DAVID (/ˈdeɪvᵻd/ ; Hebrew : דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian
Dāwîḏ (Dawith) (help ·info );
ISO 259-3 Dawid; Ancient Greek
: Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin : Davidus, David; Gəˁəz : Dawit) was,
according to the
Hebrew Bible , the second king of the United Kingdom
of Israel and Judah , reigning in c. 1010–970 BCE.
Depicted as a valorous warrior of great renown, a poet, and musician
credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of
Psalms , KING DAVID is viewed in biblical sources as a righteous and
effective king both in battle and in providing civil and criminal
justice. He is described as a man after
God 's own heart in 1 Samuel
13:14 and Acts 13:22.
The Hebrew prophets regarded him as the ancestor of the future
New Testament says he was an ancestor of
* 1 Biblical account
* 1.1 Family
* 1.2 Narrative
David in history, archeology and literature
David as Psalmist
* 7 Modern art and literature
* 7.1 Literature
* 7.2 Film
* 7.3 Music
* 7.4 Musical theater
* 7.5 Television
* 7.6 Playing cards
* 8 Image gallery
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Citations
* 10.2 Bibliography
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Samuel anoints David,
Dura Europos ,
Syria , 3rd century CE
Saul threatening David, by
José Leonardo Study of King
Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron . Depicts Sir Henry Taylor , 1866
The first book of
David as the youngest of the eight
Jesse of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the
Bible, but the
Talmud identifies her as
Nitzevet daughter of Adael.
When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was
made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters,
Abigail . The
Book of Ruth (possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his
ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite.
David is described as cementing his relations with various political
and national groups through marriage . He is described as having
eight wives :
Michal , the second daughter of King
Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of
Nabal ; Maachah
, daughter of
Talmai , king of
Eglah ; and
Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and
concubines . In
David had six sons:
Amnon , by
Daniel , by
Absalom , by
Adonijah , by
Shephatiah , by
Abital ; and
Ithream , by
Eglah . By Bathsheba, his
Shammua , Shobab, Nathan and
Solomon . David's sons born in
Jerusalem of his other wives included
Ibhar , Elishua,
Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada.
Jerimoth , who is not
mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his
sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar , by Maachah, is a key
character in the incident of her rape by one of her half-brothers.
God is angered when
Saul , Israel's king, unlawfully offers a
sacrifice and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill
all of the Amalekites , but to destroy also their confiscated
property. Consequently, he sends the prophet
Samuel to anoint David,
the youngest son of
Bethlehem , to be king instead.
God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul's courtiers recommend
that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech,
and brave in battle. So
David enters Saul's service as one of the
royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, who from
time to time is troubled by an evil spirit.
War comes between Israel and the
Philistines , and the giant Goliath
Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single
combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers
serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing
the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills
Goliath with his sling
Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father.
David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his
Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the
Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan , one of
those who loves
David , warns him of his father's schemes and David
flees. He goes first to Nob , where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech
and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath , the Philistine city of
Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King
Achish there. Achish's
servants or officials question his loyalty, and
David sees that he is
in danger there. He goes next to the cave of
Adullam , where his
family join him. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of
Moab , but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the
Forest of Hereth , and then to
Keilah , where is involved in a
further battle with the Philistines.
Saul plans to besiege
that he can capture David, so
David leaves the city in order to
protect its inhabitants. From there he takes refuge in the mountains
in the Wilderness of Ziph .
Jonathan meets with
David again and confirms his loyalty to
the future king. The people of Ziph notify
David is taking
refuge in their territory,
Saul seeks confirmation and plans to
David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted
by a renewed Philistine invasion and
David is able to secure some
Ein Gedi . Returning from battle with the Philistines,
Saul heads to
Ein Gedi in pursuit of
David and enters the cave where,
as it happens,
David and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his
David realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is
not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe and
Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to
Saul as the
king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no
malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and
David as his successor. Anglican theologian
Donald Spence Jones holds
that, "one of the most beautiful characteristics of David’s
many-sided nature was this enduring loyalty to
Saul and to Saul’s
Alternatively, or (in the opinion of some commentators) subsequently,
David were reconciled following a similar occurrence when
David was able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and
remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his
guards lay asleep. In this account (
1 Samuel 26),
David is advised by
Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but
saying he will not "stretch out hand against the Lord’s anointed".
David shows, by removing Saul's spear, that he had chance to take
Saul's life but did not do so.
Saul confesses that he has been wrong
to pursue David, blesses him and promises that he "will do great
things and surely triumph".
