 1989, during his last term in Congress, Cheney was a
director of the
Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy
With the new Democratic administration under President
Bill Clinton in
January 1993, Cheney left the Department of Defense and joined the
American Enterprise Institute. He also served a second term as a
Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations director from 1993 to 1995. From 1995
until 2000, he served as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive
Officer of Halliburton, a
Fortune 500 company.
Cheney's record as CEO was subject to some dispute among Wall Street
analysts. A 1998 merger between
Halliburton and Dresser Industries
attracted the criticism of some Dresser executives for Halliburton's
lack of accounting transparency. Although Cheney is not named as
an individual defendant in the suit,
Halliburton shareholders are
pursuing a class-action lawsuit alleging that the corporation
artificially inflated its stock price during this period. In June
United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court reversed a lower court ruling
and allowed the case to continue in litigation. Cheney was named
in a December 2010 corruption complaint filed by the Nigerian
government against Halliburton, which the company settled for $250
During Cheney's term,
Halliburton changed its accounting practices
regarding revenue realization of disputed costs on major construction
projects. Cheney resigned as CEO of
Halliburton on July 25, 2000.
As vice president, he argued that this step removed any conflict of
interest. Cheney's net worth, estimated to be between $19 million and
$86 million, is largely derived from his post at Halliburton.
His 2006 gross joint income with his wife was nearly $8.82
He was also a member of the board of advisors of the Jewish Institute
for National Security Affairs (JINSA) before becoming vice
2000 presidential election
See also: United States presidential election, 2000
In early 2000, while serving as the CEO of Halliburton, Cheney headed
Governor of Texas
Governor of Texas George W. Bush's vice-presidential search
committee. On July 25, after reviewing Cheney's findings, Bush
surprised some pundits by asking Cheney himself to join the Republican
Halliburton reportedly reached agreement on July 20 to
allow Cheney to retire, with a package estimated at $20 million.
A few months before the election Cheney put his home in Dallas up for
sale and changed his drivers' license and voter registration back to
Wyoming. This change was necessary to allow Texas' presidential
electors to vote for both Bush and Cheney without contravening the
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbids
electors from voting for someone from their own state for both
President and Vice President.
Cheney campaigned against Al Gore's running mate, Joseph Lieberman, in
the 2000 presidential election. While the election was undecided, the
Bush-Cheney team was not eligible for public funding to plan a
transition to a new administration. So, Cheney opened a privately
funded transition office in Washington. This office worked to identify
candidates for all important positions in the cabinet. According
to Craig Unger, Cheney advocated
Donald Rumsfeld for the post of
Secretary of Defense to counter the influence of
Colin Powell at the
State Department, and tried unsuccessfully to have Paul Wolfowitz
named to replace
George Tenet as director of the Central Intelligence
Vice Presidency (2001–2009)
First term (2001–2005)
Vice President Cheney watching the initial 9/11 attack
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Cheney remained physically
apart from Bush for security reasons. For a period, Cheney stayed at a
variety of undisclosed locations, out of public view. Cheney later
revealed in his memoir
In My Time
In My Time that these "undisclosed locations"
included his official Vice Presidential residence, his home in
Wyoming, and Camp David. He also utilized a heavy security detail,
employing a motorcade of 12 to 18 government vehicles for his daily
commute from the Vice Presidential residence at the U.S. Naval
Observatory to the White House.
On the morning of June 29, 2002, Cheney served as Acting President of
the United States under the terms of the
25th Amendment to the
Constitution, while Bush was undergoing a colonoscopy. Cheney acted as
President from 11:09 UTC that day until Bush resumed the powers of the
presidency at 13:24 UTC.
Cheney speaks to US troops at Camp Anaconda,
Iraq in 2008
Following 9/11, Cheney was instrumental in providing a primary
justification for a renewed war against Iraq. Cheney helped shape
Bush's approach to the "War on Terror", making numerous public
Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction,
and making several personal visits to CIA headquarters, where he
questioned mid-level agency analysts on their conclusions. Cheney
continued to allege links between
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, even
though President Bush received a classified President's Daily Brief on
September 21, 2001, indicating the U.S. intelligence community had no
Saddam Hussein to the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks and that
"there was scant credible evidence that
Iraq had any significant
collaborative ties with Al Qaeda". Furthermore, in 2004, the 9/11
Commission concluded that there was no "collaborative relationship"
Iraq and al-Qaeda.
