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The Delaware
Delaware
River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 14,119 square miles (36,570 km2) in five U.S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland
Maryland
and Delaware. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles (674 km) into Delaware
Delaware
Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May
Cape May
in New Jersey
New Jersey
and Cape Henlopen
Cape Henlopen
in Delaware. Not including Delaware
Delaware
Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles (624 km).[1][2] The Delaware
Delaware
River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition.[3] The Delaware
Delaware
River rises in two main branches that descend from the western flank of the Catskill Mountains
Catskill Mountains
in New York. The West Branch begins near Mount Jefferson in the Town of Jefferson in Schoharie County. The river's East Branch begins at Grand Gorge near Roxbury in Delaware
Delaware
County. These two branches flow west and merge near Hancock in Delaware
Delaware
County, and the combined waters flow as the Delaware
Delaware
River south. Through its course, the Delaware
Delaware
River forms the boundaries between Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York, the entire boundary between New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and most of the boundary between Delaware
Delaware
and New Jersey. The river meets tide-water at the junction of Morrisville, Pennsylvania, and Trenton, New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware. The river's navigable, tidal section served as a conduit for shipping and transportation that aided the development of the industrial cities of Trenton, Camden, and Philadelphia. The mean freshwater discharge of the Delaware
Delaware
River into the estuary of Delaware
Delaware
Bay is 11,550 cubic feet per second (327 m3/s). Before the arrival of European settlers, the river was the homeland of the Lenape
Lenape
Native Americans. They called the river Lenapewihittuk, or Lenape
Lenape
River, and Kithanne, meaning the largest river in this part of the country.[4] In 1609, the river was first visited by a Dutch East India Company expedition led by Henry Hudson. Hudson, an English navigator, was hired to find a western route to Cathay
Cathay
(present-day China), but his discoveries set the stage for Dutch colonization of North America in the 17th century. Early Dutch and Swedish settlements were established along the lower section of river and Delaware
Delaware
Bay. Both colonial powers called the river the South River, compared to the Hudson River, which was known as the North River. After the English expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland
New Netherland
colony in 1664, the river was renamed Delaware
Delaware
after Sir Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo- Powhatan
Powhatan
War.

Contents

1 Origin of the name 2 Watershed 3 Course

3.1 West Branch of the Delaware 3.2 East Branch of the Delaware 3.3 Upper Delaware
Delaware
Valley 3.4 The Minisink 3.5 Central Delaware
Delaware
Valley 3.6 The Lower Delaware
Delaware
and Tide-Water

4 History

4.1 Washington's crossing of the Delaware 4.2 Canals 4.3 Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area

5 Commerce

5.1 Wine
Wine
regions 5.2 Shipping 5.3 Bridge crossings

6 Environmental issues

6.1 New York City
New York City
water supply 6.2 Flooding 6.3 Major oil spills 6.4 Atlantic sturgeon

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Origin of the name[edit]

Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr

The Delaware
Delaware
River is named in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (1577–1618), an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo- Powhatan
Powhatan
War.[5] Lord de la Warr waged a punitive campaign to subdue the Powhatan
Powhatan
after they had killed the colony's council president, John Ratcliffe, and attacked the colony's fledgling settlements.[6][7] Lord de la Warr arrived with 150 soldiers in time to prevent colony's original settlers at Jamestown from giving up and returning to England and is credited with saving the Virginia colony.[5] The name of barony (later an earldom) is pronounced as in the current spelling form "Delaware" (/ˈdɛləwɛər/ ( listen) DEL-ə-wair)[8] and is thought to derive from French de la Guerre. It has often been reported that the river and bay received the name "Delaware" after English forces under Richard Nicolls
Richard Nicolls
expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland
New Netherland
colony in 1664.[9][10] However, the river and bay were known by the name Delaware
Delaware
as early as 1641.[11] The state of Delaware
Delaware
was originally part of the William Penn's Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
colony. In 1682, the Duke of York granted Penn's request for access to the sea and leased him the territory along the western shore of Delaware
Delaware
Bay which became known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware."[12] In 1704, these three lower counties were given political autonomy to form a separate provincial assembly, but shared its provincial governor with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
until the two colonies separated on June 15, 1776 and remained separate as states after the establishment of the United States. The name also became used as a collective name for the Lenape, a Native American people (and their language) who inhabited an area of the basins of the Susquehanna River, Delaware
Delaware
River, and lower Hudson River
Hudson River
in the northeastern United States
United States
at the time of European settlement.[13] As a result of disruption following the French & Indian War, American Revolutionary War and later Indian removals from the eastern United States, the name "Delaware" has been spread with the Lenape's diaspora to municipalities, counties and other geographical features in the American Midwest and Canada.[14] Watershed[edit] See also: List of Delaware
Delaware
River tributaries