David prays that his own protection will
be like his protection of Saul. The
New King James Version and the New
International Version both identify this episode as a second
David (with no account of any
intervening dispute) but theologian Albert Barnes says the incident
"is of a nature unlikely to have occurred more than once".
This, it seems, was their last interview: after this they saw each
other no more.
A different tradition is recalled in
1 Samuel 27:1-4, namely that
Saul ceased to pursue
David took refuge a second time
with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Robert Jamieson, in the
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary , suggests that
Saul and David
had "become irreconcilable" despite the reconciliations described in 1
Samuel 24 and
1 Samuel 26.
David to reside in
close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids
against the Geshurites , the Girzites and the Amalekites , but leads
Achish to believe he is attacking the
Israelites in Judah, the
Jerahmeelites and the Kenites .
Achish believes that
David had become
a loyal vassal , but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords
of Gath and at their request
David to remain behind
to guard the camp when the
Philistines march against Saul. David
returns to Ziklag. Jonathan and
Saul are killed in battle, and David
is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son
anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until
Ish-Bosheth is murdered.
With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to
David is anointed king over all of Israel. He conquers
Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings
Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant to the city, intending to build a temple for
God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple
would be built by one of his sons. Nathan also prophesies that God
has made a covenant with the house of
David stating, "your throne
shall be established forever."
David wins more victories over the
Philistines, while the
Edomites , Amalekites, Ammonites and
Aram-Zobah pay tribute after being defeated.
During a siege to conquer the Ammonite capital of
Rabbah , David
Jerusalem and seduces
Bathsheba , wife of Uriah the Hittite
. She becomes pregnant and
David calls Uriah back from the battle to
rest, hoping that Uriah will go home to his wife and the child can be
passed off as Uriah's. However, Uriah does not go home, and instead,
David conspires to have Uriah killed in the heat of battle. In
response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him
stating, "the sword shall never (i.e. for the remainder of David's
life) depart from your house".
David acknowledges that he has sinned
In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son
Absalom rebels. The
rebellion ends at the battle of the
Wood of Ephraim . Absalom's forces
are routed, and
Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of
a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to David's order.
Joab was the
commander of David's army.
David laments the death of his favourite
son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died
instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!" When
David is old and
Adonijah , his eldest surviving son and natural heir,
declares himself king.
Bathsheba and Nathan go to
David and obtain
his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son
Solomon as king, according to
David's earlier promise, and the revolt of
Adonijah is put down.
David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years, and on his
Solomon to walk in the ways of
God and to take
revenge on his enemies.
DAVID IN HISTORY, ARCHEOLOGY AND LITERATURE
Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan Stele , an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus
in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory
over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד, bytdwd,
which most scholars translate as "House of David". Other scholars,
Anson Rainey have challenged this reading, but it is likely
that this is a reference to a dynasty of the
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah which
traced its ancestry to a founder named David. The
Mesha Stele from
Moab , dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the
David in two places, although this is less certain than the
mention in the
Tel Dan inscription.
Apart from these, all that is known of
David comes from the biblical
Books of Samuel were substantially composed during the
time of King
Josiah at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during
Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), and substantially complete by
about 550 BCE, although further editing was done even after then –
the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to
Samuel in 1
Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian
or Hellenistic period". The authors and editors of
Samuel drew on
many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the
"history of David's rise" (
1 Samuel 16:14-2
Samuel 5:10), and the
"succession narrative" (2
Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2). The Book
of Chronicles , which tells the story from a different point of view,
was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses
The authors and editors of
Samuel and Chronicles did not aim to
record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and
desirable, and for this reason there is little about
David that is
concrete and undisputed. The archaeological evidence indicates that
in the 10th century, the time of David, Judah was sparsely inhabited
Jerusalem was no more than a small village; over the following
century it slowly evolved from a highland chiefdom to a kingdom, but
always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel
to the north. The Biblical evidence likewise indicates that David's
Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls
him negid, for example, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than
melek, meaning "king"; the Biblical
David sets up none of the complex
bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of
volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his
small home-area around
Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available.
The late John Bright , in his History of Israel (1981), takes Samuel
at face value.
Donald B. Redford , however, sees all reconstructions
from biblical sources for the
United Monarchy period as examples of
"academic wishful thinking".
Thomas L. Thompson rejects the
historicity of the biblical narrative: "The history of Palestine and
of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever
political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of
Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for
historicizing readings of the stories of I-II
Samuel and I Kings."
Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological
findings, like those in
City of David
City of David ,
Khirbet Qeiyafa ,
Tel Dan ,
Tel Rehov , Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United
Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is
unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to
Mazar, based on archeological evidences, the
United Monarchy can be
described as a "state in development".