Following the US invasion of Iraq, Cheney remained steadfast in his
support of the war, stating that it would be an "enormous success
story", and made many visits to the country. He often criticized
war critics, calling them "opportunists" who were peddling "cynical
and pernicious falsehoods" to gain political advantage while US
soldiers died in Iraq. In response, Senator
John Kerry asserted, "It
is hard to name a government official with less credibility on Iraq
In a March 24, 2008, extended interview conducted in Ankara, Turkey,
ABC News correspondent
Martha Raddatz on the fifth anniversary of
the original U.S. military assault on Iraq, Cheney responded to a
question about public opinion polls showing that Americans had lost
confidence in the war by simply replying "So?" video This remark
prompted widespread criticism, including from former Oklahoma
Republican Congressman Mickey Edwards, a long-time personal friend of
Second term (2005–2009)
See also: United States presidential election, 2004
President of Lithuania
Valdas Adamkus (right) meets with Vice
President Cheney in Vilnius, May 2006
Bush and Cheney were re-elected in the 2004 presidential election,
John Kerry and his running mate, John Edwards. During
the election, the pregnancy of his daughter Mary and her sexual
orientation as a lesbian became a source of public attention for
Cheney in light of the same-sex marriage debate. Cheney has stated
that he is in favor of gay marriages personally, but that each
U.S. state should decide whether to permit it or not.
Cheney's former chief legal counsel, David Addington, became his
chief of staff and remained in that office until Cheney's departure
John P. Hannah
John P. Hannah served as Cheney's national security
adviser. Until his indictment and resignation in 2005, I.
Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Jr. served in both roles.
On the morning of July 21, 2007, Cheney once again served as acting
president, from 7:16 am to 9:21 am. Bush transferred the
power of the presidency prior to undergoing a medical procedure,
requiring sedation, and later resumed his powers and duties that same
After his term began in 2001, Cheney was occasionally asked if he was
interested in the Republican nomination for the 2008 elections.
However, he always maintained that he wished to retire upon the
expiration of his term and he did not run in the 2008 presidential
primaries. The Republicans nominated Arizona Senator John McCain.
Disclosure of documents
Cheney (far right) with former Defense Secretary
Donald Rumsfeld and
Cheney was a prominent member of the National Energy Policy
Development Group (NEPDG), commonly known as the Energy Task
Force, composed of energy industry representatives, including several
Enron executives. After the
Enron scandal, the Bush administration was
accused of improper political and business ties. In July 2003, the
Supreme Court ruled that the
US Department of Commerce
US Department of Commerce must disclose
NEPDG documents, containing references to companies that had made
agreements with the previous Iraqi government to extract Iraq's
Beginning in 2003, Cheney's staff opted not to file required reports
National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration office charged
with assuring that the executive branch protects classified
information, nor did it allow inspection of its record keeping.
Cheney refused to release the documents, citing his executive
privilege to deny congressional information requests. Media
outlets such as Time magazine and
CBS News questioned whether Cheney
had created a "fourth branch of government" that was not subject to
any laws. A group of historians and open-government advocates
filed a lawsuit in the US District Court for the District of Columbia,
asking the court to declare that Cheney's vice-presidential records
are covered by the
Presidential Records Act of 1978 and cannot be
destroyed, taken or withheld from the public without proper
CIA leak scandal
Handwritten note above Joe Wilson's editorial by Cheney referring to
the covert agent before the leak took place
Main article: Plame affair
CIA leak grand jury investigation
CIA leak grand jury investigation and United States v. Libby
On October 18, 2005,
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that the vice
president's office was central to the investigation of the Valerie
Plame CIA leak scandal, for Cheney's former chief of staff, Lewis
"Scooter" Libby, was one of the figures under investigation.
Following an indictment, Libby resigned his positions as Cheney's
chief of staff and assistant on national security affairs.
