Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a
living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about
death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide,
homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or trauma resulting
in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin
to decompose shortly after death.
Death – particularly the death of humans – has commonly been
considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the
being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds
with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, necrophobia,
anxiety, sorrow, grief, emotional pain, depression, sympathy,
compassion, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the
idea of an afterlife, and also hold the idea of reward or judgement
and punishment for past sin.
2 Associated terms
4.2 Problems of definition
10 Society and culture
12 In biology
12.1 Natural selection
Evolution of aging
Evolution of aging and mortality
13 Religious views
Philosophy of death
15 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
The word death comes from
Old English dēaþ, which in turn comes from
Proto-Germanic *dauþuz (reconstructed by etymological analysis). This
comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process,
act, condition of dying".
The concept and symptoms of death, and varying degrees of delicacy
used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous
scientific, legal, and socially acceptable terms or euphemisms for
death. When a person has died, it is also said they have passed away,
passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other socially
accepted, religiously specific, slang, and irreverent terms. Bereft of
life, the dead person is then a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of
remains, and when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton. The terms
carrion and carcass can also be used, though these more often connote
the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead
person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of
"decease", as in the deceased; another noun form is decedent. The
ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the
neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains".
A dead Eurasian magpie
Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive
all calamities, but eventually dies due to causes relating to old age.
Animal and plant cells normally reproduce and function during the
whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from
deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular
functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality
means that cells are naturally sentenced to stable and long-term loss
of living capacities, even despite continuing metabolic reactions and
viability. In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all
the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while
around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that
take place daily (Hayflick & Moody, 2003).
Almost all animals who survive external hazards to their biological
functioning eventually die from biological aging, known in life
sciences as "senescence". Some organisms experience negligible
senescence, even exhibiting biological immortality. These include the
jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, and the planarian.
Unnatural causes of death include suicide and homicide. From all
causes, roughly 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of
these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in
industrialized countries—such as the United States, the United
Kingdom, and Germany—the rate approaches 90%, i.e., nearly nine out
of ten of all deaths are related to senescence.
Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event:
conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible.
Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death
depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs. In
general, clinical death is neither necessary nor sufficient for a
determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs
determined to be brain dead can be pronounced legally dead without
clinical death occurring. As scientific knowledge and medicine
advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes
World Health Organization
World Health Organization estimated number of deaths per million
persons in 2012
Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no
longer alive are:
Respiratory Arrest (no breathing)
Cardiac Arrest (no pulse)
Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after
Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion
of the body
Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death. This
is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature
Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff (Latin rigor) and
difficult to move or manipulate
Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied
by a strong, unpleasant odor.
Problems of definition
Main article: Medical definition of death
A flower, a skull and an hourglass stand for life, death and time in
this 17th-century painting by Philippe de Champaigne
French – 16th-/17th-century ivory pendant, Monk and Death, recalling
mortality and the certainty of death (Walters Art Museum)
The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the
phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines
death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases.
One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from
life. As a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment at
which life ends. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as
cessation of life functions is often not simultaneous across organ
systems. Such determination therefore requires drawing precise
conceptual boundaries between life and death. This is difficult, due
to there being little consensus on how to define life. This general
problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the
context of medicine.
It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness. When
consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One
of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which
are alive but probably not conscious (for example, single-celled
organisms). Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has
many different definitions given by modern scientists, psychologists
and philosophers. Additionally, many religious traditions, including
Abrahamic and Dharmic traditions, hold that death does not (or may
not) entail the end of consciousness. In certain cultures, death is
more of a process than a single event. It implies a slow shift from
one spiritual state to another.
Other definitions for death focus on the character of cessation of
something.[clarification needed] In this context "death" describes
merely the state where something has ceased, for example, life. Thus,
the definition of "life" simultaneously defines death.
Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of a human's death
have been subjective, or imprecise.
Death was once defined as the
cessation of heartbeat (cardiac arrest) and of breathing, but the
development of CPR and prompt defibrillation have rendered that
definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be
restarted. Events which were causally linked to death in the past no
longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or
lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of life
support devices, organ transplants and artificial pacemakers.
Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors
and coroners usually turn to "brain death" or "biological death" to
define a person as being dead; people are considered dead when the
electrical activity in their brain ceases. It is presumed that an end
of electrical activity indicates the end of consciousness. Suspension
of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs
during certain sleep stages, and especially a coma. In the case of
sleep, EEGs can easily tell the difference.
The category of "brain death" is seen as problematic by some scholars.