Some studies of
David have been written:
Baruch Halpern has pictured
David as a lifelong vassal of
Achish , the Philistine king of Gath;
Israel Finkelstein and
Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the
oldest and most reliable section of
Samuel those chapters which
David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who
Jerusalem and makes it his capital. Steven McKenzie,
Associate Professor of the
Hebrew Bible at
Rhodes College and author
of King David: A Biography, states the belief that
David actually came
from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who
murdered his opponents, including his own sons. Matteo Rosselli
, The triumphant David.
Bible scholarship holds that the biblical account of David's
rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary
charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.
Israel Finkelstein and
Neil Asher Silberman reject the idea that
David ruled over a united monarchy, suggesting instead that he ruled
only as a chieftain over the southern kingdom of Judah, much smaller
than the northern kingdom of Israel at that time. They posit that
Israel and Judah were still polytheistic in the time of
Solomon, and that much later seventh-century redactors sought to
portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order
to serve contemporary needs. They note a lack of archeological
evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative
underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a
more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel.
Jacob L. Wright , Associate Professor of
Hebrew Bible at Emory
University, has written that the most popular legends about David,
including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his
ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the
creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those
living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods.
DAVID AS PSALMIST
David praying, The art
While almost half of the
Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (though
the phrase can also be translated as "to David" or "for David") and
tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life
Psalms 3 , 7 , 18 , 34 , 51 , 52 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 59 , 60 , 63
and 142 ), the headings are late additions and no psalm can be
David with certainty.
Psalm 34 is attributed to
David on the occasion of his escape from
the Abimelech (king)
Achish by pretending to be insane. According to
the narrative in
1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had
exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows
David to depart,
exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this
fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come
into my house?"
David is an important figure in
Rabbinic Judaism . Many legends have
grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition,
David was raised as the son of his father
Jesse and spent his early
years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers
were in school.
David's adultery with
Bathsheba was only an opportunity to
demonstrate the power of repentance, and the
Talmud states that it was
not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve
of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of
Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had
committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from
the King. However, in tractate Sanhedrin,
David expressed remorse
over his transgressions and sought forgiveness.
God ultimately forgave
Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture.
According to midrashim ,
Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the
life of David. Also, according to the
Talmud Yerushalmi ,
born and died on the Jewish holiday of
Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His
piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things
KING DAVID THE PROPHET
David in Prayer, by
Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)
HOLY MONARCH, PROPHET, REFORMER, SPIRITUAL POET
Bethlehem is the
birthplace of both; the shepherd life of
David points out Christ, the
Good Shepherd ; the five stones chosen to slay
Goliath are typical of
the five wounds ; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel ,
and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion .
Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are
clearly typical of the future
Messiah ." In the
Middle Ages ,
Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars,
as a 'new David'. not in itself a new idea, but content and
significance were greatly enlarged by him". The linking of
earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all
over Europe through the device of the Tree of
Jesse , its branches
demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his
son David, to Jesus.
Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast
day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the
Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy
Forefathers (two Sundays before the
Great Feast of the Nativity of the
Lord ), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus
. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together
with Joseph and
James, the Brother of the Lord .
Coat of arms attributed to King
David by mediaeval heralds
(identical to the arms of Ireland )
Christian culture of the
Middle Ages ,
David was made a
member of the
Nine Worthies , a group of heroes encapsulating all the
ideal qualities of chivalry . His life was thus proposed as a valuable
subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect
David in the
Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through
literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for
painters and sculptors.
David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of
divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and
David was perceived as the biblical predecessor
to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was
used as an honorific reference to these rulers. The Georgian
Bagratids and the
Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct
biological descent from him. Likewise, the Frankish Carolingian
dynasty frequently connected themselves to David;
occasionally used the name of
David as his pseudonym.
Arabic داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in
Islam as one of the major prophets sent by
God to guide the Israelites
David is mentioned several times in the
Quran , often with his son
Solomon . The actual
Arabic equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd.
In the Qur'an:
Goliath (2:251), a giant soldier in the
Philistine army. When
David killed Goliath,
God granted him kingship
and wisdom and enforced it (38:20).
