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The Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
(Sanskrit: देवी भागवतपुराण, Devī Bhāgavatapurāṇa), also known as the Shrimad Devi
Devi
Bhagvatam and the Devi
Devi
Bhagavatam, is a Sanskrit text that belongs to the Purana-genre of Hindu
Hindu
literature.[1] The text is considered a Mahapurana (major Purana) in parts of India, while others include it as one of the Upapurana (minor Purana), but all traditions consider it as an important Purana.[1]

Stone sculpture of Devi
Devi
Durga, Indian Museum, kolkata

The text consists of twelve Skandha (sections) with 318 chapters.[2] Along with Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, it is one of the most important works in Shaktism, a tradition within Hinduism
Hinduism
that reveres Devi
Devi
or Shakti (Goddess) as the primordial creator of the universe and the Brahman (ultimate truth and reality).[3][4][5] It celebrates the divine feminine as the origin of all existence, the creator, the preserver and the destroyer of everything, as well as the one who empowers spiritual liberation.[1][6] While all major Puranas
Puranas
of Hinduism mention and revere the Goddess, this text centers around her as the primary divinity.[7][8] The underlying philosophy of this text is Advaita Vedanta-style monism combined with devotional worship of Shakti
Shakti
(feminine power).[9][10][11]

Contents

1 History 2 Structure 3 Contents

3.1 Mythology: Books 1 to 6 3.2 Philosophy: Books 7 to 9

3.2.1 Devi
Devi
Gita 3.2.2 Festivals and culture

3.3 Goddess, cosmos and Dharma: Books 10 to 12

4 Reception 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 External links

History[edit]

This Purana
Purana
lists Saraswati
Saraswati
(above) as the creative aspect of the supreme Goddess, the Shakti
Shakti
of Brahma.[12]

The Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
has been variously dated.[13] A few scholars suggest an early date, such as Ramachandran who suggested that the text was composed before the 6th-century CE.[13] However, this early date has not found wide support, and most scholars date it between the 9th and the 14th century.[13][14] Rajendra Hazra suggests 11th or 12th century, while Lalye states that the text began taking form in the late centuries of the 1st millennium, was expanded over time, and its first complete version existed in the 11th century.[13][15] Tracy Pintchman dates the text to between 1000 and 1200 CE.[16] The last ten chapters (31 to 40) of the Book 7 consist of 507 verses, a part which has often circulated as an independent handout just like the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
circulates independently.[17] The handout from Book 7 of this Purana
Purana
is called Devi
Devi
Gita.[18] This handout may have been composed with the original text, or it might be a later interpolation, states C Mackenzie Brown.[18] He suggests that this portion of the text was probably composed by the 13th century and may be later but before the 16th century.[18] The Book 9 of the Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
contains many verses that reference Mlecchas (barbarians) and Yavanas (foreigners).[19] These words may just refer to hill tribes, but the details contained in the description of Mlecchas within these verses, state some scholars such as Hazra, that the writer of these parts knew about Islam
Islam
and its spread in India, leading scholars to date these parts of the ninth book to 12th to 15th century compared to the older core of the ninth book.[19] The Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is not the earliest Indian text that celebrates the divine feminine, the 6th-century Devi
Devi
Mahatmya embedded in Markandeya Purana
Markandeya Purana
asserts the goddess to be supreme,[20][21] and multiple archaeological evidence in different parts of India such as Mathura
Mathura
and Bengal
Bengal
suggests that the concept of divine feminine was in existence by about the 2nd-century CE.[22][17] Both Devi
Devi
Mahatmya and Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
have been very influential texts of the Shakta tradition, asserting the supremacy of the female and making goddess a figure of devotional (bhakti) appeal.[23] This text – along with all Puranas, all Vedas
Vedas
and the Mahabharata – is attributed to sage Veda Vyasa
Veda Vyasa
in the Hindu
Hindu
tradition. The title of the text, Devi
Devi
Bhagavata, is composed of two words, which together mean "devotee of the blessed Devi". The terms Devi
Devi
and Deva are Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terms found in Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, wherein Devi
Devi
is feminine and Deva is masculine.[24] Monier Williams translates it as "heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones".[25] Etymologically, the cognates of Devi
Devi
are Latin dea and Greek thea.[26] The term Bhagavata means "devotee of the blessed one".[27] Structure[edit] The Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
consists of 12 skandhas (sections) with 318 adhyayas (chapters).[2]