On September 8, 2006, Richard Armitage, former Deputy Secretary of
State, publicly announced that he was the source of the revelation of
Plame's status. Armitage said he was not a part of a conspiracy to
reveal Plame's identity and did not know whether one existed.
In February 2006,
The National Journal
The National Journal reported that Libby had stated
before a grand jury that his superiors, including Cheney, had
authorized him to disclose classified information to the press
regarding intelligence on Iraq's weapons.
On March 6, 2007, Libby was convicted on four felony counts for
obstruction of justice, perjury, and making false statements to
federal investigators. In his closing arguments, independent
Patrick Fitzgerald said that there was "a cloud over the
vice president", an apparent reference to Cheney's interview with
FBI agents investigating the case, which was made public in 2009.
Cheney lobbied President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush vigorously and unsuccessfully
to grant Libby a full presidential pardon up to the day of Barack
Obama's inauguration, likening Libby to a "soldier on the
Cheney speaks to the press flanked by fellow Republicans Mitch
McConnell (left) and Trent Lott, April 2007
Main article: 2007
Bagram Airfield bombing
On February 27, 2007, at about 10 am, a suicide bomber killed 23
people and wounded 20 more outside
Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan
during a visit by Cheney. The
Taliban claimed responsibility for the
attack and declared that Cheney was its intended target. They also
Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden supervised the operation. The bomb
went off outside the front gate while Cheney was inside the base and
half a mile away. He reported hearing the blast, saying "I heard a
loud boom... The Secret Service came in and told me there had been an
attack on the main gate." The purpose of Cheney's visit to the
region had been to press Pakistan for a united front against the
Pope Benedict XVI, Vice President
Dick Cheney and Mrs.
Lynne Cheney at
a farewell ceremony for the Pope at John F. Kennedy International
Airport in New York.
Cheney has been characterized as the most powerful and influential
Vice President in history. Both supporters and critics of
Cheney regard him as a shrewd and knowledgeable politician who knows
the functions and intricacies of the federal government. A sign of
Cheney's active policy-making role was then-House Speaker Dennis
Hastert's provision of an office near the House floor for Cheney
in addition to his office in the West Wing, his ceremonial office
in the Old Executive Office Building, and his Senate offices (one
Dirksen Senate Office Building
Dirksen Senate Office Building and another off the floor of the
Cheney has actively promoted an expansion of the powers of the
presidency, saying that the Bush administration's challenges to the
laws which Congress passed after Vietnam and
Watergate to contain and
oversee the executive branch—the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Act, the Presidential Records Act, the Freedom of Information Act and
the War Powers Resolution—are, in Cheney's words, "a restoration, if
you will, of the power and authority of the president".
Vice President Cheney escorts former first lady
Nancy Reagan at the
commissioning ceremony of the USS Ronald Reagan, 2003
In June 2007, the Washington Post summarized Cheney's vice presidency
in a Pulitzer Prize-winning four-part series, based in part on
interviews with former administration officials. The articles
characterized Cheney not as a "shadow" president, but as someone who
usually has the last words of counsel to the president on policies,
which in many cases would reshape the powers of the presidency. When
former Vice President
Dan Quayle suggested to Cheney that the office
was largely ceremonial, Cheney reportedly replied, "I have a different
understanding with the president." The articles described Cheney as
having a secretive approach to the tools of government, indicated by
the use of his own security classification and three man-sized safes
in his offices.
The articles described Cheney's influence on decisions pertaining to
detention of suspected terrorists and the legal limits that apply to
their questioning, especially what constitutes torture. U.S. Army
Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, who served as Colin Powell's chief of
staff when he was both
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the
same time Cheney was Secretary of Defense, and then later when Powell
was Secretary of State, stated in an in-depth interview that Cheney
Donald Rumsfeld established an alternative program to interrogate
post-9/11 detainees because of their mutual distrust of CIA.
The Washington Post
The Washington Post articles, principally written by Barton Gellman,
further characterized Cheney as having the strongest influence within
the administration in shaping budget and tax policy in a manner that
assures "conservative orthodoxy." They also highlighted Cheney's
behind-the-scenes influence on the administration's environmental
policy to ease pollution controls for power plants, facilitate the
disposal of nuclear waste, open access to federal timber resources,
and avoid federal constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, among other
issues. The articles characterized his approach to policy formulation
as favoring business over the environment.