For instance, Dr. Franklin Miller, senior faculty member at the
Department of Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, notes: "By the
late 1990s... the equation of brain death with death of the human
being was increasingly challenged by scholars, based on evidence
regarding the array of biological functioning displayed by patients
correctly diagnosed as having this condition who were maintained on
mechanical ventilation for substantial periods of time. These patients
maintained the ability to sustain circulation and respiration, control
temperature, excrete wastes, heal wounds, fight infections and, most
dramatically, to gestate fetuses (in the case of pregnant "brain-dead"
Those people maintaining that only the neo-cortex of the brain is
necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical
activity should be considered when defining death. Eventually it is
possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and
irreversible loss of cognitive function, as evidenced by the death of
the cerebral cortex. All hope of recovering human thought and
personality is then gone given current and foreseeable medical
technology. At present, in most places the more conservative
definition of death – irreversible cessation of electrical
activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the
neo-cortex – has been adopted (for example the Uniform
Death Act in the United States). In 2005, the Terri
Schiavo case brought the question of brain death and artificial
sustenance to the front of American politics.
Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be
complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while
certain drugs, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, or hypothermia can suppress or
even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. Because of this,
hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at
widely separated intervals under defined conditions.
See also: Legal death
The death of a person has legal consequences that may vary between
different jurisdictions. A death certificate is issued in most
jurisdictions, either by a doctor, or by an administrative office upon
presentation of a doctor's declaration of death.
See also: Premature burial
Antoine Wiertz's painting of a man buried alive
There are many anecdotal references to people being declared dead by
physicians and then "coming back to life", sometimes days later in
their own coffin, or when embalming procedures are about to begin.
From the mid-18th century onwards, there was an upsurge in the
public's fear of being mistakenly buried alive, and much debate
about the uncertainty of the signs of death. Various suggestions were
made to test for signs of life before burial, ranging from pouring
vinegar and pepper into the corpse's mouth to applying red hot pokers
to the feet or into the rectum. Writing in 1895, the physician
J.C. Ouseley claimed that as many as 2,700 people were buried
prematurely each year in
England and Wales, although others estimated
the figure to be closer to 800.
In cases of electric shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for an
hour or longer can allow stunned nerves to recover, allowing an
apparently dead person to survive. People found unconscious under icy
water may survive if their faces are kept continuously cold until they
arrive at an emergency room. This "diving response", in which
metabolic activity and oxygen requirements are minimal, is something
humans share with cetaceans called the mammalian diving reflex.
As medical technologies advance, ideas about when death occurs may
have to be re-evaluated in light of the ability to restore a person to
vitality after longer periods of apparent death (as happened when CPR
and defibrillation showed that cessation of heartbeat is inadequate as
a decisive indicator of death). The lack of electrical brain activity
may not be enough to consider someone scientifically dead. Therefore,
the concept of information-theoretic death has been suggested as a
better means of defining when true death occurs, though the concept
has few practical applications outside the field of cryonics.
There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back
to life, but with limited success. In science fiction scenarios
where such technology is readily available, real death is
distinguished from reversible death.
List of causes of death by rate
List of causes of death by rate and List of preventable
causes of death
The leading cause of human death in developing countries is infectious
disease. The leading causes in developed countries are atherosclerosis
(heart disease and stroke), cancer, and other diseases related to
obesity and aging. By an extremely wide margin, the largest unifying
cause of death in the developed world is biological aging, leading
to various complications known as aging-associated diseases. These
conditions cause loss of homeostasis, leading to cardiac arrest,
causing loss of oxygen and nutrient supply, causing irreversible
deterioration of the brain and other tissues. Of the roughly 150,000
people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die of
age-related causes. In industrialized nations, the proportion is
much higher, approaching 90%. With improved medical capability,
dying has become a condition to be managed. Home deaths, once
commonplace, are now rare in the developed world.
Americans smoking in 1910.
Tobacco smoking caused an estimated 100
million deaths in the 20th century.
In developing nations, inferior sanitary conditions and lack of access
to modern medical technology makes death from infectious diseases more
common than in developed countries. One such disease is tuberculosis,
a bacterial disease which killed 1.8M people in 2015. Malaria
causes about 400–900M cases of fever and 1–3M deaths annually.
AIDS death toll in
Africa may reach 90–100M by 2025.
Jean Ziegler (
Special Reporter on the
Right to Food, 2000—Mar 2008), mortality due to malnutrition
accounted for 58% of the total mortality rate in 2006. Ziegler says
worldwide approximately 62M people died from all causes and of those
deaths more than 36M died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in
Tobacco smoking killed 100 million people worldwide in the 20th
century and could kill 1 billion people around the world in the
21st century, a
World Health Organization
World Health Organization report warned.