The Delaware
Delaware
River (and Delaware
Delaware
Bay) watershed

The Delaware
Delaware
River's drainage basin has an area of 14,119 square miles (36,570 km2) and encompasses 42 counties and 838 municipalities in five U.S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware.[15]:p.9 This total area constitutes approximately 0.4% of the land mass in the United States.[15]:p.9 In 2001, the watershed was 18% agricultural land, 14% developed land, and 68% forested land. [15]:p.vi There are 216 tributary streams and creeks—an estimated 14,057 miles of streams and creeks—in the watershed.[15]:p.11,25 While the watershed is home to 4.17 million people according to the 2000 Federal Census, these bodies of water provide drinking water to 17 million people—roughly 6% of the population of the United States.[15]:p.vi,9 The waters of the Delaware
Delaware
River's basin are used to sustain "fishing, transportation, power, cooling, recreation, and other industrial and residential purposes."[15]:p.9 It is the 33rd largest river in the United States
United States
in terms of flow, but the nation's most heavily used rivers in daily volume of tonnage.[15]:p.11 The average annual flow rate of the Delaware
Delaware
is 11,700 cubic feet per second at Trenton, New Jersey.[15]:p.9 With no dams or impediments on the river's main stem, the Delaware
Delaware
is one of the few remaining large free-flowing rivers in the United States.[15]:p.11 Course[edit] West Branch of the Delaware[edit]

The headwaters of the Delaware
Delaware
River including the river's East and West Branches and other tributaries

The West Branch of the Delaware
Delaware
River (also called the Mohawk Branch) spans approximately 90 miles (140 km) from the northern Catskill Mountains to where it joins in confluence with the Delaware
Delaware
River's East Branch at Hancock, New York. The last 6 miles (9.7 km) forms part of the boundary between New York and Pennsylvania. The West Branch rises in Schoharie County, New York
Schoharie County, New York
at 1,886 feet (575 m) above sea level, near Mount Jefferson, and flows tortuously through the plateau in a deep trough. The branch flows generally southwest, entering Delaware
Delaware
County and flowing through the towns of Stamford and Delhi. In southwestern Delaware
Delaware
County it flows in an increasingly winding course through the mountains, generally southwest. At Stilesville the West Branch was impounded in the 1960s to form the Cannonsville Reservoir, the westernmost of the reservoirs in the New York City
New York City
water system. It is the most recently constructed New York City
New York City
reservoir and began serving the city in 1964. Draining a large watershed of 455 square miles (1,180 km2), the reservoir's capacity is 95.7 billion US gallons (362,000,000 m3). This water flows over halfway through the reservoir to enter the 44-mile (71 km) West Delaware
Delaware
Tunnel in Tompkins, New York. Then it flows through the aqueduct into the Rondout Reservoir, where the water enters the 85 miles (137 km) Delaware
Delaware
Aqueduct, that contributes to roughly 50% of the city's drinking water supply. At Deposit, on the border between Broome and Delaware
Delaware
counties, it turns sharply to the southeast and is paralleled by New York State Route 17. It joins the East Branch at 880 feet (270 m) above sea level at Hancock to form the Delaware. East Branch of the Delaware[edit]

The East Branch of the Delaware
Delaware
River near Margaretville, New York

Similarly, the East Branch begins from a small pond south of Grand Gorge in the town of Roxbury in Delaware
Delaware
County, flowing southwest toward its impoundment by New York City
New York City
to create the Pepacton Reservoir, the largest reservoir in the New York City
New York City
water supply system. Its tributaries are the Beaver Kill River and the Willowemoc Creek which enter into the river ten miles (16 km) before the West Branch meets the East Branch. The confluence of the two branches is just south of Hancock. Both the East Branch and West Branch of the Delaware
Delaware
River parallel each other, both flowing in a southwesterly direction. Upper Delaware
Delaware
Valley[edit]

