HOME
The Info List - Dehesa


--- Advertisement ---



A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system (a type of agroforestry) and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal; in Portugal, it is known as a montado.[1] Dehesas may be private or communal property (usually belonging to the municipality). Used primarily for grazing, they produce a variety of products, including non-timber forest products such as wild game, mushrooms, honey, cork, and firewood. They are also used to raise the Spanish fighting bull
Spanish fighting bull
and the Iberian pig. The main tree component is oaks, usually holm (Quercus ilex) and cork (Quercus suber). Other oaks, including melojo (Quercus pyrenaica) and quejigo (Quercus faginea), may be used to form dehesa, the species depending on geographical location and elevation. Dehesa
Dehesa
is an anthropogenic system that provides not only a variety of foods, but also wildlife habitat for endangered species such as the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
and the Spanish imperial eagle.[2] By extension, the term can also be used for this style of rangeland management on estates.[citation needed]

A dehesa in the Sierra de Aracena.

Contents

1 Nature 2 Importance and economic context 3 Extent 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography

6 External links

Nature[edit] The dehesa is derived from the Mediterranean forest ecosystem, consisting of grassland featuring herbaceous species, used for grazing cattle, goats, and sheep, and tree species belonging to the genus Quercus (oak), such as the holm oak ( Quercus ilex
Quercus ilex
sp. ballota), although other tree species such as beech and pine trees may also be present. Oaks are protected and pruned to produce acorns, which the famous black Iberian pigs feed on in the fall during the montanera.[3] Ham produced from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and air-dried at high elevations is known as Jamón ibérico
Jamón ibérico
("presunto ibérico", or "pata negra" in Portuguese), and sells for premium prices, especially if only acorns have been used for fattening. In a typical dehesa, oaks are managed to persist for about 250 years. If cork oaks are present, the cork is harvested about every 9 to 12 years, depending on the productivity of the site. The understory is usually cleared every 7 to 10 years to prevent the takeover of the woodland by shrubs of the rock rose family (Cistaceae), often referred to as "jara", or by oak sprouts. Oaks are spaced to maximize overall productivity by balancing light for the grasses in the understory, water use in the soils, and acorn production for pigs and game.[4]

Dehesa
Dehesa
in Extremadura, Spain

There is debate about the origins and maintenance of the dehesa, and whether or not the oaks can reproduce adequately under the grazing densities now prevailing.[citation needed]

A dehesa in the Montes de Toledo.

Importance and economic context[edit] The dehesa system has great economic and social importance on the Iberian Peninsula because of both the large amount of land involved and its importance in maintaining rural population levels. The major source of income for dehesa owners is usually cork, a sustainable product that supports this ancient production system and old growth oaks.[5] High end black iberian pigs and sale of hunting rights also represent significant income sources. Periodic hunts in the dehesa are known as the monteria. Groups attend a hunt at a private estate and wait at hunting spots for game to be driven to them with dogs. They usually pay well for the privilege, hunting wild boar, red deer and other species.[citation needed] The area of dehesa usually coincides with areas that could be termed "marginal" because of both their limited agricultural potential (due to the poor quality of the soil) and a lack of local industry, which results in isolated agro-industries and very low capitalization. Extent[edit] Dehesa
Dehesa
covers nearly 20,000 square kilometers on the Iberian Peninsula, mainly in:

Portugal (33% of the world's total montado area)[6][7]

Alentejo The Algarve

Spain (23% of world's total dehesa area)[8][9]

Córdoba Extremadura Salamanca Sierra Morena

Sierra Norte de Sevilla Sierra de Aracena

See also[edit]

Cabañeros National Park List of types of formally designated forests Satoyama Silvopasture Wood
Wood
pasture

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Fra. Paleo (2010) ^ Joffre et al. (1999); Huntsinger et al. (2004); McGrath (2007) ^ Parsons (1962) ^ Joffre et al. (1999) ^ McGrath (2007) ^ http://ga2014.fsc.org/opinion-analysis-74.the-dehesas-and-cork-production-today-and-its-alliance-with-fsc ^ Francisco Manuel Parejo Moorish, 2010 ^ http://ga2014.fsc.org/opinion-analysis-74.the-dehesas-and-cork-production-today-and-its-alliance-with-fsc ^ Francisco Manuel Parejo Moorish, 2010

Bibliography[edit]

Fra. Paleo, Urbano. (2010). "The dehesa/montado landscape". pp. 149–151 in Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes, eds. Bélair, C., Ichikawa, K., Wong, B.Y.L. and Mulongoy, K.J. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Technical Series no. 52. Huntsinger, Lynn; Adriana Sulak; Lauren Gwin; and Tobias Plieninger. (2004). " Oak
Oak
woodland ranchers in California and Spain: Conservation and diversification". In Advances in Geoecology, ed. S. F. A. Schnabel. Joffre, R; Rambal, S; Ratte, JP. (1999). "The dehesa system of southern Spain and Portugal as a natural ecosystem mimic," Journal of Agroforestry
Agroforestry
45(1-3): 57-79. McGrath, Susan. (2007). "Corkscrewed," Audubon magazine, January–February.