Cheney walks with Saudi Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz, May 2007
In June 2008, Cheney allegedly attempted to block efforts by Secretary
Condoleezza Rice to strike a controversial US compromise deal
North Korea over the communist state's nuclear program.
In July 2008, a former Environmental Protection Agency official stated
publicly that Cheney's office had pushed significantly for large-scale
deletions from a
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on
the health effects of global warming "fearing the presentation by a
leading health official might make it harder to avoid regulating
greenhouse gases." In October, when the report appeared with six
pages cut from the testimony, The
White House stated that the changes
were made due to concerns regarding the accuracy of the science.
However, according to the former senior adviser on climate change to
Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Stephen Johnson,
Cheney's office was directly responsible for nearly half of the
original testimony being deleted.
In his role as President of the U.S. Senate, Cheney broke with the
Bush Administration Department of Justice, and signed an amicus brief
United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court in the case of Heller v. District
of Columbia that successfully challenged gun laws in the nation's
capital on Second Amendment grounds.
On February 14, 2010, in an appearance on ABC's This Week, Cheney
reiterated his support of waterboarding and for the torture of
captured terrorist suspects, saying, "I was and remain a strong
proponent of our enhanced interrogation program."
Post-Vice Presidency (2009–present)
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported in 2008 that Cheney purchased a home in
McLean, Virginia, part of the Washington suburbs, which he was to tear
down for a replacement structure. He also maintains homes in Wyoming
and on Maryland's Eastern Shore.
Cheney speaking at CPAC in February 2011.
In July 2012, Cheney used his
Wyoming home to host a private
fund-raiser for Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney, which
netted over $4 million in contributions from attendees for Romney's
Cheney is the subject of the documentary film The World According to
Dick Cheney, premiering March 15, 2013, on the Showtime television
channel. Cheney was also reported to be the subject of
HBO television mini-series based on Barton Gellman's 2008 book
Angler and the 2006 documentary The Dark Side, produced by the
Public Broadcasting Service.
Cheney maintained a visible public profile after leaving office,
being especially critical of
Obama administration policies on national
security. In May 2009, Cheney spoke of his support for
same-sex marriage, becoming one of the most prominent Republican
politicians to do so. Speaking to the National Press Club, Cheney
stated: "People ought to be free to enter into any kind of union they
wish, any kind of arrangement they wish. I do believe, historically,
the way marriage has been regulated is at a state level. It's always
been a state issue, and I think that's the way it ought to be handled
today." In 2012, Cheney reportedly encouraged several Maryland
state legislators to vote to legalize same-sex marriage in that
Although, by custom, a former vice president unofficially receives six
months of protection from the United States Secret Service, President
Obama reportedly extended the protection period for Cheney.
On July 11, 2009, CIA Director
Leon Panetta told the Senate and House
intelligence committees that the CIA withheld information about a
secret counter-terrorism program from Congress for eight years on
direct orders from Cheney. Intelligence and Congressional officials
have said the unidentified program did not involve the CIA
interrogation program and did not involve domestic intelligence
activities. They have said the program was started by the
counter-terrorism center at the CIA shortly after the attacks of
September 11, 2001, but never became fully operational, involving
planning and some training that took place off and on from 2001 until
this year. The
Wall Street Journal reported, citing former
intelligence officials familiar with the matter, that the program was
an attempt to carry out a 2001 presidential authorization to capture
or kill al Qaeda operatives.
Cheney has said that the
Tea Party Movement
Tea Party Movement is a "positive influence
on the Republican Party" and that " I think it's much better to have
that kind of turmoil and change in the Republican Party than it would
be to have it outside."
Cheney said that Russia's alleged interference in the U.S.
presidential election could be considered “an act of war”.