Canoeing on the river at Hawk's Nest, New York

From Hancock, New York, the river flows between the northern Pocono Mountains in Pennsylvania, and the lowered shale beds north of the Catskills. The river flows down a broad Appalachian valley, passing Hawk's Nest overlook on the Upper Delaware
Delaware
Scenic Byway. The river flows southeast for 78 miles through rural regions along the New York- Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
border to Port Jervis
Port Jervis
and the Shawangunk Mountains. The Minisink[edit] See also: Minisink At Port Jervis, New York, it enters the Port Jervis
Port Jervis
trough. At this point, the Walpack Ridge deflects the Delaware
Delaware
into the Minisink Valley, where it follows the southwest strike of the eroded Marcellus Formation beds along the Pennsylvania– New Jersey
New Jersey
state line for 25 miles (40 km) to the end of the ridge at Walpack Bend in the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area.[16][17] The Minisink
Minisink
is a buried valley where the Delaware
Delaware
flows in a bed of glacial till that buried the eroded bedrock during the last glacial period. It then skirts the Kittatinny ridge, which it crosses at the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap, between nearly vertical walls of sandstone, quartzite, and conglomerate, and then passes through a quiet and charming country of farm and forest, diversified with plateaus and escarpments, until it crosses the Appalachian plain and enters the hills again at Easton, Pennsylvania. From this point it is flanked at intervals by fine hills, and in places by cliffs, of which the finest are the Nockamixon Rocks, 3 miles (5 km) long and above 200 feet (61 m) high. The Appalachian Trail, which traverses the ridge of Kittatinny Mountain in New Jersey, and Blue Mountain in Pennsylvania, crosses the Delaware
Delaware
River at the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap near Columbia, New Jersey. Central Delaware
Delaware
Valley[edit]

The "Falls" at Trenton

At Easton, Pennsylvania, the Lehigh River
Lehigh River
enters the Delaware. At Trenton there is a fall of 8 feet (2.4 m). The Lower Delaware
Delaware
and Tide-Water[edit]

The lower Delaware
Delaware
as viewed from New Castle, Delaware

Below Trenton the river flows between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and New Jersey before becoming a broad, sluggish inlet of the sea, with many marshes along its side, widening steadily into its great estuary, Delaware Bay. The Delaware
Delaware
River constitutes the boundary between Delaware
Delaware
and New Jersey. The Delaware- New Jersey
New Jersey
border is actually at the easternmost river shoreline within the Twelve-Mile Circle
Twelve-Mile Circle
of New Castle, rather than mid-river or mid-channel borders, causing small portions of land lying west of the shoreline, but on the New Jersey
New Jersey
side of the river, to fall under the jurisdiction of Delaware. The rest of the borders follow a mid-channel approach. History[edit]

Benjamin West's painting The Treaty of Penn with the Indians' (1771–1772), depicts the 1683 peace treaty at Shackamaxon between William Penn
William Penn
and Tamanend, the chief of the Lenape's "Turtle Clan." Voltaire referred to it as "the only treaty never sworn to and never broken."

At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the early 17th century, the area near the Delaware
Delaware
River was inhabited by the Native American Lenape
Lenape
people. They called the Delaware
Delaware
River " Lenape
Lenape
Wihittuck", which means "the rapid stream of the Lenape".[18] The Delaware
Delaware
River played a key factor in the economic and social development of the Mid-Atlantic region. In the seventeenth century it provided the conduit for colonial settlement by the Dutch (New Netherland), the Swedish (New Sweden). Beginning in 1664, the region became an English possession as settlement by Quakers established the colonies of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(including present-day Delaware) and West Jersey. In the eighteenth century, cities like Philadelphia, Camden (then Cooper's Ferry), Trenton, and Wilmington, and New Castle were established upon the Delaware
Delaware
and their continued commercial success into the present day has been dependent on access to the river for trade and power. The river provided the path for the settlement of northeastern Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley, and northwestern New Jersey
New Jersey
by German Palatine immigrants—a population that became key in the agricultural development of the region.

Washington's crossing of the Delaware[edit]

Washington Crossing the Delaware
Delaware
by Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Perhaps the most famous " Delaware
Delaware
Crossing" involved the improvised boat crossing undertaken by George Washington's army during the American Revolution's Battle of Trenton
Battle of Trenton
on the night of December 25–26, 1776, as part of a successful surprise attack on Hessian troops occupying Trenton, New Jersey.

