The DECLARATION OF ARBROATH is a declaration of Scottish independence
, made in 1320. It is in the form of a letter in
Generally believed to have been written in the
Arbroath Abbey by
Bernard of Kilwinning , then Chancellor of
* 1 Overview * 2 Debates * 3 Signatories * 4 Manuscript copies * 5 List of signatories * 6 Legacy * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 External links
The Declaration was part of a broader diplomatic campaign which
sought to assert Scotland's position as an independent kingdom,
rather than being a feudal land controlled by England's Norman kings,
as well as lift the excommunication of Robert the Bruce . The Pope
Edward I of England
The Declaration made a number of points: that
Some have interpreted this last point as an early expression of 'popular sovereignty ' – that government is contractual and that kings can be chosen by the community rather than by God alone. Modern Scottish nationalists point to the “Declaration" as evidence of the long-term persistence of the Scots as a distinct national community, giving a very early date for the emergence of nationalism . However "the overwhelming majority of academics challenge this vision. Scholars point out that definitions change with time. The meaning ascribed to words similar to nation during the ancient and medieval periods was often quite different than it is today."
It has also been argued that the Declaration was not a statement of
popular sovereignty (and that its signatories would have had no such
concept) but a statement of royal propaganda supporting Bruce's
faction. A justification had to be given for the rejection of King
John Balliol in whose name
William Wallace and
Andrew de Moray had
rebelled in 1297. The reason given in the Declaration is that Bruce
was able to defend
“ To this man, in as much as he saved our people, and for upholding our freedom, we are bound by right as much as by his merits, and choose to follow him in all that he does. ”
Whatever the true motive, the idea of a contract between King and people was advanced to the Pope as a justification for Bruce's coronation whilst John de Balliol still lived in Papal custody.
There are 39 names—eight earls and thirty one barons —at the
start of the document, all of whom may have had their seals appended,
probably over the space of some weeks and months, with nobles sending
in their seals to be used. On the extant copy of the Declaration there
are only 19 seals, and of those 19 people only 12 are named within the
document. It is thought likely that at least 11 more seals than the
original 39 might have been appended. The Declaration was then taken
to the papal court at Avignon by Bishop Kininmund, Sir Adam Gordon and
Sir Odard de Maubuisson. The most-cited passages of the
Declaration, translated from the
The Pope heeded the arguments contained in the Declaration, influenced by the offer of support from the Scots for his long-desired crusade if they no longer had to fear English invasion. He exhorted Edward II in a letter to make peace with the Scots, but the following year was again persuaded by the English to take their side and issued six bulls to that effect.
On 1 March 1328 the new
English king , Edward III signed a peace
The original copy of the Declaration that was sent to Avignon is
lost. A copy of the Declaration survives among Scotland's state
papers, held by the National Archives of
“ ...for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself. ”
LIST OF SIGNATORIES
Listed below are the signatories of the
Declaration of Arbroath
The declaration itself is written in Latin. It uses the Latin versions of the signatories' titles, and in some cases the spelling of names has changed over the years. This list generally uses the titles of the signatories' biographies.
US Senate Resolution 155 of 10 November 1997 states that the Declaration of Arbroath, the Scottish Declaration of Independence , was signed on April 6, 1320 and the American Declaration of Independence was modeled on that inspirational document. However, although this influence is accepted by some historians , it is disputed by others. Even advocates of the link concede that it is speculative and not based on any verifiable sources.
* v * t * e
First War of Scottish Independence
* First Berwick * Dunbar * Lanark * Stirling Bridge * Falkirk * Roslin * Happrew * Stirling Castle * Methven * Dalrigh * Turnberry * Loch Ryan * Glen Trool * Loudoun Hill * Slioch * Inverurie * Buchan * Pass of Brander * Bannockburn * Campaign in Ireland * Moiry Pass * Connor * Kells * Skerries * Skaithmuir * Second Berwick * Faughart * Myton * Arbroath Declaration * The Great Raid of 1322 * Old Byland * Corbeil Treaty * Stanhope Park * Edinburgh-Northampton Treaty
* v * t * e
Second War of Scottish Independence
* Wester Kinghorn * Dupplin Moor * Annan * Dornock * Halidon Hill * Boroughmuir * Culblean * Neville\'s Cross * Nisbet Moor (1355) * Berwick
* ^ Scott 1999 , p. 196.
* ^ A B C Barrow 1984 .
* ^ A B Lynch 1992 .
* ^ McLean 2005 , p. 247.
* ^ Mark Bevir, ed. (2010). Encyclopedia of Political Theory. SAGE
Publications. p. 921. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ Kellas 1998 , p. 35.
* ^ Fugelso, Karl (2007). Memory and medievalism. D.S. Brewer. p.
138. ISBN 978-1-84384-115-9 .
* ^ McCracken-Flesher, Caroline (2006). Culture, nation, and the
new Scottish parliament. Bucknell University Press. p. 246. ISBN
* ^ Robert Allan Houston; William Knox; National Museums of
* Barrow, G. W. S. (1984). Robert the Bruce and the Scottish Identity. Saltire Society. ISBN 978-0-85411-027-8 . * Kellas, James G. (1998). The politics of nationalism and ethnicity. Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-312-21553-8 . * Lynch, Michael (1992). Scotland: A New History. Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-9893-1 . * McLean, Iain (2005). State of the Union: Unionism and the Alternatives in the United Kingdom Since 1707. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925820-8 . * Scott, Ronald McNair (1999). Robert the Bruce: King of Scots. Canongate Books. ISBN 978-0-86241-616-4 .