Chapters in Devibhagavata Purana[28]

Book # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total

Chapters 20 12 30 25 35 31 40 24 50 13 24 14 318

The Hindu
Hindu
tradition and the text itself asserts that it has 18,000 verses.[29] The actual text, in different versions, is close.[18] Contents[edit] The theosophy in the text, state Foulston and Abbott, is an encyclopedic mix of mythology, metaphysics and bhakti.[30] This mythology, states C Mackenzie Brown, is of the same type found in other Puranas, about the perpetual cycle of conflict between the good and the evil, the gods and the demons.[31] These legends build upon and extend the ancient Hindu
Hindu
mythology, such as those found in the Mahabharata.[32] However, this Purana's legends refocus the legends around the divine feminine, integrate a devotional theme to goddesses, and the Devi
Devi
is asserted in this text to be the eternal truth, the eternal source of all of universe, the eternal end of everything, the nirguna (without form) and the saguna (with form), the supreme unchanging reality (Purusha), the phenomenal changing reality (Prakriti), as well as the soul within each living being.[32][33][34] Mythology: Books 1 to 6[edit]

One aspect of the Goddess in the Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana. The text describes many.[35][36]

The first book (skandha) like other major Puranas, states Rocher, presents the outline, the structure of contents, and describes how in the mythical Naimisha forest, the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
was first recited among the sages.[2] It also asserts that all of Reality was initially nirguna (without form, shape or attributes; in other words, there was nothingness except Truth).[2] However, asserts the text, this nirguna Reality was a Bhagavati (woman), and she manifested herself as three Shaktis - Sattviki (truth, creative action), Rajasi (passion, aimless action) and Tamasi (delusion, destructive action).[2] The second book is short, and mythological.[2] It weaves in the characters well known in the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata, states Rocher, and introduces in the key characters that appear in remaining books of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana.[37] The third book begins the discussion of Devi
Devi
and her bhakti (devotional worship), how the Devi
Devi
created from herself the three Tridevi: Maha-saraswati to be the Shakti
Shakti
of Brahma (creator), Maha-lakshmi to be the Shakti
Shakti
of Vishnu
Vishnu
(preserver), and Maha-kali to be the Shakti
Shakti
of Shiva
Shiva
(destroyer).[37][12] The third book also weaves in legends from the well known epic the Ramayana.[37] The fourth book presents more legends, including those of interaction between Krishna
Krishna
and Shiva, but also introduces tantric themes and presents yoga meditation.[37] The fifth and sixth books continue these legends, states Rocher, with half of the chapters focussed on the greatness of Goddess, how male gods are befuddled by problems, how they run to her for help, and how she solves them because she is enlightened knowledge.[38][39] The text presents the feminine to whom all masculine deities are subordinate and dependent on.[40] Philosophy: Books 7 to 9[edit]

Bhuvaneshwari temple in Mysore Palace. Bhuvaneshwari is the supreme Goddess in Book 7 of this Purana.[41]

The seventh book of the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
shifts towards more philosophy, asserting its version of the essence of the Vedas.[42] This book contains the philosophical text called Devi
Devi
Gita, or the "Song of the Goddess".[42][43] The Goddess explains she is the Brahman that created the world, asserting the Advaita premise that spiritual liberation occurs when one fully comprehends the identity of one's soul and the Brahman.[42][44] This knowledge, asserts the Goddess, comes from detaching self from the world and meditating on one's own soul.[42][33].Chapter 28 of the seventh book contain the story of durgamasur and his annihilation by goddess Sivaa (Parvati) in her form of shakambhari. Devi
Devi
Gita[edit] The Devi
Devi
Gita, like the Bhagavad Gita, is a condensed philosophical treatise.[45] It presents the divine female as a powerful and compassionate creator, pervader and protector of the universe.[46] She is, states Brown, presented in the opening chapter of the Devi
Devi
Gita as the benign and beautiful world-mother, called Bhuvaneshvari (literally, ruler of the universe, and the word is feminine).[41][45] Thereafter, theological and philosophical teachings become the focus of the text, covering chapters 2 to 10 of the Devi
Devi
Gita (or, chapters 32 to 40 of this Purana's Book 7).[46] Some of the verses of Devi
Devi
Gita are almost identical to the Devi
Devi
Upanishad.[47]

The soul and the Goddess

[My sacred syllable ह्रीम्] transcends,[note 1] the distinction of name and named, beyond all dualities. It is whole, infinite being, consciousness and bliss. One should meditate on that reality, within the flaming light of consciousness. Fixing the mind upon me, as the Goddess transcending all space and time, One quickly merges with me by realizing, the oneness of the soul and Brahman.