Canals[edit]

A remaining section of the Delaware
Delaware
and Hudson Canal seen from U.S. 209 near Summitville, New York

The magnitude of the commerce of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
has made the improvements of the river below that port of great importance. Small improvements were attempted by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as early as 1771. Commerce was once important on the upper river, primarily prior to railway competition (1857).

The Delaware
Delaware
Division of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Canal, running parallel with the river from Easton to Bristol, opened in 1830. The Delaware
Delaware
and Raritan Canal, which runs along the New Jersey
New Jersey
side of the Delaware
Delaware
River from Bulls Island, New Jersey
New Jersey
to Trenton, unites the waters of the Delaware
Delaware
and Raritan rivers as it empties the waters of the Delaware
Delaware
River via the canal outlet in New Brunswick. This canal water conduit is still used as a water supply source by the State of New Jersey. The Morris Canal
Morris Canal
(now abandoned and almost completely filled in) and the Delaware
Delaware
and Hudson Canal connected the Delaware
Delaware
and Hudson rivers. The Chesapeake and Delaware
Delaware
Canal joins the waters of the Delaware with those of the Chesapeake Bay.

In the "project of 1885" the U.S. government undertook systematically the formation of a 26-foot (7.9 m) channel 600 feet (180 m) wide from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to deep water in Delaware
Delaware
Bay. The River and Harbor Act of 1899 provided for a 30-foot (9.1 m) channel 600 feet (180 m) wide from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to the deep water of the bay.[19] Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area[edit]

On the Delaware
Delaware
River, oil on canvas (circa 1861-63) by George Inness Brooklyn Museum

See also: Tocks Island Dam Controversy The Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area came about as a result of the failure of a controversial plan to build a dam on the Delaware River at Tocks Island, just north of the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap to control water levels for flood control and hydroelectric power generation. The dam would have created a 37-mile (60 km) lake in the center of present park for use as a reservoir. Starting in 1960, the present day area of the Recreation Area was acquired for the Army Corps of Engineers through eminent domain. Between 3,000 and 5,000 dwellings were demolished, including historical sites, and about 15,000 people were displaced by the project. Because of massive environmental opposition, dwindling funds, and an unacceptable geological assessment of the dam's safety, the government transferred the property to the National Park Service
National Park Service
in 1978. The National Park Service
National Park Service
found itself as the caretaker of the previously endangered territory, and with the help of the federal government and surrounding communities, developed recreational facilities and worked to preserve the remaining historical structures.[20][21] Commerce[edit] Wine
Wine
regions[edit] See also: New Jersey
New Jersey
wine and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
wine In 1984, the U.S. Department of the Treasury authorized the creation of a wine region or "American Viticultural Area" called the Central Delaware
Delaware
Valley AVA located in southeastern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New Jersey. The wine appellation includes 96,000 acres (38,850 ha) surrounding the Delaware
Delaware
River north of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Trenton, New Jersey.[22] In Pennsylvania, it consists of the territory along the Delaware
Delaware
River in Bucks County; in New Jersey, the AVA spans along the river in Hunterdon County and Mercer County from Titusville, New Jersey, just north of Trenton, northward to Musconetcong Mountain.[23] As of 2013, there are no New Jersey
New Jersey
wineries in the Central Delaware Valley AVA.[23][24] Shipping[edit]

The Delaware
Delaware
River at Camden, New Jersey, looking toward Philadelphia

Since 1941, the Delaware
Delaware
River Main Channel has been maintained at a depth of 40 ft (12 m). A 102.5-mile stretch of this federal navigation channel, from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Camden to the mouth of the Delaware
Delaware
Bay, is being deepened to 45 ft (14 m)., with a 2017 projected completion date.[25][26][27][28] As of 2011, crude oil was the largest single commodity transported on the Delaware
Delaware
River, accounting for half of all annual cargo tonnage.[27][29] Major ports and facilities along the river are the Port of Philadelphia, the Port of Camden-Gloucester, the Port of Paulsboro, the Port of Wilmington, and Delaware
Delaware
City Refinery. In 2015, the ports of Philadelphia, Camden, and Wilmington handled 100 million tons of cargo from 2,243 ship arrivals, and supported 135,000 direct or indirect jobs. The biggest category of imports was fruit, carried by 490 ships, followed by petroleum, and containers, with 410 and 381 ships, respectively. The biggest category of exports was of shipping was containers, with 470 ships. [30] Projects to dredge shipping channels to a depth of 45 feet were completed in 2016.[31][32] Bridge crossings[edit]

The Dingman's Ferry Bridge connecting Sandyston Township, in Sussex County, New Jersey
New Jersey
and Delaware
Delaware
Township in Pike County, Pennsylvania is the last privately owned toll bridge on the Delaware
Delaware
River and one of the last few in the United States.

