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DAVID (/ˈdeɪvᵻd/ ; Hebrew : דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian Dāwîḏ (Dawith) (help ·info ); ISO 259-3 Dawid; Ancient Greek : Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin : Davidus, David; Gəˁəz : Dawit) was, according to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah , reigning in c. 1010–970 BCE.

Depicted as a valorous warrior of great renown, a poet, and musician credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms
Psalms
, KING DAVID is viewed in biblical sources as a righteous and effective king both in battle and in providing civil and criminal justice. He is described as a man after God
God
's own heart in 1 Samuel 13:14 and Acts 13:22.

The Hebrew prophets regarded him as the ancestor of the future messiah. The New Testament
New Testament
says he was an ancestor of Jesus
Jesus
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biblical account

* 1.1 Family * 1.2 Narrative

* 2 David
David
in history, archeology and literature * 3 David
David
as Psalmist * 4 Rabbinic Judaism

* 5 Christianity
Christianity

* 5.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 6 Islam
Islam

* 7 Modern art and literature

* 7.1 Literature * 7.2 Film * 7.3 Music * 7.4 Musical theater * 7.5 Television * 7.6 Playing cards

* 8 Image gallery * 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Citations * 10.2 Bibliography

* 11 Further reading * 12 External links

BIBLICAL ACCOUNT

FAMILY

Samuel
Samuel
anoints David, Dura Europos , Syria
Syria
, 3rd century CE Saul threatening David, by José Leonardo Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron
. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor , 1866

The first book of Samuel
Samuel
portrays David
David
as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse
Jesse
of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet
Nitzevet
daughter of Adael. When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail
Abigail
. The Book of Ruth (possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite.

David
David
is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage . He is described as having eight wives : Michal , the second daughter of King Saul ; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail
Abigail
the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal ; Maachah , daughter of Talmai , king of Geshur ; Haggith ; Abital ; Eglah ; and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
.

The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and concubines . In Hebron
Hebron
, David
David
had six sons: Amnon , by Ahinoam ; Daniel , by Abigail
Abigail
; Absalom , by Maachah ; Adonijah , by Haggith ; Shephatiah , by Abital ; and Ithream , by Eglah . By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua , Shobab, Nathan and Solomon
Solomon
. David's sons born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of his other wives included Ibhar , Elishua, Eliphelet , Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada. Jerimoth , who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar , by Maachah, is a key character in the incident of her rape by one of her half-brothers.

NARRATIVE

God
God
is angered when Saul , Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill all of the Amalekites , but to destroy also their confiscated property. Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel
Samuel
to anoint David, the youngest son of Jesse
Jesse
of Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, to be king instead.

God
God
sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul's courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David
David
enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, who from time to time is troubled by an evil spirit.

War comes between Israel and the Philistines
Philistines
, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling . Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father.

Saul sets David
David
over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?"). Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan , one of those who loves David
David
, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob , where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath , the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David
David
sees that he is in danger there. He goes next to the cave of Adullam , where his family join him. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab , but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth , and then to Keilah , where is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David
David
leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants. From there he takes refuge in the mountains in the Wilderness of Ziph .

Jonathan meets with David
David
again and confirms his loyalty to David
David
as the future king. The people of Ziph notify Saul that David
David
is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David
David
in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David
David
is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi . Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David
David
and enters the cave where, as it happens, David
David
and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his needs". David
David
realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David
David
as his successor. Anglican theologian Donald Spence Jones holds that, "one of the most beautiful characteristics of David’s many-sided nature was this enduring loyalty to Saul and to Saul’s house".

Alternatively, or (in the opinion of some commentators) subsequently, Saul and David
David
were reconciled following a similar occurrence when David
David
was able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lay asleep. In this account ( 1 Samuel 26), David
David
is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David
David
declines, saying he will not "stretch out hand against the Lord’s anointed". David
David
shows, by removing Saul's spear, that he had chance to take Saul's life but did not do so. Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David, blesses him and promises that he "will do great things and surely triumph". David
David
prays that his own protection will be like his protection of Saul. The New King James Version and the New International Version both identify this episode as a second reconciliation between Saul and David
David
(with no account of any intervening dispute) but theologian Albert Barnes says the incident "is of a nature unlikely to have occurred more than once".

This, it seems, was their last interview: after this they saw each other no more.