David was made God's "vicegerent
on earth" (38:26) and
God further gave
David sound judgment (21:78;
37:21–24, 26) as well as the
Psalms , regarded as books of divine
wisdom (4:163; 17:55). The birds and mountains united with
uttering praise to
God (21:79; 34:10; 38:18), while
God made iron soft
God also instructed
David in the art of fashioning
chain-mail out of iron (21:80); an indication of the first use of
Wrought iron , this knowledge gave
David a major advantage over his
bronze and cast iron -armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and
economic impact. Together with Solomon,
David gave judgment in a case
of damage to the fields (21:78) and
David judged the matter between
two disputants in his prayer chamber (38:21–23). Since there is no
mention in the Qur'an of the wrong
David did to Uriah nor any
Bathsheba , Muslims reject this narrative.
Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer
as well as in fasting . Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers
of the numerous
Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise
Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing
Psalms as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is
described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not
only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him
to praise God.
MODERN ART AND LITERATURE
Literary works about
* 1681–82 Dryden 's long poem
Absalom and Achitophel is an
allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of
Absalom against King
David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political
situation, including events such as the
Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the
Popish Plot (1678) and the
Exclusion Crisis .
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used the story of
David and Bathsheba
as the main structure for the
Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of
the Crooked Man . The betrayal of the Crooked Man is paralleled with
David's betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win
Elmer Davis 's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the
Biblical story of David, casting
David as primarily a poet who managed
always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship.
In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed
David claimed the
Joab , David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to
make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David
vacillated or wrote poetry instead.
William Faulkner 's
Absalom, Absalom! refers to the story of
Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death
at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels
Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his
* 1939 In
Agatha Christie 's novel/play And Then There Were None
(also known as Ten Little Indians), one character compares his own
predicament to the story of
David and Uriah.
* 1941 In
Frans G. Bengtsson 's historical novel
The Long Ships
The Long Ships , a
Christian missionary is hosted by the early Danish King Harald
Bluetooth and his son
Sweyn Forkbeard and recounts to them the life of
David including the story of
Absalom 's rebellion—a sensitive
subject since the Danish King suspects his own son of intending to
launch a rebellion.
Gladys Schmitt 's novel
David the King was a richly
embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk,
especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with
Jonathan as overtly homoerotic , but was ultimately panned by critics
as a bland rendition of the title character.
Juan Bosch , a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote
David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life
and political career.
Dan Jacobson 's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by
one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon.
Stefan Heym wrote The King
David Report in which the
historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and
authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East
German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an
"authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical
references to the writer's own time.
* 1974 In
Thomas Burnett Swann 's Biblical fantasy novel How are the
David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers.
Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly
nephilim ), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but
often persecuted by it.
Malachi Martin 's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of
the Life of
David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his
battle with the Philistine deity Dagon.
Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on
God Knows ,
published by Simon these are some of the best-known:
* 1917 In The Chosen Prince , directed by
William V. Mong
* 1951 In
Bathsheba , directed by Henry King , Gregory
Peck played David.
* 1959 In
Solomon and Sheba , directed by
King Vidor , Finlay Currie
played an aged King David.
* 1961 In
A Story of David , directed by Bob McNaught, Jeff Chandler
* 1985 In King
David , directed by
Bruce Beresford , Richard Gere
played King David. (This film was poorly received by critics and
failed at the box office.)
* 1996 In
Dave and the Giant Pickle
* 1997 In
* 2016 In
Of Kings and Prophets
* 14TH/15TH CENTURY
Josquin des Prez 's Planxit autem,
David is a
polyphonic setting of 2 Samuel, chapter one verses 17–27, David's
lamentation for the dead
Saul and Jonathan. His Absalon fili mi is a
polyphonic lamentation from David's perspective on the death of his
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel 's oratorio
David as one
of its main characters.
Arthur Honegger 's oratorio Le Roi
David with a libretto by
René Morax , instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire.
* 1984 "Flash of the Blade" by Iron Maiden mentions
David in the
St. George or you're
David and you always killed the
Leonard Cohen 's song "Hallelujah " has references to David
("there was a secret chord that
David played and it pleased the Lord",
"The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and
Bathsheba ("you saw her
bathing on the roof") in its opening verses.
The Pixies ' song "Dead " on Doolittle is a retelling of
David's adultery and repentance.
* 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by
Paddy McAloon , performed by
Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to
David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful,
beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where
his music belongs").
* 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting\'s the album The Soul Cages
, explores David's obsession with
Bathsheba from David's perspective.
Eric Whitacre composed a choral piece, "When
chronicling the death of
Absalom and David's grief over losing his
* 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the
Little Feat album
Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with
Goliath and contains a
Absalom as a bridge .
* 2009 "The Angel of Death Came to David's Room" by
in reference to King David.
* 2011 Your Heart by
Chris Tomlin on Music inspired by The Story is
a prayer of David.
* 1997 King
David , a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim
Rice and music by
Alan Menken .
