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The DHARMAGUPTAKA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
; Chinese : 法藏部; pinyin : Fǎzàng bù) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools , depending on the source. They are said to have originated from another sect, the Mahīśāsakas . The Dharmaguptakas had a prominent role in early Central Asian and Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
, and their Prātimokṣa (monastic rules for bhikṣus and bhikṣuṇīs ) are still in effect in East Asian countries to this day, including China
China
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Korea , and Japan
Japan
. They are one of three surviving Vinaya
Vinaya
lineages, along with that of the Theravāda and the Mūlasarvāstivāda .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Doctrinal development

* 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Twelve aṅgas

* 3 Appearance and language

* 3.1 Robes * 3.2 Language

* 4 History

* 4.1 In Northwest India
India
* 4.2 In Central Asia
Central Asia
* 4.3 In East Asia

* 5 Texts

* 5.1 Gandhāran Buddhist texts
Gandhāran Buddhist texts
* 5.2 Vinaya
Vinaya
translation * 5.3 Āgama collections * 5.4 Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* 5.5 Additional piṭakas * 5.6 Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra

* 6 Relationship to Mahāyāna

* 6.1 Kushan era * 6.2 Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra * 6.3 Ratnarāśivyākaraṇa Sūtra * 6.4 Prajñāpāramitā sūtras * 6.5 Buddhayaśas * 6.6 Buddhist canon * 6.7 Paramārtha

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Guptaka means "preserver" and dharma "law, justice, morality", and, most likely, the set of laws of Northern Buddhism.

DOCTRINAL DEVELOPMENT

OVERVIEW

The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
doctrine is characterized by an understanding of the Buddha as separate from the Sangha
Sangha
so that his teaching is superior to the one given by arhats . They also emphasise the merit of devotion to stūpas , which often had pictorial representation of the stories Buddha's previous lives as bodhisattvas as portrayed in the Jataka
Jataka
tales . The Dharmaguptakas regarded the path of a śrāvaka (śrāvakayāna ) and the path of a bodhisattva (bodhisattvayāna) to be separate. A translation and commentary on the Samayabhedoparacanacakra reads:

They say that although the Buddha is part of the Saṃgha, the fruits of giving to the Buddha are especially great, but not so for the Saṃgha. Making offerings to stūpas may result in many extensive benefits. The Buddha and those of the Two Vehicles , although they have one and the same liberation, have followed different noble paths. Those of outer paths (i.e. heretics) cannot obtain the five supernormal powers . The body of an arhat is without outflows. In many other ways, their views are similar to those of the Mahāsāṃghikas .

According to the Abhidharma
Abhidharma
Mahāvibhāṣā Śāstra , the Dharmaguptakas held that the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
are to be observed simultaneously.

The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
are known to have rejected the authority of the Sarvāstivāda prātimokṣa rules on the grounds that the original teachings of the Buddha had been lost.

TWELVE AṅGAS

The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
used a unique twelvefold division of the Buddhist teachings, which has been found in their Dīrgha Āgama , their Vinaya, and in some Mahāyāna sūtras . These twelve divisions are: sūtra , geya, vyākaraṇa, gāthā , udāna, nidāna, jātaka, itivṛttaka, vaipulya, adbhūtadharma, avadāna , and upadeśa.

APPEARANCE AND LANGUAGE

ROBES

Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao
An Shigao
came to China
China
and translated a work which described the color of monastic robes (Skt. kāṣāya ) utilized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Da Biqiu Sanqian Weiyi (Chinese : 大比丘三千威儀). Another text translated at a later date, the Śāriputraparipṛcchā, contains a very similar passage with nearly the same information. However, the colors for Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
and Sarvāstivāda are reversed. In the earlier source, the Sarvāstivāda are described as wearing deep red robes, while the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
are described as wearing black robes. The corresponding passage found in the later Śāriputraparipṛcchā, in contrast, portrays the Sarvāstivāda as wearing black robes and the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
as wearing deep red robes.

During the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, Chinese Buddhist monastics typically wore grayish-black robes and were even colloquially referred to as Zīyī (Chinese : 緇衣), "those of the black robes." However, the Song dynasty monk Zanning (919–1001 CE) writes that during the earlier Han -Wei period, the Chinese monks typically wore red robes.

According to the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
vinaya , the robes of monastics should be sewn out of no more than 18 pieces of cloth, and the cloth should be fairly heavy and coarse.