Cheney attending his daughter Liz's ceremonial congressional
swearing-in ceremony in January 2017
Following the swearing-in of his daughter Liz in his former
congressional seat in January 2017, Cheney said he believed she would
do well in the position and that he would only offer advice if
Views on President Obama
Cheney has publicly criticized President Obama since the 2008
presidential election. On December 29, 2009, four days after the
attempted bombing of an international passenger flight from the
Netherlands to United States, Cheney criticized Obama: "[We] are at
war and when President Obama pretends we aren't, it makes us less
safe. [...] Why doesn't he want to admit we're at war? It doesn't fit
with the view of the world he brought with him to the Oval Office. It
doesn't fit with what seems to be the goal of his presidency—social
transformation—the restructuring of American society." In
White House Communications Director Dan Pfeiffer wrote on
White House blog the following day, "[I]t is telling that
Vice President Cheney and others seem to be more focused on
criticizing the Administration than condemning the attackers.
Unfortunately too many are engaged in the typical Washington game of
pointing fingers and making political hay, instead of working together
to find solutions to make our country safer."
During a February 14, 2010 appearance on ABC's This Week, Cheney
reiterated his criticism of the Obama administration's policies for
handling suspected terrorists, criticizing the "mindset" of treating
"terror attacks against the United States as criminal acts as opposed
to acts of war".
In a May 2, 2011, interview with ABC News, Cheney praised the Obama
administration for the operation that resulted in the killing of Osama
In 2014, while being a guest on
Sean Hannity show, he called
Barack Obama a "weak President" amid the Ukrainian unrest.
Cheney in 2012, promoting his book
Main article: In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir
In August 2011, Cheney published his memoir, In My Time: A Personal
and Political Memoir, written with Liz Cheney. The book outlines
Cheney's recollections of 9/11, the War on Terrorism, the 2001 War in
Afghanistan, the run-up to the 2003
Iraq war, so-called "enhanced
interrogation techniques" and other events. According to Barton
Gellman, the author of Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency, Cheney's
book differs from publicly available records on details surrounding
the NSA surveillance program.
Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America
Main article: Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America
In 2015, Cheney published another book, Exceptional: Why the World
Needs a Powerful America, again co-authored with his daughter Liz. The
book traces the history of U.S. foreign policy and military successes
and failures from Franklin Roosevelt's administration through the
Obama administration. The authors tell the story of what they describe
as the unique role the United States has played as a defender of
freedom throughout the world since World War II. Drawing upon the
notion of American exceptionalism, the co-authors criticize Barack
Obama's and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's foreign
policies, and offer what they see as the solutions needed to restore
American greatness and power on the world stage in defense of
Cheney's early public opinion polls were more favorable than
unfavorable, reaching his peak approval rating in the wake of the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks at 68 percent. However, polling numbers for
both him and the president gradually declined in their second
terms, with Cheney reaching his lowest point shortly before
leaving office at 13 percent. Cheney's
Gallup poll figures
are mostly consistent with those from other polls:
April 2001 – 63% approval, 21% disapproval
January 2002 – 68% approval, 18% disapproval
January 2004 – 56% approval, 36% disapproval
January 2005 – 50% approval, 40% disapproval
January 2006 – 41% approval, 46% disapproval
July 2007 – 30% approval, 60% disapproval
March 2009 – 30% approval, 63% disapproval
In April 2007, Cheney was awarded an honorary doctorate of public
service by Brigham Young University, where he delivered the
commencement address. His selection as commencement speaker was
controversial. The college board of trustees issued a statement
explaining that the invitation should be viewed "as one extended to
someone holding the high office of vice president of the United States
rather than to a partisan political figure". BYU permitted a
protest to occur so long as it did not "make personal attacks against
Cheney, attack (the) BYU administration, the church or the First
Cheney has been compared to Darth Vader, a characterization originated
by his critics, but which was later adopted humorously by Cheney
himself as well as by members of his family and staff.
As a result of Cheney having admitted that he 'signed off' on the
so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" program, some
public officials, as well as several media outlets and advocacy
groups, have called for his prosecution under various anti-torture and
war crimes statutes.
In former president George H. W. Bush's book Destiny and Power: The
American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush, published in November
2015, the 41st president, although also laudatory of Cheney, is in
part critical of the former vice president, whom Bush describes as
"having his own empire" and "very hard-line."
Cheney is a member of the United Methodist Church and was the
first Methodist vice president to serve under a Methodist
His wife, Lynne Cheney, was chair of the National Endowment for the
Humanities from 1986 to 1996. She is now a public speaker, author, and
a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute.