A different tradition is recalled in 1 Samuel 27:1-4, namely that Saul ceased to pursue David
David
because David
David
took refuge a second time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Robert Jamieson, in the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary , suggests that Saul and David had "become irreconcilable" despite the reconciliations described in 1 Samuel
Samuel
24 and 1 Samuel 26. Achish permits David
David
to reside in Ziklag , close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the Geshurites , the Girzites and the Amalekites , but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the Kenites . Achish believes that David
David
had become a loyal vassal , but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath and at their request Achish instructs David
David
to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines
Philistines
march against Saul. David returns to Ziklag. Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle, and David is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth
Ish-Bosheth
is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth
Ish-Bosheth
is murdered.

With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron
Hebron
and David
David
is anointed king over all of Israel. He conquers Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
to the city, intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of his sons. Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David
David
stating, "your throne shall be established forever." David
David
wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites , Edomites , Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah pay tribute after being defeated.

During a siege to conquer the Ammonite capital of Rabbah , David remains in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and seduces Bathsheba
Bathsheba
, wife of Uriah the Hittite . She becomes pregnant and David
David
calls Uriah back from the battle to rest, hoping that Uriah will go home to his wife and the child can be passed off as Uriah's. However, Uriah does not go home, and instead, David
David
conspires to have Uriah killed in the heat of battle. In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him stating, "the sword shall never (i.e. for the remainder of David's life) depart from your house". David
David
acknowledges that he has sinned .

In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son Absalom rebels. The rebellion ends at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim . Absalom's forces are routed, and Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to David's order. Joab
Joab
was the commander of David's army. David
David
laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!" When David
David
is old and bedridden, Adonijah , his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king. Bathsheba
Bathsheba
and Nathan go to David
David
and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son Solomon
Solomon
as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down. David
David
dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years, and on his deathbed counsels Solomon
Solomon
to walk in the ways of God
God
and to take revenge on his enemies.

DAVID IN HISTORY, ARCHEOLOGY AND LITERATURE

The Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan Stele

The Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan Stele
, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד‎, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". Other scholars, such as Anson Rainey
Anson Rainey
have challenged this reading, but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
which traced its ancestry to a founder named David. The Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele
from Moab , dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David
David
in two places, although this is less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan inscription.

Apart from these, all that is known of David
David
comes from the biblical literature. The Books of Samuel were substantially composed during the time of King Josiah at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
(6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE, although further editing was done even after then – the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel
Samuel
in 1 Samuel
Samuel
9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period". The authors and editors of Samuel
Samuel
drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" ( 1 Samuel 16:14-2 Samuel
Samuel
5:10), and the "succession narrative" (2 Samuel
Samuel
9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2). The Book of Chronicles , which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel
Samuel
as its source.

The authors and editors of Samuel
Samuel
and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David
David
that is concrete and undisputed. The archaeological evidence indicates that in the 10th century, the time of David, Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was no more than a small village; over the following century it slowly evolved from a highland chiefdom to a kingdom, but always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north. The Biblical evidence likewise indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him negid, for example, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than melek, meaning "king"; the Biblical David
David
sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around Hebron
Hebron
.

Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. The late John Bright , in his History of Israel (1981), takes Samuel at face value. Donald B. Redford , however, sees all reconstructions from biblical sources for the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
period as examples of "academic wishful thinking". Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative: "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel
Samuel
and I Kings." Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David
City of David
, Khirbet Qeiyafa
Khirbet Qeiyafa
, Tel Dan , Tel Rehov , Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
can be described as a "state in development".

Some studies of David
David
have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David
David
as a lifelong vassal of Achish , the Philistine king of Gath; Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel
Samuel
those chapters which describe David
David
as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and makes it his capital. Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
at Rhodes College
Rhodes College
and author of King David: A Biography, states the belief that David
David
actually came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons. Matteo Rosselli , The triumphant David.

Critical Bible
Bible
scholarship holds that the biblical account of David's rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.

Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and Neil Asher Silberman reject the idea that David
David
ruled over a united monarchy, suggesting instead that he ruled only as a chieftain over the southern kingdom of Judah, much smaller than the northern kingdom of Israel at that time. They posit that Israel and Judah were still polytheistic in the time of David
David
and Solomon, and that much later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs. They note a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel.

Jacob L. Wright , Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
at Emory University, has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods.

DAVID AS PSALMIST

David
David
praying, The art Bible
Bible
(1896)

While almost half of the Psalms
Psalms
are headed "A Psalm of David" (though the phrase can also be translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life (e.g., Psalms
Psalms
3 , 7 , 18 , 34 , 51 , 52 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 59 , 60 , 63 and 142 ), the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David
David
with certainty.