Main article: List of crossings of the Delaware
Delaware
River The Delaware
Delaware
River is a major barrier to travel between New Jersey
New Jersey
and Pennsylvania. Most of the larger bridges are tolled only westbound, and are owned by the Delaware
Delaware
River and Bay Authority, Delaware
Delaware
River Port Authority, Burlington County Bridge Commission
Burlington County Bridge Commission
or Delaware
Delaware
River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Environmental issues[edit]

The river within the southern portion of the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area, near Worthington State Forest
Worthington State Forest
in New Jersey

A flood in Westfall, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 2006

New York City
New York City
water supply[edit] Further information: New York City
New York City
water supply system After New York City
New York City
built 15 reservoirs to supply water to the city's growing population, it was unable to obtain permission to build an additional five reservoirs along the Delaware
Delaware
River's tributaries. As a result, in 1928 the city decided to draw water from the Delaware River, putting them in direct conflict with villages and towns across the river in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
which were already using the Delaware
Delaware
for their water supply. The two sides eventually took their case to the U.S. Supreme Court, and in 1931, New York City
New York City
was allowed to draw 440 million US gallons (1,700,000 m3) of water a day from the Delaware
Delaware
and its upstream tributaries. Flooding[edit] With the failure of the dam project to come to fruition, the lack of flood control on the river left it vulnerable, and it has experienced a number of serious flooding events as the result of snow melt or rain run-off from heavy rainstorms. Record flooding occurred in August 1955, in the aftermath of the passing of the remnants of two separate hurricanes over the area within less than a week: first Hurricane Connie and then Hurricane Diane, which was, and still is, the wettest tropical cyclone to have hit the northeastern United States. The river gauge at Riegelsville, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
recorded an all-time record crest of 38.85 feet (11.84 m) on August 19, 1955. More recently, moderate to severe flooding has occurred along the river. The same gauge at Riegelsville recorded a peak of 30.95 feet (9.43 m) on September 23, 2004, 34.07 feet (10.38 m) on April 4, 2005, and 33.62 feet (10.25 m) on June 28, 2006, all considerably higher than the flood stage of 22 feet (6.7 m).[33] Since the upper Delaware
Delaware
basin has few population centers along its banks, flooding in this area mainly affects natural unpopulated flood plains. Residents in the middle part of the Delaware
Delaware
basin experience flooding, including three major floods in the three years (2004–2006) that have severely damaged their homes and land. The lower part of the Delaware
Delaware
basin from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
southward to the Delaware
Delaware
Bay is tidal and much wider than portions further north, and is not prone to river-related flooding (although tidal surges can cause minor flooding in this area). The Delaware
Delaware
River Basin Commission, along with local governments, is working to try to address the issue of flooding along the river. As the past few years have seen a rise in catastrophic floods, most residents of the river basin feel that something must be done. The local governments have worked in association with FEMA to address many of these problems, however, due to insufficient federal funds, progress is slow.[34]

Major oil spills[edit] A number of oil spills have taken place in the Delaware
Delaware
over the years.[35][36][37]

Jan 31, 1975 — around 11,172,000 US gallons (42,290 m3) of crude oil spilled from the Corinthos tanker Sep 28, 1985 — 435,000 US gallons (1,650 m3) of crude oil spilled from the Grand Eagle tanker after running aground on Marcus Hook Bar Jun 24, 1989 — 306,000 US gallons (1,160 m3) of crude oil spilled from the Presidente Rivera tanker after running aground on Claymont Shoal Nov 26, 2004 — 265,000 US gallons (1,000 m3) of crude oil spilled from the Athos 1 tanker; the tanker's hull had been punctured by a submerged, discarded anchor at the Port of Paulsboro

Atlantic sturgeon[edit] The National Marine Fisheries Service
National Marine Fisheries Service
is considering designating sixteen rivers as endangered habitat for the Atlantic Sturgeon
Atlantic Sturgeon
which would require more attention to be given to uses of the rivers that affect the fish.[38] See also[edit]