LANGUAGE

A consensus has grown in scholarship which sees the first wave of Buddhist missionary work as associated with the Gāndhārī language and the Kharoṣṭhī script and tentatively with the Dharmaguptaka sect. :97 However, there is evidence that other sects and traditions of Buddhism
Buddhism
also used Gāndhārī, and further evidence that the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect also used Sanskrit
Sanskrit
at times:

It is true that most manuscripts in Gāndhārī belong to the Dharmaguptakas, but virtually all schools — inclusive Mahāyāna — used some Gāndhārī. Von Hinüber (1982b and 1983) has pointed out incompletely Sanskritised Gāndhārī words in works heretofore ascribed to the Sarvāstivādins and drew the conclusion that either the sectarian attribution had to be revised, or the tacit dogma "Gāndhārī equals Dharmaguptaka" is wrong. Conversely, Dharmaguptakas also resorted to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. :99

Starting in the first century of the Common Era
Common Era
, there was a large trend toward a type of Gāndhārī which was heavily Sanskritized. :99

HISTORY

IN NORTHWEST INDIA

The region of Aparānta , where the Dharmaguptakas are believed to have originated

The Gandharan Buddhist texts, the earliest Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
ever discovered, are apparently dedicated to the teachers of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school. They tend to confirm a flourishing of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school in northwestern India
India
around the 1st century CE, with Gāndhārī as the canonical language, and this would explain the subsequent influence of the Dharmaguptakas in Central Asia
Central Asia
and then northeastern Asia. According to Buddhist scholar A. K. Warder , the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
originated in Aparānta .

According to one scholar, the evidence afforded by the Gandharan Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
"suggest that the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect achieved early success under their Indo-Scythian supporters in Gandhāra, but that the sect subsequently declined with the rise of the Kuṣāṇa Empire (ca. mid-first to third century A.D.), which gave its patronage to the Sarvāstivāda sect."

IN CENTRAL ASIA

Available evidence indicates that the first Buddhist missions to Khotan were carried out by the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect: :98

he Khotan Dharmapada , some orthographical devices of Khotanese and the not yet systematically plotted Gāndhārī loan words in Khotanese betray indisputably that the first missions in Khotan included Dharmaguptakas and used a Kharoṣṭhī-written Gāndhārī. Now all other manuscripts from Khotan, and especially all manuscripts written in Khotanese, belong to the Mahāyāna, are written in the Brāhmī script , and were translated from Sanskrit.

A number of scholars have identified three distinct major phases of missionary activities seen in the history of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia , which are associated with the following sects, chronologically:

* Dharmagupta * Sarvāstivāda * Mūlasarvāstivāda

In the 7th century CE, Xuanzang
Xuanzang
and Yijing both recorded that the Dharmaguptakas were located in Oḍḍiyāna and Central Asia, but not in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. Yijing grouped the Mahīśāsaka, Dharmaguptaka, and Kāśyapīya together as sub-sects of the Sarvāstivāda, and stated that these three were not prevalent in the "five parts of India," but were located in the some parts of Oḍḍiyāna, Khotan, and Kucha .

IN EAST ASIA

Full bhikṣuṇī ordination is common in the Dharmaguptaka lineage. Vesak
Vesak
festival, Taiwan
Taiwan

The Dharmaguptakas made more efforts than any other sect to spread Buddhism
Buddhism
outside India, to areas such as Iran
Iran
, Central Asia
Central Asia
, and China, and they had great success in doing so. Therefore, most countries which adopted Buddhism
Buddhism
from China, also adopted the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
vinaya and ordination lineage for bhikṣus and bhikṣuṇīs. According to A. K. Warder, in some ways the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect can be considered to have survived to the present in those East Asian countries. Warder further writes:

It was the Dharmaguptakas who were the first Buddhists to establish themselves in Central Asia. They appear to have carried out a vast circling movement along the trade routes from Aparānta north-west into Iran
Iran
and at the same time into Oḍḍiyāna (the Suvastu valley , north of Gandhāra, which became one of their main centres). After establishing themselves as far west as Parthia
Parthia
they followed the "silk route ", the east-west axis of Asia, eastwards across Central Asia
Central Asia
and on into China, where they effectively established Buddhism
Buddhism
in the second and third centuries A.D. The Mahīśāsakas and Kāśyapīyas appear to have followed them across Asia into China. For the earlier period of Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
it was the Dharmaguptakas who constituted the main and most influential school, and even later their Vinaya remained the basis of the discipline there.

During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the Indian Buddhist sects recognized as important, and whose texts were studied, were the Dharmaguptakas, Mahīśāsakas, Kāśyapīyas, Sarvāstivādins, and the Mahāsāṃghikas.