The couple have two children, Elizabeth "Liz" Cheney and Mary Cheney,
and seven grandchildren. Liz is married to Philip J. Perry, former
General Counsel of the Department of Homeland Security. Mary, a former
employee of the
Colorado Rockies baseball team and of the Coors
Brewing Company, a campaign aide to the Bush re-election campaign, and
an open lesbian, currently lives in Great Falls, Virginia, with her
wife Heather Poe. Cheney has publicly supported gay marriage
since leaving the vice presidency.
Cheney has a pet dog named Nelson.
Cheney's long histories of cardiovascular disease and periodic need
for urgent health care raised questions of whether he was medically
fit to serve in public office. Having smoked approximately 3
packs of cigarettes per day for nearly 20 years, Cheney had his
first of five heart attacks in 1978, at age 37. Subsequent attacks in
1984, 1988, 2000, and 2010 have resulted in moderate contractile
dysfunction of his left ventricle. He underwent four-vessel
coronary artery bypass grafting in 1988, coronary artery stenting in
November 2000, urgent coronary balloon angioplasty in March 2001, and
the implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in June,
On September 24, 2005, Cheney underwent a six-hour endo-vascular
procedure to repair popliteal artery aneurysms bilaterally, a catheter
treatment technique used in the artery behind each knee. The
condition was discovered at a regular physical in July, and was not
life-threatening. Cheney was hospitalized for tests after
experiencing shortness of breath five months later. In late April
2006, an ultrasound revealed that the clot was smaller.
On March 5, 2007, Cheney was treated for deep-vein thrombosis in his
left leg at
George Washington University Hospital
George Washington University Hospital after experiencing
pain in his left calf. Doctors prescribed blood-thinning medication
and allowed him to return to work.
CBS News reported that during
the morning of November 26, 2007, Cheney was diagnosed with atrial
fibrillation and underwent treatment that afternoon.
On July 12, 2008, Cheney underwent a cardiological exam; doctors
reported that his heartbeat was normal for a 67-year-old man with a
history of heart problems. As part of his annual checkup, he was
administered an electrocardiogram and radiological imaging of the
stents placed in the arteries behind his knees in 2005. Doctors said
that Cheney had not experienced any recurrence of atrial fibrillation
and that his special pacemaker had neither detected nor treated any
arrhythmia. On October 15, 2008, Cheney returned to the hospital
briefly to treat a minor irregularity.
On January 19, 2009, Cheney strained his back "while moving boxes into
his new house". As a consequence, he was in a wheelchair for two days,
including his attendance at the 2009 United States presidential
On February 22, 2010, Cheney was admitted to George Washington
University Hospital after experiencing chest pains. A spokesperson
later said Cheney had experienced a mild heart attack after doctors
had run tests. On June 25, 2010, Cheney was admitted to George
Washington University Hospital after reporting discomfort.
In early July 2010, Cheney was outfitted with a left-ventricular
assist device (LVAD) at
Inova Fairfax Heart and Vascular Institute to
compensate for worsening congestive heart failure. The device
pumped blood continuously through his body. He was released
Inova on August 9, 2010, and had to decide whether to seek a
full heart transplant. This pump was centrifugal and as a
result he remained alive without a pulse for nearly fifteen
On March 24, 2012, Cheney underwent a seven-hour heart transplant
Inova Fairfax Hospital in Woodburn, Virginia, at the age
of 71. He had been on a waiting list for more than 20 months before
receiving the heart from an anonymous donor. Cheney's
principal cardiologist, Dr. Jonathan Reiner, advised his patient that
"it would not be unreasonable for an otherwise healthy 71-year-old man
to expect to live another 10 years" with a transplant, saying in a
family-authorized interview that he considered Cheney to be otherwise
Dick Cheney hunting incident
On February 11, 2006,
Dick Cheney shot Harry Whittington, a
Texas attorney, while participating in a quail hunt at
Armstrong ranch in Kenedy County, Texas. Secret Service agents
and medical aides, who were traveling with Cheney, came to
Whittington's assistance and treated his birdshot wounds to his right
cheek, neck, and chest. An ambulance standing by for the Vice
President took Whittington to nearby Kingsville before he was flown by
helicopter to Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital. On February 14, 2006,
Whittington had a non-fatal heart attack and atrial fibrillation due
to at least one lead-shot pellet lodged in or near his heart.