Many leading developed world causes of death can be postponed by diet
and physical activity, but the accelerating incidence of disease with
age still imposes limits on human longevity. The evolutionary cause of
aging is, at best, only just beginning to be understood. It has been
suggested that direct intervention in the aging process may now be the
most effective intervention against major causes of death.
Selye proposed a unified non-specific approach to many causes of
death. He demonstrated that stress decreases adaptability of an
organism and proposed to describe the adaptability as a special
resource, adaptation energy. The animal dies when this resource is
exhausted. Selye assumed that the adaptability is a finite supply,
presented at birth. Later on, Goldstone proposed the concept of a
production or income of adaptation energy which may be stored (up to a
limit), as a capital reserve of adaptation. In recent works,
adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the
"dominant path" in the model of adaptation. It is demonstrated that
oscillations of well-being appear when the reserve of adaptability is
In 2012, suicide overtook car crashes for leading causes of human
injury deaths in the U.S., followed by poisoning, falls and
murder. Causes of death are different in different parts of the
world. In high-income and middle income countries nearly half up to
more than two thirds of all people live beyond the age of 70 and
predominantly die of chronic diseases. In low-income countries, where
less than one in five of all people reach the age of 70, and more than
a third of all deaths are among children under 15, people
predominantly die of infectious diseases.
An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination or an obduction, is
a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human
corpse to determine the cause and manner of a person's death and to
evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually
performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist.
An autopsy is portrayed in The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, by
Autopsies are either performed for legal or medical purposes. A
forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a
criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to
find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or
uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further
classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those
where the body is dissected and an internal examination is conducted.
Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in
some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is generally
reconstituted by sewing it back together.
Autopsy is important in a
medical environment and may shed light on mistakes and help improve
A "necropsy" is an older term for a postmortem examination,
unregulated, and not always a medical procedure. In modern times the
term is more often used in the postmortem examination of the corpses
Main article: Cryonics
Cryonics (from Greek κρύος 'kryos-' meaning 'icy cold') is the
low-temperature preservation of animals and humans who cannot be
sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and
resuscitation may be possible in the future.
Cryopreservation of people or large animals is not reversible with
current technology. The stated rationale for cryonics is that people
who are considered dead by current legal or medical definitions may
not necessarily be dead according to the more stringent
information-theoretic definition of death. It is proposed that
cryopreserved people might someday be recovered by using highly
Some scientific literature supports the feasibility of
cryonics. Many other scientists regard cryonics with
skepticism. By 2015, more than 300 people have undergone
cryopreservation procedures since cryonics was first proposed in
Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan,
especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of
aging. Average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents
and age or lifestyle-related afflictions such as cancer, or
cardiovascular disease. Extension of average lifespan can be achieved
by good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking.
Maximum lifespan is also determined by the rate of aging for a species
inherent in its genes. Currently, the only widely recognized method of
extending maximum lifespan is calorie restriction. Theoretically,
extension of maximum lifespan can be achieved by reducing the rate of
aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by
molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues.
A United States poll found that religious people and irreligious
people, as well as men and women and people of different economic
classes have similar rates of support for life extension, while
Africans and Hispanics have higher rates of support than white
people. 38 percent of the polled said they would desire to have
their aging process cured.
Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists
known as "biomedical gerontologists". They try to understand the
nature of aging and they develop treatments to reverse aging processes
or to at least slow them down, for the improvement of health and the
maintenance of youthful vigor at every stage of life. Those who take
advantage of life extension findings and seek to apply them upon
themselves are called "life extensionists" or "longevists". The
primary life extension strategy currently is to apply available
anti-aging methods in the hope of living long enough to benefit from a
complete cure to aging once it is developed.
"One of medicine's new frontiers: treating the dead", recognizes that
cells that have been without oxygen for more than five minutes
die, not from lack of oxygen, but rather when their oxygen supply
is resumed. Therefore, practitioners of this approach, e.g., at the
Science institute at the University of Pennsylvania,
"aim to reduce oxygen uptake, slow metabolism and adjust the blood
chemistry for gradual and safe reperfusion."
Before about 1930, most people in Western countries died in their own
homes, surrounded by family, and comforted by clergy, neighbors, and
doctors making house calls. By the mid-20th century, half of all
Americans died in a hospital. By the start of the 21st century,
only about 20 to 25% of people in developed countries died outside a
medical institution. The shift away from dying at home,
towards dying in a professionalized medical environment, has been
termed the "Invisible Death". The "Invisible Death" process was
extremely slow and infinitesimal. It took many years to shift to this
new location where dying was commonly taking place outside the
Society and culture
Death and culture
Death and culture and
Human skull symbolism
The regent duke Charles (later king Charles IX of Sweden) insulting
the corpse of Klaus Fleming. Albert Edelfelt, 1878.