Foul Rift, rapids just south of Belvidere, New Jersey Geography of Pennsylvania List of crossings of the Delaware
Delaware
River List of rivers of Delaware List of rivers of New Jersey List of rivers of New York List of rivers of Pennsylvania Partnership for the Delaware
Delaware
Estuary Tocks Island Upper Delaware
Delaware
Scenic and Recreational River Washington Crossing (other)

A 1655 Swedish nautical chart showing part of the Delaware
Delaware
River, from when the river was part of the Swedish colony New Sweden

Notes[edit]

^ The main stem from Hancock, New York
Hancock, New York
to the head of Delaware
Delaware
Bay is 301 miles (484 km). ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived April 5, 2012, at WebCite, accessed April 1, 2011 ^ National Wildlife Federation (August 18, 2010). "America's Great Waters Coalition". Retrieved August 18, 2011.  ^ Heckewelder, John; Du Ponceau, Peter S. (1834), "Names which the Lenni Lenape
Lenape
or Delaware
Delaware
Indians, who once inhabited this country, had given to Rivers, Streams, Places, &c.", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 4: 351–396  ^ a b Pollard, Albert Frederick (1899). "West, Thomas (1577-1618)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 60. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 344–345.  ^ Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, ed. (1915). Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography. I. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. pp. 33–34.  ^ Grenier, John (2005). The First Way of War: The American War-Making of the Frontier, 1607–1814. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-521-84566-1.  ^ Random House Dictionary ^ World Digital Library. Articles about the Transfer of New Netherland on the 27th of August, Old Style, Anno 1664. Retrieved March 21, 2013 ^ Versteer, Dingman (editor). "New Amsterdam Becomes New York" in The New Netherland
New Netherland
Register. Volume 1 No. 4 and 5 (April/May 1911): 49-64. ^ Evelin, Robert. A direction for Adventurers With small stock to get two for one, and good land freely : And for Gentleman, and all Servants, Labourers, and Artificers to live plentifully, And the true Description of the healthiest, pleasantest and richest plantation of New Albion in North Virginia. (London, s.n., 1641). ^ Munroe, John A. (2006). "Chapter 3. The Lower Counties On The Delaware". History of Delaware. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware
Delaware
Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-87413-947-3.  ^ Schutt, Amy C. (2007). Peoples of the River Valleys: The Odyssey of the Delaware
Delaware
Indians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3993-5.  ^ Weslager, Charles A. (1990). The Delaware
Delaware
Indians: A History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1494-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Water Department. "Moving from Assessment to Protection…The Delaware
Delaware
River Watershed Source Water Protection Plan" (PWSID #1510001) Archived July 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (June 2007). Retrieved July 17, 2013. ^ White, Ron W.; Monteverde, Donald H. (Feb 2006). "Karst in the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area" (pdf). Unearthing New Jersey Vol. 2, No. 1. New Jersey
New Jersey
Geological Survey. Retrieved June 7, 2008.  ^ White, I.C.; Chance, H.M. (1882). The geology of Pike and Monroe counties. Second Geol. Surv. of Penna. Rept. of Progress, G6. Harrisburg. pp. 17, 73–80, 114–115.  ^ DELAWARE PLACE NAMES United States
United States
Geological Survey ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " Delaware
Delaware
River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 951.  ^ Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area (p. 7-8), Obiso, Laura, 2008. ^ Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area, njskylands.com. ^ The Wine
Wine
Institute. "American Viticultural Areas by State" Archived January 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (2008). Retrieved February 5, 2008. ^ a b Code of Federal Regulations. Section 9.49 Central Delaware Valley. (27 CFR 9.49) from Title 27 - Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms. CHAPTER I - ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY. SUBCHAPTER A - LIQUORS. PART 9 - AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS. Subpart C - Approved American Viticultural Areas. Retrieved June 30, 2013. ^ New Jersey
New Jersey
Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control. " New Jersey
New Jersey
ABC list of wineries, breweries, and distilleries" (February 5, 2013). Retrieved May 2, 2013. An analysis was done comparing a list of wineries provided by the New Jersey
New Jersey
Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control with the AVA's description in the Code of Federal Regulations. ^ United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers. Delaware
Delaware
River Main Channel Deepening. Retrieved July 25, 2013. ^ Ruch, Robert J. Ruch (Lt. Col.), District Engineer, Philadelphia District. Delaware
Delaware
River Main Channel Deepening Project Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (January 20, 2005). Retrieved July 14, 2013. ^ a b U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Delaware
Delaware
River Main Channel Deepening Project. (May 2012). Retrieved July 14, 2013. ^ Delaware
Delaware
Riverkeeper. The Delaware
Delaware
River Main Channel Deepening Project: Background Archived July 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved July 14, 2013. ^ American Waterways. New Jersey
New Jersey
A key link in the nation's import/export economy[permanent dead link]. Retrieve July 26, 2013. ^ " Delaware
Delaware
River Ports Fight For Market as Dredging Project Nears Completion - NJ Spotlight". www.njspotlight.com.  ^ "Epic Effort to Deepen Delaware
Delaware
River Shipping Channel Nears End - NJ Spotlight". www.njspotlight.com.  ^ "Murky Bottom: Will Deeper Delaware
Delaware
River Make Philly More Competitive? - NJ Spotlight". www.njspotlight.com.  ^ USGS Archived February 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. See Also: State of New Jersey: Recent flooding events in the Delaware
Delaware
River basin Archived September 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Delaware
Delaware
River Basin Commission (July 20, 2005). " Delaware
Delaware
River Basin Commission's Role in Flood Loss Reduction Efforts." Archived August 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. West Trenton, NJ. ^ "Athos 1 Oil Spill". University of Delaware
Delaware
Sea Grant Program. November 3, 2005. Retrieved April 29, 2006.  ^ "1985 Grand Eagle Oil Spill". University of Delaware
Delaware
Sea Grant Program. December 16, 2004. Retrieved April 29, 2006.  ^ "Presidente Rivera Spill – June 24, 1989". University of Delaware
Delaware
Sea Grant Program. December 8, 2004. Retrieved April 29, 2006.  ^ "Feds Move to Protect Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon
Atlantic Sturgeon
in Delaware
Delaware
River - NJ Spotlight". www.njspotlight.com. 