Psalm 34 is attributed to David
David
on the occasion of his escape from the Abimelech (king) Achish by pretending to be insane. According to the narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David
David
to depart, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"

RABBINIC JUDAISM

David
David
is an important figure in Rabbinic Judaism . Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David
David
was raised as the son of his father Jesse
Jesse
and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school.

David's adultery with Bathsheba
Bathsheba
was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King. However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David
David
expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God
God
ultimately forgave David
David
and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
but would not remove their sins from Scripture.

According to midrashim , Adam
Adam
gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David. Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi , David
David
was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot
Shavuot
(Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.

CHRISTIANITY

KING DAVID THE PROPHET

King David
David
in Prayer, by Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)

HOLY MONARCH, PROPHET, REFORMER, SPIRITUAL POET Bethlehem
Bethlehem
is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David
David
points out Christ, the Good Shepherd ; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds ; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel , and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion . Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah
Messiah
." In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. not in itself a new idea, but content and significance were greatly enlarged by him". The linking of David
David
to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse
Jesse
, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus.

Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet
Prophet
and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord ), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus . He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord .

MIDDLE AGES

Coat of arms attributed to King David
David
by mediaeval heralds (identical to the arms of Ireland )

In European Christian culture
Christian culture
of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, David
David
was made a member of the Nine Worthies , a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry . His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David
David
in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.

David
David
was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David
David
was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers. The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him. Likewise, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne
Charlemagne
himself occasionally used the name of David
David
as his pseudonym.

ISLAM

Main article: David
David
in Islam
Islam

David
David
( Arabic
Arabic
داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in Islam
Islam
as one of the major prophets sent by God
God
to guide the Israelites . David
David
is mentioned several times in the Quran
Quran
, often with his son Solomon
Solomon
. The actual Arabic
Arabic
equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd. In the Qur'an: David
David
killed Goliath (2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David
David
killed Goliath, God
God
granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (38:20). David
David
was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (38:26) and God
God
further gave David
David
sound judgment (21:78; 37:21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms
Psalms
, regarded as books of divine wisdom (4:163; 17:55). The birds and mountains united with David
David
in uttering praise to God
God
(21:79; 34:10; 38:18), while God
God
made iron soft for David
David
(34:10), God
God
also instructed David
David
in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (21:80); an indication of the first use of Wrought iron , this knowledge gave David
David
a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron -armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David
David
gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (21:78) and David
David
judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David
David
did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba
Bathsheba
, Muslims reject this narrative.

Muslim
Muslim
tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting . Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms
Psalms
as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.

MODERN ART AND LITERATURE

LITERATURE

Literary works about David
David
include:

* 1681–82 Dryden 's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David
David
as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion
Monmouth Rebellion
(1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis . * 1893 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
used the story of David
David
and Bathsheba as the main structure for the Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
story The Adventure of the Crooked Man . The betrayal of the Crooked Man is paralleled with David's betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win Bathsheba. * 1928 Elmer Davis
Elmer Davis
's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the Biblical story of David, casting David
David
as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David
David
claimed the credit; and Joab
Joab
, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead. * 1936 William Faulkner
William Faulkner
's Absalom, Absalom!
Absalom, Absalom!
refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon . * 1939 In Agatha Christie 's novel/play And Then There Were None (also known as Ten Little Indians), one character compares his own predicament to the story of David
David
and Uriah. * 1941 In Frans G. Bengtsson 's historical novel The Long Ships
The Long Ships
, a Christian missionary is hosted by the early Danish King Harald Bluetooth and his son Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
and recounts to them the life of King David
David
including the story of Absalom 's rebellion—a sensitive subject since the Danish King suspects his own son of intending to launch a rebellion. * 1946 Gladys Schmitt 's novel David
David
the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic , but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character. * 1966 Juan Bosch , a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career. * 1970 Dan Jacobson 's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon. * 1972 Stefan Heym wrote The King David
David
Report in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time. * 1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann 's Biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim ), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it. * 1980 Malachi Martin
Malachi Martin
's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David
David
relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon. * 1984 Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on David
David
called God
God
Knows , published by Simon these are some of the best-known:

* 1917 In The Chosen Prince , directed by William V. Mong * 1951 In David
David
and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
, directed by Henry King , Gregory Peck played David. * 1959 In Solomon
Solomon
and Sheba , directed by King Vidor
King Vidor
, Finlay Currie played an aged King David. * 1961 In A Story of David , directed by Bob McNaught, Jeff Chandler played David. * 1985 In King David
David
, directed by Bruce Beresford , Richard Gere played King David. (This film was poorly received by critics and failed at the box office.) * 1996 In Dave and the Giant Pickle * 1997 In Bible Collection * 2016 In Of Kings and Prophets

MUSIC

* 14TH/15TH CENTURY Josquin des Prez 's Planxit autem, David
David
is a polyphonic setting of 2 Samuel, chapter one verses 17–27, David's lamentation for the dead Saul and Jonathan. His Absalon fili mi is a polyphonic lamentation from David's perspective on the death of his son. * 1738 George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel
's oratorio Saul features David
David
as one of its main characters. * 1921 Arthur Honegger 's oratorio Le Roi David
David
with a libretto by René Morax , instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire. * 1984 "Flash of the Blade" by Iron Maiden mentions David
David
in the line "You're St. George
St. George
or you're David
David
and you always killed the beast". * 1984 Leonard Cohen 's song "Hallelujah " has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David
David
played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses. * 1989 The Pixies
The Pixies
' song "Dead " on Doolittle is a retelling of David's adultery and repentance. * 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon , performed by Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David
David
("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs"). * 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting\'s the album The Soul Cages , explores David's obsession with Bathsheba
Bathsheba
from David's perspective. * 1999 Eric Whitacre
Eric Whitacre
composed a choral piece, "When David
David
Heard", chronicling the death of Absalom and David's grief over losing his son. * 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat
Little Feat
album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge . * 2009 "The Angel of Death Came to David's Room" by MewithoutYou is in reference to King David. * 2011 Your Heart by Chris Tomlin
Chris Tomlin
on Music inspired by The Story is a prayer of David.

MUSICAL THEATER

* 1997 King David
David
, a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Alan Menken .

TELEVISION

* 1995 The episode "Little Big Dog " of the PBS series Wishbone recounts the story of David, his favor with Saul, and his triumphant battle over Goliath. * The season two episode of Xena: Warrior Princess called "Giant Killer " features David
David
and his killing of Goliath. * 1996 In Series 2, Episode 7 of the science fiction show Dominion , titled "Lay Thee Before Kings ," David
David
is shown slaying Goliath with the unwitting support of the Archangels Gabriel
Gabriel
and Michael. * 1997 TV film David, with Nathaniel Parker portraying King David. * 1997 Max von Sydow portrayed an older King David
David
in the TV film Solomon, a sequel to David. * 2009 The NBC series Kings , explicitly designed as a modern retelling of the David
David
story. * 2013 Langley Kirkwood portrayed King David
David
in the miniseries The Bible
Bible
produced by Mark Burnett and Roma Downey .

PLAYING CARDS

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of Spades
King of Spades
was often known as "David".

IMAGE GALLERY

*

Miniature from the Paris Psalter : David
David
in the robes of a Byzantine emperor. *

Medieval manuscript: The funeral of King David. *

Russian icon , iconostasis of Kizhi
Kizhi
monastery , 18th century: St. David, Prophet
Prophet
and King. *

Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, c. 1650: Saul and David. *

Arnold Zadikow , 1930: The Young David
David
displayed in the entrance of Berlin's Jewish Museum from 1933 until its loss during the Second World War.

SEE ALSO

* Saints portal * Judaism portal * Christianity
Christianity
portal * Islam
Islam
portal * Latter Day Saints portal

* David
David
in Islam
Islam
* Large Stone Structure * David\'s Tomb * David\'s Mighty Warriors * Midrash Shmuel (aggadah) * Kings of Israel and Judah
Kings of Israel and Judah
* Davidic line
Davidic line
* David and Jonathan