External links[edit] Media related to Dehesas at Wikimedia Commons

Plataforma integral Dehesa
Dehesa
- Página web de agentes del sector. Proyecto Biodehesa Foro encinal Acción por la dehesa Dehesas ibéricas Observatorio de la dehesa y el montado

v t e

Forestry

Outline Index Forest
Forest
areas Ministries Research institutes Colleges Journals Arbor Day

Types

Agroforestry

dehesa

Analog forestry Bamboo
Bamboo
forestry Close to nature forestry Community forestry Ecoforestry Energy forestry Mycoforestry Permaforestry Plantation forestry Social forestry Sustainable forestry Urban forestry

Ecology and management

Arboriculture Controlled burn Dendrology Ecological thinning Even-aged management Fire ecology Forest

informatics IPM inventory governance law old-growth pathology protection restoration secondary transition

Forest
Forest
certification

ATFS CFS FSC PEFC SFI SmartWood Woodland Carbon Code

Forestation

afforestation reforestation

Growth and yield modelling Horticulture

GM trees

i-Tree

urban

Silviculture Sustainable management Tree

allometry breeding

Tree
Tree
measurement

crown girth height volume

Environmental topics

Acid rain Carbon sequestration Clearcutting Deforestation Ecological services Forest
Forest
dieback Forest
Forest
fragmentation High grading Illegal logging Invasive species REDD Shifting cultivation

chitemene slash-and-burn slash-and-char svedjebruk

Timber recycling Wildfire Wilding

Industries

Coppicing Forest
Forest
farming Forest
Forest
gardening Logging Manufacturing

lumber plywood pulp and paper sawmilling

Products

biochar biomass charcoal non-timber palm oil rayon rubber tanbark

Rail transport Tree
Tree
farm

Christmas trees

Wood

engineered fuel mahogany teak

Woodworking

Occupations

Forester Arborist Bucker Choker setter Ecologist Feller Firefighter

handcrew hotshot lookout smokejumper

River driver Truck driver Log scaler Lumberjack Ranger Resin
Resin
tapper Rubber tapper Shingle weaver Timber cruiser Tree
Tree
planter Wood
Wood
process engineer

Portal Category

v t e

Non-timber forest products

Animal
Animal
products

Furs Honey Pine honey Wild game

Berries Tree
Tree
fruit

Blackberry Blueberry Bilberry Breadfruit Cocoa bean Coconut Durian Gambooge Huckleberry Jackfruit Juniper berry Lingonberry Raspberry Tamarind Woodland strawberry

Edible plants / roots

Betel Fiddlehead ferns Mahuwa flowers Sago palm

queen

Sassafras

filé powder root beer

Saw palmetto Wild ginseng

Mushrooms

Bare-toothed russula Bay bolete Birch bolete Cep Chanterelle Honey
Honey
mushroom Lingzhi Matsutake Meadow mushroom Morel Oyster mushroom Parasol mushroom Red cap Saffron milk cap Slippery jack Truffle Yellow knight

Nuts Spices

Allspice Areca nut Bay leaf Black pepper Brazil nut Cinnamon Clove Hazelnut Malva nut Nutmeg Pine nut Vanilla

Oil Waxes

Carnauba Chaulmoogra (Hydnocarpus wightiana) Cocoa butter Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Japan wax Kokum Kusum Mahuwa Nagkesar Palm (kernel) Pongamia Phulwara Pilu Sal-seed (Shorea robusta) Sandalwood Shea butter Tea-seed Tea-tree Vateria indica

Resins

Benzoin Birch tar Camphor Creosote Frankincense Gamboge Kauri Lacquer Mastic Myrrh Pine tar Pitch Rosin Turpentine Varnish

Sap / Gum / etc.

Birch syrup Chicle

chewing gum

Coconut
Coconut
sugar Date sugar Fruit syrup Gum arabic Gutta-percha Kino Latex Maple sugar Maple syrup Palm sugar Palm wine

akpeteshie ogogoro

Rubber Spruce gum

Other

Bamboo

edible musical instruments textiles

Birch bark Birch beer Cork Ferns Forage Gambier Moss Natural dyes

henna

Peat Quinine Rattan Shellac Tanbark

tannin

Thatching Tendu leaves Vegetable ivory Willow bark

Related

Dehesa
Dehesa
(Iberian agroforestry) Forest
Forest
farming / gardening Honey
Honey
hunting Indian forest produce Mushroom hunting Naval stores Permaforestry Resin
Resin
extraction Rubber tapping Wildcrafting

Forestry
Forestry
portal Trees portal Category Commons Wi

.