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Dhow
Dhow
( Arabic
Arabic
داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with lateen sails used in the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Indian Ocean region. Historians are divided as to whether the dhow was invented by Arabs
Arabs
or Indians.[1][2] Typically sporting long thin hulls, dhows are trading vessels primarily used to carry heavy items, like fruit, fresh water or merchandise, along the coasts of Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia
(Arab states of the Persian Gulf),[3] East Africa, Yemen
Yemen
and coastal South Asia
South Asia
(Pakistan, India, Bangladesh). Larger dhows have crews of approximately thirty, smaller ones typically around twelve.

Contents

1 History 2 Navigation 3 Types 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] The exact origins of the dhow are lost to history. Most scholars believe that it originated in India between 600 BC to 600 AD[citation needed] Some claim that the sambuk, a type of dhow, may be derived from the Portuguese caravel.[4] The Yemeni Hadhrami people, as well as Omanis, for centuries came to Beypore, in Kerala, India for their dhows. This was because of the good timber in the Kerala
Kerala
forests, the availability of good coir rope, and the skilled carpenters who specialized in ship building. In former times, the sheathing planks of a dhow's hull were held together by coconut rope. Beypore
Beypore
dhows are known as 'Uru' in Malayalam, the local language of Kerala. Settlers from Yemen, known as 'Baramis', are still active in making urus in Kerala. In the 1920s, British writers identified Al Hudaydah
Al Hudaydah
as the center for dhow building. Those built in Al Hudaydah
Al Hudaydah
were smaller in size, and used for travel along the coasts. They were constructed of acacia found in Yemen.[5] Captain Alan Villiers
Alan Villiers
(1903–82) documented the days of sailing trade in the Indian Ocean by sailing on dhows between 1938 and 1939 taking numerous photographs and publishing books on the subject of dhow navigation.[6][7] Even to the present day, dhows make commercial journeys between the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and East Africa using sails as their only means of propulsion. Their cargo is mostly dates and fish to East Africa and mangrove timber to the lands in the Persian Gulf. They often sail south with the monsoon in winter or early spring, and back again to Arabia in late spring or early summer.[citation needed] Navigation[edit] For celestial navigation, dhow sailors have traditionally used the kamal, an observation device that determines latitude by finding the angle of the Pole Star
Pole Star
above the horizon.[8] Types[edit]

A Jalibut in the Persian Gulf

Baghlah
Baghlah
(بغلة) – from the Arabic
Arabic
language word for "mule". A heavy ship, the traditional deep-sea dhow. Baqarah or baggarah (بقارة) – from the Arabic
Arabic
word for "cow". Old type of small dhow similar to the Battil.[9] Barijah – small dhow.[10] Battil (بتيل) – featured long stems topped by large, club-shaped stem heads. Badan – a smaller vessel requiring a shallow draft.[11] Boum (بوم) or dhangi – a large-sized dhow with a stern that is tapering in shape and a more symmetrical overall structure. The Arab boum has a very high prow, which is trimmed in the Indian version.[12] Ghanjah
Ghanjah
(غنجة) or kotiya – a large vessel, similar to the Baghlah, with a curved stem and a sloping, ornately carved transom.[13] Jahazi or jihazi (جهازي). A fishing or trading dhow with a broad hull similar to the Jalibut, common in Lamu
Lamu
Island and the coast of Oman. It is also used in Bahrain
Bahrain
for the pearl industry.[14] The word comes from jahāz (جهاز), a Persian word for "ship".[15] Jalibut or jelbut (جالبوت). A small to medium-sized dhow. It is the modern version of the shu'ai with a shorter prow stem piece. Most jalibuts are fitted with engines. Pattamar, a type of Indian dhow. Sambuk
Sambuk
or sambuq (صنبوق) – the largest type of dhow seen in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
today. It has a characteristic keel design, with a sharp curve right below the top of the prow. It has been one of the most successful dhows in history.[16] The word is cognate with the Greek σαμβύκη sambúkē, ultimately from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
sambūk. [17] Shu'ai (شوعي). Medium-sized dhow. Formerly the most common dhow in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
used for fishing as well as for coastal trade. Zaruq – small dhow, slightly larger than a barijah[18]

The term "dhow" is sometimes also applied to certain smaller lateen-sail rigged boats traditionally used in the Red Sea, the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
area, as well as in the Indian Ocean from Madagascar
Madagascar
to the Bay of Bengal. These include the feluccas used in Egypt, Sudan
Sudan
and Iraq, and the Dhoni
Dhoni
used in the Maldives, as well as the tranki, ghrab and ghalafah.[19] All these vessels have common elements with the dhow. On the Swahili Coast, in countries such as Kenya, the Swahili word used for dhow is "jahazi".[1] Gallery[edit]

Dhow
Dhow
seen off the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Dhow
Dhow
seen in the Indian Ocean

A small dhow in Zanzibar

A painting of a Baghlah, traditional deep sea dhow.