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ Carr, David
David
M. & Conway, Colleen M., An Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts, John Wiley Revised edition (1999), ISBN 978-1880317549 * ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1–3 * ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
5:14–16 * ^ 1 Sam 13:8-14 * ^ 1 Sam 15:1-28 * ^ 1 Sam 16:1-13 * ^ 1 Sam 16:14-23 * ^ 1 Sam 17:1-11 * ^ 1 Sam 17:17-37 * ^ 1 Sam 17:38-39 * ^ 1 Sam 17:49-50 * ^ 1 Sam 17:55-56 * ^ 1 Sam 18:5-9 * ^ 1 Samuel 21:10-11 * ^ 1 Samuel 22:1 * ^ 1 Samuel 22:5 * ^ 1 Samuel 23:1-13 * ^ 1 Samuel 23:14 * ^ 1 Samuel 23:27-29 * ^ 1 Samuel 24:1-22 * ^ Ellicott\'s Commentary for Modern Readers on 1 Samuel 24, accessed 25 May 2017 * ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F. , Cambridge Bible
Bible
for Schools and Colleges on 1 Samuel, Note VII, accessed 31 May 2017 * ^ 1 Samuel 26:11 * ^ 1 Samuel 26:25, NIV text * ^ 1 Samuel 26 in NKJV and 1 Samuel 26 in NIV * ^ Barnes\' Notes on 1 Samuel 26, accessed 27 May 2017 * ^ Barnes\' Notes on 1 Samuel 26, accessed 27 May 2017 * ^ cf. 1 Samuel 21:10-15 * ^ Jamieson, R., Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel
Samuel
27, accessed 31 May 2017 * ^ 1 Sam 29:1-11 * ^ 1 Samuel 30:1 * ^ 1 Sam 31:1-13 * ^ 2 Sam 2:1-4 * ^ 2 Sam 2:8-11 * ^ 2 Sam 5:1-3 * ^ 2 Sam 5:6-7 * ^ 2 Sam 6:1-12 * ^ 2 Sam 7:1-13 * ^ 2 Sam 7:16 * ^ 2 Sam 8:1-14 * ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
11:2-5 * ^ 2 Sam 11:14-17 * ^ 2 Sam 12:8-10 * ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
12:13 * ^ 2 Sam 15:1-12 * ^ 2 Sam 18:1-15 * ^ 2 Sam 18:33 * ^ 1 Kings 1:1-5 * ^ 1 Kings 1:11-31 * ^ 2 Sam 5:4 * ^ 1 Kings 2:1-9 * ^ A B Pioske 2015 , p. 180. * ^ Pioske, Daniel (2015-02-11). "4: David's Jerusalem: The Early 10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community". David\'s Jerusalem: Between Memory and History. Routledge Studies in Religion. 45. Routledge (published 2015). p. 180. ISBN 9781317548911 . Retrieved 2016-09-17. the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an eponymous David
David
or the kingdom of Judah. * ^ Rainey, Anson F., The 'House of David' and the House of the Deconstructionists. Biblical Archaeology Review 20/6 (November/December 1994): p. 47 * ^ Pioske 2015 , p. 210,fn.18. * ^ Auld 2003 , p. 219. * ^ Knight 1991 , p. 853. * ^ McKenzie 2004 , p. 32. * ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 232-233. * ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2007 , p. 26-27. * ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 220-221. * ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 pp.301–307, p.301. * ^ Thompson TL. "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine". * ^ Mazar A. Archaeology and the Biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
(PDF). * ^ Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001.Review of Baruch Halpern\'s "David\'s Secret Demons". * ^ Finkelstein and Silberman, " David
David
and Solomon", 2006. See review "Archaeology" magazine. * ^ A B Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. * ^ Baden, Joel (2014-07-29). The Historical David: The Real Life of an Invented Hero. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780062188373 . * ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) . "8. In the Shadow of Empire (842-720 BCE)". The Bible
Bible
Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts (First Touchstone Edition 2002 ed.). New York: Touchstone. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1 . Archaeologically and historically, the redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy based in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and suggests that David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
were, in political terms, little more than hill country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly local level, restricted to the hill country. * ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible
Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology\'s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6 . the narrative of the Bible
Bible
was uniquely suited to further the religious reform and territorial ambitions of Judah. * ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible
Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology\'s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6 . we still have no hard archaeological evidence--despite the unparalleled biblical description of its grandeur--that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was anything more than a modest highland village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam. * ^ "Table Two" (Finklestein and Silberman, 2002: 131). * ^ Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous." (Finkelstein and Silberman 2002: 181). * ^ "The Bible
Bible
and Interpretation". bibleinterp.com. * ^ Commentary on II Samuel
Samuel
22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. , 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-06808-5 * ^ Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament, Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan:Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-40200-X * ^ 1 Samuel 21:15 * ^ "DAVID - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. * ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin. pp. 107a. * ^ Zohar Bereishis 91b * ^ "David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online * ^ John Corbett (1911) King David
David
The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company) * ^ McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 101. * ^ Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. * ^ Lindsay of the Mount, Sir David
David
(1542). Lindsay of the Mount Roll. * ^ A B Garipzanov, Ildar H. The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751-877). BRILL. pp. 128, 225. ISBN 9004166696 . * ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr. (1997). Imagining History at the Crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. p. 528. * ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, Wheeler, David * ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Dawud * ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of David * ^ O'Kane, Martin (1999). "The Biblical King David