Devi
Devi
Gita, Transl: Lynn Foulston, Stuart Abbott Devibhagavata Purana, Book 7[50]

The Devi
Devi
Gita frequently explains Shakta ideas by quoting from the Bhagavad Gita.[46] The Devi
Devi
is described by the text as "universal, cosmic energy" resident within each individual, weaving in the terminology of Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[46] It is suffused with Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
ideas, wherein nonduality is emphasized, all dualities are declared as incorrect, and interconnected oneness of all living being's soul with Brahman
Brahman
is held as the liberating knowledge.[51][52][53] However, adds Tracy Pintchman, Devi
Devi
Gita incorporates Tantric ideas giving the Devi
Devi
a form and motherly character rather than the gender-neutral concept of Adi Shankara's Advaita Vedanta.[54] The Bhakti
Bhakti
theology of the Devi
Devi
Gita part of this Purana
Purana
may have been influenced by the Bhagavad Gita, and with Vaishnava concepts of loving devotion to Krishna
Krishna
found in the Bhagavata Purana. All these texts highlight different types of devotion in a Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy framework.[55][56] Tamasic Bhakti
Bhakti
is one, asserts the text, where the devotee prays because he is full of anger, seeks to harm others, induce pain or jealousy to others.[56] Rajasic Bhakti
Bhakti
is one where the devotee prays not to harm others, but to gain personal advantage, fame or wealth.[55] Sattvic Bhakti
Bhakti
is the type where the devotee seeks neither advantage nor harm to others but prays to purify himself, renounce any sins and surrender to the ideas embodied as Goddess to liberate himself.[55] The Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
adds Para Bhakti
Bhakti
as the highest level of devotion, states McDaniel, where the devotee seeks neither boon nor liberation, but weeps when he remembers her because he loves the Goddess, when he feels her presence everywhere and sees the Goddess in all living beings, he is intoxicated by her ideas and presence.[55][56] Festivals and culture[edit] This seventh book, states Rocher, also includes sections on festivals related to Devi, pilgrimage information and ways to remember her.[42] Her relationship with Shiva
Shiva
and the birth of Skanda is also briefly mentioned in the 7th book.[42] The last ten chapters (31 to 40) of the Book 7 is the famous and philosophical Devi
Devi
Gita, which often circulates in the Hindu
Hindu
tradition as a separate text.[17] The eighth book of the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
incorporates one of the five requirements of Puranic-genre of Hindu
Hindu
texts, that is a theory of the geography of the earth, planets and stars, the motion of sun and moon, as well as explanation of time and the Hindu
Hindu
calendar.[57] The largest book is the 9th skandha, which is very similar in structure and content of the Prakriti-kanda of the Brahmavaivarta Purana.[58][59] Both are goddesses-focused, and discuss her theology, but have one difference.[58] The Prakriti-kanda of the Brahmavaivarta Purana
Purana
also includes many verses which praise Vishnu
Vishnu
using various names (incarnations), which re-appear in the 9th book of the Devi-bhagavata Purana
Purana
with Vishnu
Vishnu
names substituted with Devi
Devi
names (incarnations).[58] Goddess, cosmos and Dharma: Books 10 to 12[edit] The 10th book of the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is one of the shortest, and integrates manavantaras, another structural requirement for this text to be a major Purana, but wherein the Devi
Devi
is worshiped in every cosmic time cycle, because she is the greatest, she kills the evil and she nurtures the good.[58][60]Chapter 13 of the tenth book describes the glory of goddess Bhramri that how in the past she killed the demon Aruna sura. The 11th book of the text discusses Sadachara (virtues) and Dharma