References[edit]

Devastation on the Delaware: Stories and Images of the Deadly Flood of 1955 (2005, Word Forge Books, Ferndale, PA) The only comprehensive documentary of this weather disaster in the Delaware
Delaware
River Valley.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Delaware
Delaware
River.

Delaware
Delaware
Riverkeeper Network Delaware
Delaware
River Basin Commission Delaware
Delaware
River Vessel Reporting System National Park Service: Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap National Recreation Area National Park Service: Upper Delaware
Delaware
Scenic & Recreational River National Park Service: Lower Delaware
Delaware
Wild & Scenic River U.S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gaging stations U.S. Geological Survey: NY stream gaging stations U.S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations

Historical content

Marine Railway and Sectional Floating Dry Dock, Delaware
Delaware
River, Philadelphia, 1893 by D.J. Kennedy, Historical Society of Pennsylvania Winter on the River Delaware, 1856. Shows "U.S.S. Prowhatan" by D.J. Kennedy, HSP "Map of the South River in New Netherland" from ca. 1639 via the World Digital Library Socioeconomic Value of the Delaware
Delaware
River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania

Encyclopedias

 "Delaware, a river of the United States". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.   " Delaware
Delaware
River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.   "Delaware. A river of the Eastern United States". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

New York City's Water Supply System

Croton reservoirs

New Croton Boyds Corner Middle Branch East Branch / Bog Brook Titicus West Branch Amawalk Muscoot Cross River Croton Falls / Diverting

Catskill / Delaware
Delaware
reservoirs

Ashokan Kensico Schoharie Roundout Neversink Pepacton Cannonsville

Controlled Lakes

Kirk Gilead Gleneida

Waterways

Croton

West Branch Middle Branch East Branch

Titicus Muscoot Cross Esopus Neversink Rondout Delaware

East Branch West Branch

Aqueducts

New Croton Croton Catskill Shandaken Delaware Neversink East Delaware West Delaware

Storage Reservoirs

Croton Distributing Highbridge Hillview Jerome Park Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Silver Lake Ridgewood Williamsbridge

Distribution Tunnels

NYC No. 1 NYC No. 2 NYC No. 3 (under construction) Richmond

Italics indicate a decommissioned site.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 33146152997605251

.