David
and His Artistic and Literary Afterlives". In Exum, Jo Cheryl. Beyond the Biblical Horizon: The Bible
Bible
and the Arts. p. 86. ISBN 9004112901 . Retrieved 15 August 2015. * ^ Gilbert, Matthew (3 October 2015). "\'The Secret Chord\' by Geraldine Brooks". Boston Globe. Retrieved 4 October 2015. * ^ "G. F. Handel\'s Compositions". The Handel Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2013. * ^ "Mad About You". Sting.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ "Lyrics Database". Little Feat
Little Feat
website. Retrieved 2017-07-11. * ^ "snopes.com: Four Kings in Deck of Cards". snopes.com. * ^ "Courts on playing cards", by David
David
Madore, with illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Auld, Graeme (2003). "1 & 2 Samuel". In James D. G. Dunn and John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110 . * Bergen, David
David
T. (1996). 1, 2 Samuel. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 9780805401073 . * Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "Introduction to the Historical Books". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803 . * Coogan, Michael David
David
(2007). "Cultural Contexts: The Ancient Near East and Israel". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803 . * Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2007). David
David
and Solomon: In Search of the Bible\'s Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743243636 . * Gordon, Robert (1986). I & II Samuel, A Commentary. Paternoster Press. ISBN 9780310230229 . * Halpern, Baruch (2000). "David". In Freedman, David
David
Noel; Allen C., Myers. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032 . * Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4 . * Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible
Bible
writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK. * Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm (1964). I & II Samuel, A Commentary (trans. from German 1960 2nd ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664223182 . * Tsumura, David
David
Toshio (2007). The First book of Samuel. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802823595 . * Breytenbach, Andries (2000). "Who Is Behind The Samuel Narrative?". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill. ISBN 9004118713 . * Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in its Context Oxford University Press * Dick, Michael B (2004). "The History of "David's Rise to Power" and the Neo-Babylonian Succession Apologies". In Bernard Frank Batto and Kathryn L. Roberts. David
David
and Zion: biblical studies in honor of J.J.M. Roberts. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060927 . * Eynikel, Erik (2000). "The Relation Between the Eli Narrative and the Ark Narratives". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill. ISBN 9004118713 . * Halpern, Baruch (2001). David\'s secret demons: messiah, murderer, traitor, king. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802827975 . * Jones, Gwilym H (2001). "1 and 2 Samuel". In John Barton and John Muddiman. The Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005 . * Klein, R.W. (2003). "Samuel, books of". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The international standard Bible
Bible
encyclopedia. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844 . * Knight, Douglas A (1995). "Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomists". In James Luther Mays, David
David
L. Petersen and Kent Harold Richards. Old Testament Interpretation. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567292896 . * Knight, Douglas A (1991). "Sources". In Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737 . * McKenzie, Steven L. (2004). Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I & II Chronicles. Abingdon Press. * Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel\'s Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0 . * Pioski, Daniel (2015). David\'s Jerusalem: Between Memory and History. Routledge. * Pfoh, Emanuel (2016). The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Routledge. * Rosner, Steven (2012). A Guide to the Psalms
Psalms
of David. Outskirts Press. * Schleffer, Eben (2000). "Saving Saul from the Deuteronomist". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill. * Soggin, Alberto (1987). Introduction to the Old Testament. Westminster John Knox Press. * Spieckerman, Hermann (2001). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Leo G. Perdue. The Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible. Blackwell. * Van Seters, John (1997). In search of history: historiography in the ancient world and the origins of biblical history. Eisenbrauns. * Walton, John H (2009). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Andrew E. Hill, John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Zondervan.

FURTHER READING

* Alexander, David; Alexander, Pat, eds. (1983). Eerdmans' handbook to the Bible
Bible
(. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-3486-8 . * Bright, John (1981). A history of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-21381-2 . * Bruce, F. F. (1963). Israel and the Nations. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. * Harrison, R.K. (1969). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. * Kidner, Derek (1973). The Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-868-8 . * Noll, K. L. (1997). The faces of David. Sheffield: Sheffield Acad. Press. ISBN 1-85075-659-7 . * Thompson, J.A. (1986). Handbook of life in Bible
Bible
times. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-949-8 . * Green, Adam
Adam
(2007). King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah. Cambridge, UK: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830741 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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David
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