Dharma
to self as an individual, as belonging to a Grama (village, community) and to a Desha (country).[58] The text praises Sruti
Sruti
and asserts it to be the authoritative source, adding that Smriti
Smriti
and Puranas
Puranas
are also sources for guidance.[58] This section is notable for adding that Tantra
Tantra
is also a source of guidance, but only if it does not conflict with the Vedas.[58] Verses in the 11th books also describe sources for Rudraksha
Rudraksha
as rosary beads, the value of Tripundra
Tripundra
mark on the forehead, fives styles of Sandhyas (reflection, meditation) and five types of Yajnas.[58] The last and 12th book of the Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
describes the Goddess as the mother of the Vedas, she as the Adya Shakti
Shakti
(primal, primordial power), and the essence of the Gayatri mantra.[61] The verses map every syllable of the Gayatri mantra
Gayatri mantra
to 1008 names of reverence in the Hindu
Hindu
tradition.[61] These names span a spectrum of historic sages, deities, musical meters, mudras and the glories of the goddesses.[61] Reception[edit] The verses and ideas in the Devi-Bhagavata Purana, state Foulston and Abbott, are built on the foundation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
wherein the nonduality and oneness of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman (soul) are synthesized.[62][42] The text makes references to the philosophy and metaphors used in the Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
tradition of Adi Shankara. However, those ideas are reformulated and centered around the Goddess in the Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana, states C Mackenzie Brown, as well as other scholars.[30][44] In Devi
Devi
Bhagavata text, states Tracy Pintchman, the Devi
Devi
is not only Brahman-Atman (soul, interconnected oneness), she is also the always-changing empirical reality (Maya).[63] The Goddess, in Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana, is both the source of self-bondage through Avidya (ignorance) and the source of self-liberation through Vidya (knowledge), state Foulston and Abbott.[30] She is identical to the Vedic metaphysical reality concept of Brahman, the supreme power, the ruler of the universe, the hero, the hidden energy, the power, the bliss innate in everything, according to the text.[62][64][65] The Devi, states Kinsley, is identified by this Purana
Purana
to be all matter, mother earth, the cosmos, all of nature including the primordial.[66] The Goddess is presented, states Brown, as "the womb of the universe", who observes the actions of her children, nurtures them to discover and realize their true nature, forgive when they make mistakes, be fearsomely terrible to the wicked that threaten her children, and be friend of all souls.[67] Cynthia Humes compares the depiction of Goddess in the 6th-century Hindu
Hindu
text Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, with that in this later Devi-Bhagavata Purana
Purana
text.[68] Both revere the feminine, states Humes, but there are some important differences.[68] Nowhere does the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya state anything negative about women, and it is explicit in asserting that "all women are portions of the Goddess".[69] By contrast, states Hume, the portrayal of women in Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is more complex.[69] It includes verses critical of the feminine, with the text stating that women behavior can be "reckless, foolish, cruel, deceitful" and the like. The Devi
Devi
Bhagavata also praises women and describes their behavior can be "heroic, gentle, tenacious, strong" and the like.[69] The Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is an important and historic Shakta Bhakti text, states June McDaniel.[55] See also[edit]