Because of the small size of the birdshot pellets, doctors decided to
leave up to 30 pieces of the pellets lodged in his body rather than
try to remove them.
The Secret Service stated that they notified the Sheriff about one
hour after the shooting. Kenedy County Sheriff Ramone Salinas III
stated that he first heard of the shooting at about 5:30 PM. The
next day, ranch owner Katharine Armstrong informed the Corpus Christi
Caller-Times of the shooting. Cheney had a televised interview
MSNBC News about the shooting on February 15. Both Cheney and
Whittington have called the incident an accident. Early reports
indicated that Cheney and Whittington were friends and that the
injuries were minor. Whittington has since told the Washington Post
that he and Cheney were not close friends but acquaintances. When
asked if Cheney had apologized, Whittington declined to answer.
The sheriff's office released a report on the shooting on February 16,
2006, and witness statements on February 22, indicating that the
shooting occurred on a clear sunny day, and Whittington was shot from
30 or 40 yards (40 m) away while searching for a downed bird.
Armstrong, the ranch owner, claimed that all in the hunting party were
wearing blaze-orange safety gear and none had been drinking.
However, Cheney has acknowledged that he had one beer four or five
hours prior to the shooting. Although Kenedy County Sheriff's
Office documents support the official story by Cheney and his party,
re-creations of the incident produced by George Gongora and John Metz
Corpus Christi Caller-Times indicated that the actual shooting
distance was closer than the 30 yards claimed.
The incident hurt Cheney's popularity standing in the polls.
According to polls on February 27, 2006, two weeks after the accident,
Dick Cheney's approval rating had dropped 5 percentage points to
18%. The incident became the subject of a number of jokes and
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^ "Cheney Cited for Breaking Hunting Law". CBS News. February 14,
2006. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved July
Texas Parks and Wildlife Hunting Accident and Incident Report
Form". The Smoking Gun. February 13, 2006. Archived from the original
on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2006.
^ Farhi, Paul (October 14, 2010). "Since
Dick Cheney shot him, Harry
Whittington's aim has been to move on". The Washington Post.
^ VandeHei, Jim; Moreno, Sylvia (February 14, 2006). "White House
Deferred to Cheney on Shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1,
^ "Cheney: 'One of the worst days of my life'". CNN. February 16,
2006. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009.
^ "Avid shooter simulates the accident, its injuries". Corpus Christi
Caller-Times. February 14, 2006. Archived from the original on
November 4, 2012.
^ Riccardi, Nicholas; Gerstenzang, James (February 15, 2006). "Hunter
Suffers Setback as Criticism of Cheney Grows". The Nation. Los Angeles
Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008.
^ "Poll:Bush Ratings At All-Time Low". CBS News. February 27, 2006.
Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved October 8,
^ Leibovich, Mark (February 14, 2006). "After Cheney's Shooting
Incident, Time to Unload". The Washington Post.
^ Clausen, Aage R.; Cheney, Richard B. "A Comparative Analysis of
Senate–House Voting on Economic and Welfare Policy, 1953–1964*".
Political Science Review. 64 (1): 138–152.
doi:10.2307/1955618 – via Cambridge Core.
Andrews, Elaine K. (2001). Dick Cheney: A Life in Public Service.
Brookfield, Conn: Millbrook Press. ISBN 0-7613-2306-6.
Gellman, Barton (2008). Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. New York:
Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-186-8.
Goldstein, Joel K. (31 August 2009). Cheney, Vice Presidential Power
and the War on Terror. Toronto: APSA Meeting Paper.
SSRN 1450601 .
Hayes, Stephen F. (2007). Cheney: The Untold Story of America's Most
Powerful and Controversial Vice President. New York: HarperCollins.
Mann, James (2004). Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War
Cabinet. New York, N.Y: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03299-9.
Nichols, John (2004). Dick: The Man Who Is President. New York: New
Press. ISBN 1-56584-840-3.
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