Construction and repair of dhows in Sur, Oman

Dhow
Dhow
ferrying passengers near Inhambane, Mozambique.

1937 stamp of Aden
Aden
depicting a dhow.

Boom in the Maritime Museum
Maritime Museum
in Kuwait City
Kuwait City
commemorating the founding of Kuwait
Kuwait
as a sea port for merchants.

Patamar
Patamar
on a 10 Indian rupee
Indian rupee
note

Model of a Sambuk

Dhow
Dhow
on the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
(1958)

See also[edit]

Middle East portal Nautical portal

Felucca Uru (boat) Arab slave trade Xebec Fusta Al-Wakrah Stadium

References[edit]

^ a b Briggs, Philip. "Dhows of the swahili coast". Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Travel Guide. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ "The History & construction of the dhow". Nabataea. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ "Arab Dhows of Eastern Arabia". 1949.  ^ Taylor, James. "Traditional Arab sailing ships". The British-Yemeni Society. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ Prothero, GW (1920). Arabia. London: HM Stationery Office. p. 99.  ^ Villiers, Alan, An Account of Sailing
Sailing
with the Arabs
Arabs
in their Dhows, in the Red Sea, round the Coasts of Arabia, and to Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Tanganyika; Pearling in the Persian Gulf; and the Life of the Shipmasters and the Mariners of Kuwait, archived from the original on 16 February 2012 . ^ Villiers, Alan, Monsoon
Monsoon
Seas: The Story of the Indian Ocean, Questia . ^ "Ancient Sailing
Sailing
and Navigation". Nabataea.net. Retrieved 7 September 2012.  ^ "The Traditional Dhow". Oman: Ministry of Information. Retrieved 7 September 2012.  ^ Hourani, George Fadlo; Carswell, John (1995), Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times, Princeton University Press . ^ "Dhows", China, Facts & details . ^ " Dhow
Dhow
Ship – Types", Marine engineering, Bright hub . ^ "Ghanjah", Cog and Galley
Galley
ships . ^ Dhow
Dhow
sailing in Kenya, UK: Diani beach, archived from the original on 24 July 2012 . ^ Agius 2008, p. 316. ^ Oman, a Seafaring Nation, Oman: Ministry of Information, 1979 . ^ Agius 2008, p. 314. ^ Xavier, Sandy. "Zaruq". CA: Sympatico. Archived from the original on 5 October 2003. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ Abdullah, Thabit AJ (2000), The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra, Social and Economic History of the Middle East, SUNY, ISBN 978-0-7914-4808-3 .

Bibliography[edit]

Agius, Dionisius A (2008), Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean, Brill, ISBN 90-0415863-4 .

Further reading[edit]

Bowen, Richard LeBaron, Essay on the tradition of painting eyes, known as oculi, on the bows of boats among mariners and fishermen from ancient times to the present. Found particularly in the Indian Ocean region . Clifford W. Hawkins, The dhow: an illustrated history of the dhow and its world. Anthony Jack, Arab dhows. Kaplan, Marion, Twilight of the Arab dhow . Martin, Esmond Bradley, The decline of Kenya's dhow trade . ———; Martin, Chryssee Perry, Cargoes of the east : the ports, trade, and culture of the Arabian Seas and western Indian Ocean, foreword by Elspeth Huxley . Henri Perrier, Djibouti's dhows. A.H.J. Prins, Sailing
Sailing
from Lamu: A Study of Maritime Culture in Islamic East Africa. Assen: van Gorcum & Comp., 1965. A.H.J. Prins. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Dhows: Two Variants in Maritime Enterprise. Persica: Jaarboek van het Genootschap Nederland-Iran, No.II (1965-1966): pp.1-18. A.H.J. Prins. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Dhows: Notes on the Classification of Mid-Eastern Sea-Craft. Persica: Jaarboek van het Genootschap Nederland-Iran, No.VI (1972-1974): pp.157-1166. A.H.J. Prins. A Handbook of Sewn Boats. Maritime Monographs and Reports No.59. Greenwich, London:: National Maritime Museum, 1986. Tessa Rihards, Dhow
Dhow
building : survival of an ancient craft.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dhows.

"Al wakrah vagina stadium, Qatar world", The Mirror, UK . Stadium based on the design of the Dhow. History of the dhow . "Dhows of Kuwait", Kuwait
Kuwait
boom . Lloyd, Christopher, The Navy and the Slave Trade . Mondfeld, Wolfram, Die arabische Dau [The Arab dhow] (in German), DE: Modell marine . Vosmer, Tom, The durable dhow, Archaeology . Maritime activities of the Arab Gulf people and the Indian Ocean World in the 11th and 12th centuries (PDF), JP: Tufs .

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