Between 250 and 255 CE, the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
ordination lineage was established in China
China
when Indian monks were invited to help with ordination in China. No full Vinaya
Vinaya
had been translated at this time, and only two texts were available: the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Karmavācanā for ordination, and the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa
for regulating the life of monks. After the translation of full Vinayas, the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
ordination lineage was followed by most monks, but temples often regulated monastic life with other Vinaya
Vinaya
texts, such as those of the Mahāsāṃghika, the Mahīśāsaka, or the Sarvāstivāda.

In the 7th century, Yijing wrote that in eastern China, most people followed the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya, while the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
Vinaya was used in earlier times in Guanzhong
Guanzhong
(the region around Chang\'an ), and that the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya
Vinaya
was prominent in the Yangtze
Yangtze
area and further south. In the 7th century, the existence of multiple Vinaya
Vinaya
lineages throughout China
China
was criticized by prominent Vinaya masters such as Yijing and Dao An (654–717). In the early 8th century, Dao An gained the support of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang and an imperial edict was issued that the sangha in China
China
should use only the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
vinaya for ordination.

TEXTS

GANDHāRAN BUDDHIST TEXTS

The Gandhāran Buddhist texts
Gandhāran Buddhist texts
(the oldest extant Buddhist manuscripts) are attributed to the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect by Richard Salomon, the leading scholar in the field, and the British Library scrolls "represent a random but reasonably representative fraction of what was probably a much larger set of texts preserved in the library of a monastery of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect in Nagarāhāra."

Among the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Gandhāran Buddhist texts
Gandhāran Buddhist texts
in the Schøyen Collection , is a fragment in the Kharoṣṭhī script referencing the Six Pāramitās , a central practice for bodhisattvas in Mahāyāna doctrine.

VINAYA TRANSLATION

In the early 5th century CE, Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
was translated into Chinese by the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
monk Buddhayaśas (佛陀耶舍) of Kashmir
Kashmir
. For this translation, Buddhayaśas recited the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya
Vinaya
entirely from memory, rather than reading it from a written manuscript. After its translation, the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
became the predominant vinaya in Chinese Buddhist monasticism. The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya, or monastic rules, are still followed today in China, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Korea, and its lineage for the ordination of monks and nuns has survived uninterrupted to this day. The name of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
in the East Asian tradition is the " Vinaya
Vinaya
in Four Parts" (Chinese : 四分律; pinyin : Sìfēn Lǜ), and the equivalent Sanskrit
Sanskrit
title would be Caturvargika Vinaya. Ordination under the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
only relates to monastic vows and lineage (Vinaya), and does not conflict with the actual Buddhist teachings that one follows (Dharma).

ĀGAMA COLLECTIONS

The Dīrgha Āgama ("Long Discourses," 長阿含經 Cháng Āhán Jīng) (T. 1) corresponds to the Dīgha Nikāya of the Theravada school. A complete version of the Dīrgha Āgama of the Dharmaguptaka sect was translated by Buddhayaśas and Zhu Fonian (竺佛念) in the Later Qin
Later Qin
dynasty, dated to 413 CE. It contains 30 sūtras in contrast to the 34 suttas of the Theravadin Dīgha Nikāya.

The Ekottara Āgama ("Incremental Discourses," 增壹阿含經 Zēngyī Āhán Jīng) (T. 125) corresponds to the Anguttara Nikāya of the Theravāda school. It was translated into Chinese by Dharmanandi in 384 CE, and edited by Gautama Saṃghadeva in 398 CE. Some have proposed that the original text for this translation came from the Sarvāstivādins or the Mahāsāṃghikas. However, according to A.K. Warder, the Ekottara Āgama references 250 prātimokṣa rules for monks, which agrees only with the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya. He also views some of the doctrine as contradicting tenets of the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
school, and states that they agree with Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
views currently known. He therefore concludes that the extant Ekottara Āgama is that of the Dharmaguptakas.

ABHIDHARMA

The Śāriputra Abhidharma
Abhidharma
Śāstra (舍利弗阿毘曇論 Shèlìfú Āpítán Lùn) (T. 1548) is a complete abhidharma text that is thought to come from the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect. The only complete edition of this text is that in Chinese. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
fragments from this text have been found in Bamiyan
Bamiyan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and are now part of the Schøyen Collection (MS 2375/08). The manuscripts at this find are thought to have been part of a monastery library of the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
Lokottaravāda sect.

ADDITIONAL PIṭAKAS

The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
is said to have contained two extra sections that were not included by some other schools. These included a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Piṭaka and a Mantra
Mantra
Piṭaka (咒藏 Zhòu Zàng), also sometimes called a Dhāraṇī Piṭaka. According to the fifth-century Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
monk Buddhayaśas, the translator of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
into Chinese, the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school had assimilated the "Mahāyāna Tripiṭaka" (大乘三藏 Dàchéng Sānzàng).