Dead bodies can be mummified either naturally, as this one from
Guanajuato, or by intention, as those in ancient Egypt.
In society, the nature of death and humanity's awareness of its own
mortality has for millennia been a concern of the world's religious
traditions and of philosophical inquiry. This includes belief in
resurrection or an afterlife (associated with Abrahamic religions),
reincarnation or rebirth (associated with Dharmic religions), or that
consciousness permanently ceases to exist, known as eternal oblivion
(associated with atheism).
Commemoration ceremonies after death may include various mourning,
funeral practices and ceremonies of honouring the deceased. The
physical remains of a person, commonly known as a corpse or body, are
usually interred whole or cremated, though among the world's cultures
there are a variety of other methods of mortuary disposal. In the
English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include
rest in peace, or its initialism RIP.
Death is the center of many traditions and organizations; customs
relating to death are a feature of every culture around the world.
Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the
afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death. The
disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last
offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies
often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. This is not a
unified practice; in Tibet, for instance, the body is given a sky
burial and left on a mountain top. Proper preparation for death and
techniques and ceremonies for producing the ability to transfer one's
spiritual attainments into another body (reincarnation) are subjects
of detailed study in Tibet.
Mummification or embalming is also
prevalent in some cultures, to retard the rate of decay.
Legal aspects of death are also part of many cultures, particularly
the settlement of the deceased estate and the issues of inheritance
and in some countries, inheritance taxation.
Gravestones in Kyoto, Japan
Capital punishment is also a culturally divisive aspect of death. In
most jurisdictions where capital punishment is carried out today, the
death penalty is reserved for premeditated murder, espionage, treason,
or as part of military justice. In some countries, sexual crimes, such
as adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious
crimes such as apostasy, the formal renunciation of one's religion. In
many retentionist countries, drug trafficking is also a capital
offense. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption
are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world
courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as
cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny.
Death in warfare and in suicide attack also have cultural links, and
the ideas of dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, mutiny punishable
by death, grieving relatives of dead soldiers and death notification
are embedded in many cultures. Recently in the western world, with the
increase in terrorism following the September 11 attacks, but also
further back in time with suicide bombings, kamikaze missions in World
War II and suicide missions in a host of other conflicts in history,
death for a cause by way of suicide attack, and martyrdom have had
significant cultural impacts.
Suicide in general, and particularly euthanasia, are also points of
cultural debate. Both acts are understood very differently in
different cultures. In Japan, for example, ending a life with honor by
seppuku was considered a desirable death, whereas according to
traditional Christian and Islamic cultures, suicide is viewed as a
Death is personified in many cultures, with such symbolic
representations as the Grim Reaper, Azrael, the
In Brazil, a human death is counted officially when it is registered
by existing family members at a cartório, a government-authorized
registry. Before being able to file for an official death, the
deceased must have been registered for an official birth at the
cartório. Though a Public Registry Law guarantees all Brazilian
citizens the right to register deaths, regardless of their financial
means, of their family members (often children), the Brazilian
government has not taken away the burden, the hidden costs and fees,
of filing for a death. For many impoverished families, the indirect
costs and burden of filing for a death lead to a more appealing,
unofficial, local, cultural burial, which in turn raises the debate
about inaccurate mortality rates.
Talking about death and witnessing it is a difficult issue with most
cultures. Western societies may like to treat the dead with the utmost
material respect, with an official embalmer and associated rites.
Eastern societies (like India) may be more open to accepting it as a
fait accompli, with a funeral procession of the dead body ending in an
open air burning-to-ashes of the same.
Consciousness after death
Much interest and debate surround the question of what happens to
one's consciousness as one's body dies. The belief in the permanent
loss of consciousness after death is often called eternal oblivion.
Belief that the stream of consciousness is preserved after physical
death is described by the term afterlife.
After death the remains of an organism become part of the
biogeochemical cycle. Animals may be consumed by a predator or a
Organic material may then be further decomposed by
detritivores, organisms which recycle detritus, returning it to the
environment for reuse in the food chain, where these chemicals may
eventually end up being consumed and assimilated into the cells of a
living organism. Examples of detritivores include earthworms, woodlice
and dung beetles.
Microorganisms also play a vital role, raising the temperature of the
decomposing matter as they break it down into yet simpler molecules.
Not all materials need to be decomposed fully. Coal, a fossil fuel
formed over vast tracts of time in swamp ecosystems, is one example.