Bhagavata Purana Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana Markandeya Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Surath Garh Jungle

Notes[edit]

^ ह्रीम् is pronounced as hrīm, it is a tantric mantra beej, and it identifies a "Shakti".[48][49]

References[edit]

^ a b c Dalal 2014, p. 117. ^ a b c d e f Rocher 1986, p. 168. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 44-45, 129, 247-248 with notes 57-60. ^ John Stratton Hawley & Donna Marie Wulff 1998, pp. 6-14. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 183-188. ^ David Kinsley 1988, pp. 133-139. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel & Kathleen M. Erndl 2000, pp. 24-36, 48 (RS Sherma). ^ K P Gietz 1992, p. 330 with note 1809, 497 with note 2764. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 128-132. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 89-91, 159-161. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 142-144. ^ a b C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 49, 130, 134, 139. ^ a b c d Rocher 1986, p. 172. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel & Kathleen M. Erndl 2000, p. 139, Quote: (...) portrayals of the Goddess in the later Devi
Devi
Bhagavata (c. ninth century CE) bear crucial differences from those of the Goddess in the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya.. ^ P. G. Lalye (1973). Studies in Devī Bhāgavata. Popular Prakashan. pp. 101–105.  ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, p. 128. ^ a b c Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 1-4. ^ a b c d Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 4. ^ a b C Mackenzie Brown 1990, p. 166. ^ Collins 1988, p. 36. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 191-192. ^ John Stratton Hawley & Donna Marie Wulff 1998, p. 2, 9-10, 26 with note 2. ^ Philip Lutgendorf 2003, pp. 251-252. ^ Klostermaier 2010, p. 496. ^ Klostermaier 2010, p. 101-102, 492. ^ John Stratton Hawley & Donna Marie Wulff 1998, p. 2. ^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 94. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 168-170. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, p. 73. ^ a b c Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, p. 75. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 5-6. ^ a b Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 6-10. ^ a b Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 131-138. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel & Kathleen M. Erndl 2000, pp. 24-31. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 168-172. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 183-184. ^ a b c d Rocher 1986, p. 169. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 169-170. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 201-216. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 73-74. ^ a b Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 26-28. ^ a b c d e f g Rocher 1986, p. 170. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 1-2, 85-98. ^ a b Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 12-17. ^ a b C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 179-198. ^ a b c d Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 1-3. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 25-26, 77 with note 26. ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Douglas Renfrew Brooks (1992). Auspicious Wisdom: The Texts and Traditions of Srividya Sakta Tantrism in South India. State University of New York Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-1145-2.  ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 74-75. ^ Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 1-3, 12-17. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 9, 34, 89-90, 131-138. ^ Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 15-16. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 9-10. ^ a b c d e June McDaniel 2004, pp. 158-161. ^ a b c Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, pp. 23-25. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 170-171. ^ a b c d e f g h Rocher 1986, p. 171. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, p. 160. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 133-134. ^ a b c Rocher 1986, pp. 171-172. ^ a b Lynn Foulston & Stuart Abbott 2009, pp. 75-76. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 29-30. ^ Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 128, 131-138. ^ David Kinsley 1997, pp. 131-134. ^ David Kinsley 1988, pp. 179-180. ^ C Mackenzie Brown 1990, pp. 129-130. ^ a b Alf Hiltebeitel & Kathleen M. Erndl 2000, pp. 139-140 (Cynthia Humes). ^ a b c Alf Hiltebeitel & Kathleen M. Erndl 2000, pp. 139-142 (Cynthia Humes).

Bibliography[edit]

Collins, Charles Dillard (1988). The Iconography and Ritual of Siva at Elephanta: On Life, Illumination, and Being. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-773-0.  Philip Lutgendorf (2003). Arvind Sharma, ed. The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7.  Cheever Mackenzie Brown (1998). The Devi
Devi
Gita: The Song of the Goddess: A Translation, Annotation, and Commentary. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3939-5.  C Mackenzie Brown (1990). The Triumph of the Goddess: The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0364-8.  Dalal, Rosen (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin. ISBN 978-8184752779.  Dimmitt, Cornelia; van Buitenen, J. A. B. (2012). Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas. Temple University Press (1st Edition: 1977). ISBN 978-1-4399-0464-0.  Lynn Foulston; Stuart Abbott (2009). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-902210-43-8.  K P Gietz; et al. (1992). Epic and Puranic Bibliography (Up to 1985) Annoted and with Indexes: Part I: A - R, Part II: S - Z, Indexes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03028-1.  John Stratton Hawley; Donna Marie Wulff (1998). Devi: Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2.  Alf Hiltebeitel; Kathleen M. Erndl (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3619-7.  David Kinsley (1988). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Tradition. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-90883-3.  David Kinsley (1997). Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahavidyas. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91772-9.  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2010). Survey of Hinduism, A: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-8011-3.  Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1 & 2. Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798.  June McDaniel (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  Tracy Pintchman (2005). Guests at God's Wedding: Celebrating Kartik among the Women of Benares. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6595-0.  Tracy Pintchman (2014). Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu
Hindu
Great Goddess. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9049-5.  Tracy Pintchman (2015). The Rise of the Goddess in the Hindu Tradition. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-1618-2.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Wilson, H. H. (1864). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
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Mythology and Tradition (Volume 1: Introduction, Book I). Read Country Books (reprinted in 2006). ISBN 1-84664-664-2. 

External links[edit]

English Translation of the Devi
Devi
Bhagavata by Swami Vijnanananda Devi
Devi
Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
English translation correct IAST transliteration and glossary

v t e

Puranas

Mahapurana

Brahma Brahmanda Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Markendeya Bhavishya Vamana Vishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Varaha Vayu Linga Skanda Agni Matsya Kurma Shiva

Upapurana

Brihaddharma Devi-Bhagavata Ganesha Kalki Kalika Kapila Mudgala Narasimha Samba Saura Shivarahasya Vishnudharmottara

v t e

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Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

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Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

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Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

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Yoga
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Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

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Varna

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Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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