ABHINIṣKRAMAṇA SūTRA

The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
biography of the Buddha is the most exhaustive of all classical biographies of the Buddha, and is entitled Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra. Various Chinese translations of this text date from between the 3rd and 6th century CE.

RELATIONSHIP TO MAHāYāNA

Bhikṣus performing a traditional Buddhist ceremony in Hangzhou , Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, China
China

KUSHAN ERA

It is unknown when some members of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school began to accept the Mahāyāna sūtras, but the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa records that Kaniṣka (127-151 CE) of the Kuṣāṇa Empire presided over the establishment of Prajñāpāramitā doctrines in the northwest of India. Tāranātha wrote that in this region, 500 bodhisattvas attended the council at Jālandhra monastery during the time of Kaniṣka, suggesting some institutional strength for Mahāyāna in the northwest during this period. Edward Conze goes further to say that Prajñāpāramitā had great success in the northwest during the Kuṣāṇa period, and may have been the "fortress and hearth" of early Mahāyāna, but not its origin, which he associates with the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
branch.

UGRAPARIPṛCCHā SūTRA

Jan Nattier writes that available textual evidence suggests that the Mahāyāna Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra circulated in Dharmaguptaka communities during its early history, but a later translation shows evidence that the text later circulated amongst the Sarvāstivādins as well. The Ugraparipṛcchā also mentions a fourfold division of the Buddhist canon which includes a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Piṭaka, and the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
are known to have had such a collection in their canon. Nattier further describes the type of community depicted in the Ugraparipṛcchā:

... he overall picture that the Ugra presents is quite clear. It describes a monastic community in which scriptures concerning the bodhisattva path were accepted as legitimate canonical texts (and their memorization a viable monastic specialty), but in which only a certain subset of monks were involved in the practices associated with the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Vehicle.

RATNARāśIVYāKARAṇA SūTRA

The Mahāyāna Ratnarāśivyākaraṇa Sūtra, which is part of the Mahāratnakūṭa Sūtra , is believed by some scholars to have a Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
origin or background, due to its specific regulations regarding giving to the Buddha and giving to the Saṃgha.

PRAJñāPāRAMITā SūTRAS

According to Joseph Walser, there is evidence that the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (25,000 lines) and the Śatasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (100,000 lines) have a connection with the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
sect, while the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (8000 lines) does not. Instead, Guang Xing assesses the view of the Buddha given in the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (8000 lines) as being that of the Mahāsāṃghikas.

BUDDHAYAśAS

The translator Buddhayaśas was a Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
monk who was known to be a Mahāyānist, and he is recorded as having learned both Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna treatises. He translated the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, the Dīrgha Āgama, and Mahāyāna texts including the Ākāśagarbha Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Sūtra (虛空藏菩薩經 Xūkōngzàng Púsà Jīng). The preface written by Buddhayaśas for his translation of the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya
Vinaya
states that the Dharmaguptakas had assimilated the Mahāyāna Tripiṭaka.

BUDDHIST CANON

The Dharmaguptakas were said to have had two extra sections in their canon:

* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Piṭaka * Mantra
Mantra
Piṭaka or Dhāraṇī Piṭaka

In the 4th century Mahāyāna abhidharma work Abhidharmasamuccaya, Asaṅga refers to the collection which contains the Āgamas as the Śrāvakapiṭaka, and associates it with the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas . Asaṅga classifies the Mahāyāna sūtras as belonging to the Bodhisattvapiṭaka, which is designated as the collection of teachings for bodhisattvas.

PARAMāRTHA

Paramārtha , a 6th-century CE Indian monk from Ujjain
Ujjain
, unequivocally associates the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school with the Mahāyāna, and portrays the Dharmaguptakas as being perhaps the closest to a straightforward Mahāyāna sect.

SEE ALSO

* Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia
Central Asia
* Schools of Buddhism * Silk Road
Silk Road
transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism

NOTES

* ^ von Le Coq, Albert. (1913). Chotscho: Facsimile-Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Königlich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan
Turfan
in Ost-Turkistan. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler-Institutes, Tafel 19. (Accessed 3 September 2016). * ^ Gasparini, Mariachiara. "A Mathematic Expression of Art: Sino-Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan
Turfan
Textile Collection in Berlin," in Rudolf G. Wagner and Monica Juneja (eds), Transcultural Studies, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, No 1 (2014), pp 134-163. ISSN 2191-6411 . See also endnote #32. (Accessed 3 September 2016.) * ^ Hansen, Valerie (2012), The Silk Road: A New History, Oxford University Press, p. 98, ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3 . * ^ Guptaka in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary * ^ Dharma
Dharma
in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary * ^ 《異部宗輪論述記》:謂佛雖在僧中所攝,然別施佛果大,非僧(果大)。於窣堵波興供養業獲廣大果。佛與二乘解脫雖一,而聖道異。無諸外道能得五通。阿羅漢身皆是無漏。餘義多同大眾部執。 * ^ A B C D Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 52 * ^ A B Williams, Paul. The Origins and Nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. 2004. p. 184 * ^ A B Hino, Shoun. Three Mountains and Seven Rivers. 2004. p. 55 * ^ A B Hino, Shoun. Three Mountains and Seven Rivers. 2004. pp. 55-56 * ^ Kieschnick, John. The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. 2003. pp. 89-90 * ^ Kieschnick, John. The Eminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese Hagiography. 1997. p. 29 * ^ Kieschnick, John. The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. 2003. pp. 91-92 * ^ A B C D Heirman, Ann; Bumbacher, Stephan Peter, eds. (2007). The spread of Buddhism. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-9004158306 . * ^ A B Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 278 * ^ "The Discovery of 'the Oldest Buddhist Manuscripts'" Review article by Enomoto Fumio. The Eastern Buddhist, Vol NS32 Issue I, 2000, pg 161 * ^ Willemen, Charles. Dessein, Bart. Cox, Collett. Sarvastivada Buddhist Scholasticism. 1997. p. 126 * ^ Yijing. Li Rongxi (translator). Buddhist Monastic Traditions of Southern Asia. 2000. p. 19 * ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 489 * ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. pp. 280-281 * ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 281 * ^ A B C Mohr, Thea; Tsedroen, Jampa, eds. (2010). Dignity & discipline : reviving full ordination for Buddhist nuns. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0861715886 . , pp. 187-189 * ^ pp. 194-195 * ^ "The Discovery of 'the Oldest Buddhist Manuscripts'" Review article by Enomoto Fumio. The Eastern Buddhist, Vol NS32 Issue I, 2000, pg 160 * ^ Richard Salomon. Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhāra: The British Library Kharosthī Fragments, with contributions by Raymond Allchin and Mark Barnard. Seattle: University of Washington Press; London: The British Library, 1999. pg 181 * ^ Presenters: Patrick Cabouat and Alain Moreau (2004). "Eurasia Episode III - Gandhara, the Renaissance of Buddhism". Eurasia. Episode 3. 11:20 minutes in. France 5 / NHK / Point du Jour International . * ^ Scharfe, Harmut. Education in Ancient India. 2002. pp. 24-25 * ^ Williams, Jane, and Williams, Paul. Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, Volume 3. 2004. p. 209 * ^ Muller, Charles. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, entry on 阿含經 * ^ Sujato Bhikkhu. "About the EA". ekottara.googlepages.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-11. * ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 6 * ^ A B Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. 2005. pp. 52-53 * ^ A B Ray, Reginald. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. 1999. p. 410 * ^ Ray, Reginald. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. 1999. p. 426 * ^ Nattier, Jan. A Few Good Men: Based on the Ugraparipṛcchā, a Mahāyāna Sūtra. 2007. pp. 46-47 * ^ Nattier, Jan. A Few Good Men: Based on the Ugraparipṛcchā, a Mahāyāna Sūtra. 2007. pp. 46 * ^ Nattier, Jan. A Few Good Men: Based on the Ugrapariprccha, a Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutra. 2007. pp. 46-47 * ^ Silk, Jonathan. The Maharatnakuta Tradition: A Study of the Ratnarasi Sutra. Volume 1. 1994. pp. 253-254 * ^ Williams, Paul. Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. 2008. p. 6 * ^ Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism
Buddhism
to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. p. 66 * ^ A B Boin-Webb, Sara (tr). Rahula, Walpola (tr). Asanga. Abhidharma
Abhidharma
Samuccaya: The Compendium of Higher Teaching. 2001. pp. 199-200 * ^ Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
and Early Indian Culture. 2005. p. 52

REFERENCES

* Foltz, Richard , Religions of the Silk Road, Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition, 2010 ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1 * Heirmann, Ann (2002). Rules for Nuns According to the Dharmaguptakavinaya. Motilal Barnasidass, Delhi. ISBN 81-208-1800-8 . * Ven. Bhikshuni Wu Yin (2001). Choosing Simplicity. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-155-3 . * Heirman, Ann (2002). Can We Trace the Early Dharmaguptakas?, T'oung Pao, Second Series 88 (4/5), 396-429 – via JSTOR (subscription required)

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