Main articles: Competition (biology), Natural selection, and
Contemporary evolutionary theory sees death as an important part of
the process of natural selection. It is considered that organisms less
adapted to their environment are more likely to die having produced
fewer offspring, thereby reducing their contribution to the gene pool.
Their genes are thus eventually bred out of a population, leading at
worst to extinction and, more positively, making the process possible,
referred to as speciation. Frequency of reproduction plays an equally
important role in determining species survival: an organism that dies
young but leaves numerous offspring displays, according to Darwinian
criteria, much greater fitness than a long-lived organism leaving only
Main article: Extinction
A dodo, the bird that became a byword in the English language for the
extinction of a species
Extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of
taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally
considered to be the death of the last individual of that species
(although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before
this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large,
determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done
retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus
taxa, where species presumed extinct abruptly "reappear" (typically in
the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. New species
arise through the process of speciation, an aspect of evolution. New
varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and
exploit an ecological niche – and species become extinct when they
are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against
Evolution of aging
Evolution of aging and mortality
Evolution of aging
Inquiry into the evolution of aging aims to explain why so many living
things and the vast majority of animals weaken and die with age
(exceptions include Hydra and the already cited jellyfish Turritopsis
dohrnii, which research shows to be biologically immortal). The
evolutionary origin of senescence remains one of the fundamental
puzzles of biology.
Gerontology specializes in the science of human
Organisms showing only asexual reproduction (e.g. bacteria, some
protists, like the euglenoids and many amoebozoans) and unicellular
organisms with sexual reproduction (colonial or not, like the
Pandorina and Chlamydomonas) are "immortal" at some
extent, dying only due to external hazards, like being eaten or
meeting with a fatal accident. In multicellular organisms (and also in
multinucleate ciliates), with a Weismannist development, that is,
with a division of labor between mortal somatic (body) cells and
"immortal" germ (reproductive) cells, death becomes an essential part
of life, at least for the somatic line.
Volvox algae are among the simplest organisms to exhibit that
division of labor between two completely different cell types, and as
a consequence include death of somatic line as a regular, genetically
regulated part of its life history.
Death is an important subject of religious doctrine.
See also: Anussati § The ten recollections
In Buddhist doctrine and practice, death plays an important role.
Awareness of death was what motivated Prince Siddhattha to strive to
find the "deathless" and finally to attain enlightenment. In Buddhist
doctrine, death functions as a reminder of the value of having been
born as a human being. Being reborn as a human being is considered the
only state in which one can attain enlightenment, therefore death
helps remind oneself that one should not that for granted. The belief
in rebirth among Buddhists does not necessarily remove death anxiety,
since all existence in the cycle of rebirth is considered filled with
suffering, and being reborn many times does not necessarily mean that
Death is part of several key Buddhist tenets, such as the Four Noble
Truths and dependent origination.
Philosophy of death
The Triumph of Death, painting of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1562)
In paleontology, the discovery of funeral rites is an important factor
in determining the degree of social awakening of a hominid.
This awareness of death  is an engine of social cohesion (uniting
to resist disasters and enemies) and action (to do something to leave
a trace). It is an important element of metaphysical  reflection.
This is also what gives the symbolic power to acts such as homicide
The Enlightenment in Europe, prompting the mastery of nature, suggests
the emergence of a rule of the degradation of the body of man.
According to Plato, death is the separation of soul and body. Finally
freed from its fleshly prison, in this view, the immortal soul can
freely reach the sky of Ideas and Eternity, the domain of
philosophers. (cf. Phaedo) 
According to Epicurus, death is nothing because "as we exist death is
not, and when death is we are not.
Death is, therefore, no relation
either to the living or to the dead, given that it is nothing for the
former, and the latter are not." (Letter to Menoeceus).
Jankélévitch, in La mort, (7) offers a reflection on the death
from a grammatical point of view: "
Death in the third person is the
death – in – general, abstract and anonymous death" ( this is the
impersonal death), "the first person is certainly a source of anxiety
[...] In first person, death is a mystery for me and my very
intimately, that is to say, in my nothingness" (the death of "me"),
"there is the intermediate and special case of the second person;
between the death of another, which is far and indifferent, and
death-esteem, which is even our being, there is a proximity of the
death of close" (this is the death of "you").
Day of Judgment
Day of the Dead
List of deaths by year
Survivalism (life after death)
Taboo on the dead
^ Zimmerman, Leda (19 October 2010). "Must all organisms age and
die?". Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Engineering.
Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 5 February
^ "carbonQ1". reptools.rutgers.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
^ "Death". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on
13 October 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
^ "Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)". Jellyfishfacts.net.
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^ a b c d e Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "
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