* 1995 The episode "Little Big Dog " of the PBS series Wishbone
recounts the story of David, his favor with Saul, and his triumphant
battle over Goliath.
* The season two episode of Xena: Warrior Princess called "Giant
Killer " features
David and his killing of Goliath.
* 1996 In Series 2, Episode 7 of the science fiction show Dominion ,
titled "Lay Thee Before Kings ,"
David is shown slaying
the unwitting support of the Archangels
Gabriel and Michael.
* 1997 TV film David, with
Nathaniel Parker portraying King David.
Max von Sydow portrayed an older King
David in the TV film
Solomon, a sequel to David.
* 2009 The NBC series Kings , explicitly designed as a modern
retelling of the
Langley Kirkwood portrayed King
David in the miniseries The
Bible produced by Mark Burnett and
Roma Downey .
For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and
continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned
to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In
this context, the
King of Spades
King of Spades was often known as "David".
Miniature from the
Paris Psalter :
David in the robes of a Byzantine
Medieval manuscript: The funeral of King David.
Russian icon , iconostasis of
Kizhi monastery , 18th century: St.
Prophet and King.
Rembrandt , c. 1650:
Saul and David.
Arnold Zadikow , 1930: The Young
David displayed in the entrance of
Berlin's Jewish Museum from 1933 until its loss during the Second
* Saints portal
* Latter Day Saints portal
Large Stone Structure
* David\'s Tomb
* David\'s Mighty Warriors
Midrash Shmuel (aggadah)
Kings of Israel and Judah
Kings of Israel and Judah
David and Jonathan
* ^ Carr,
David M. & Conway, Colleen M., An Introduction to the
Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts, John Wiley Revised edition
(1999), ISBN 978-1880317549
* ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1–3
* ^ 2
* ^ 1 Sam 13:8-14
* ^ 1 Sam 15:1-28
* ^ 1 Sam 16:1-13
* ^ 1 Sam 16:14-23
* ^ 1 Sam 17:1-11
* ^ 1 Sam 17:17-37
* ^ 1 Sam 17:38-39
* ^ 1 Sam 17:49-50
* ^ 1 Sam 17:55-56
* ^ 1 Sam 18:5-9
1 Samuel 21:10-11
1 Samuel 22:1
1 Samuel 22:5
1 Samuel 23:1-13
1 Samuel 23:14
1 Samuel 23:27-29
1 Samuel 24:1-22
* ^ Ellicott\'s Commentary for Modern Readers on
1 Samuel 24,
accessed 25 May 2017
* ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F. , Cambridge
Bible for Schools and Colleges
on 1 Samuel, Note VII, accessed 31 May 2017
1 Samuel 26:11
1 Samuel 26:25, NIV text
1 Samuel 26 in NKJV and
1 Samuel 26 in NIV
* ^ Barnes\' Notes on
1 Samuel 26, accessed 27 May 2017
* ^ Barnes\' Notes on
1 Samuel 26, accessed 27 May 2017
* ^ cf.
1 Samuel 21:10-15
* ^ Jamieson, R.,
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on 1
Samuel 27, accessed 31 May 2017
* ^ 1 Sam 29:1-11
1 Samuel 30:1
* ^ 1 Sam 31:1-13
* ^ 2 Sam 2:1-4
* ^ 2 Sam 2:8-11
* ^ 2 Sam 5:1-3
* ^ 2 Sam 5:6-7
* ^ 2 Sam 6:1-12
* ^ 2 Sam 7:1-13
* ^ 2 Sam 7:16
* ^ 2 Sam 8:1-14
* ^ 2
* ^ 2 Sam 11:14-17
* ^ 2 Sam 12:8-10
* ^ 2
* ^ 2 Sam 15:1-12
* ^ 2 Sam 18:1-15
* ^ 2 Sam 18:33
* ^ 1 Kings 1:1-5
* ^ 1 Kings 1:11-31
* ^ 2 Sam 5:4
* ^ 1 Kings 2:1-9
* ^ A B Pioske 2015 , p. 180.
* ^ Pioske, Daniel (2015-02-11). "4: David's Jerusalem: The Early
10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community". David\'s Jerusalem:
Between Memory and History. Routledge Studies in Religion. 45.
Routledge (published 2015). p. 180. ISBN 9781317548911 . Retrieved
2016-09-17. the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been
challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an
David or the kingdom of Judah.
* ^ Rainey, Anson F., The 'House of David' and the House of the
Deconstructionists. Biblical Archaeology Review 20/6
(November/December 1994): p. 47
* ^ Pioske 2015 , p. 210,fn.18.
* ^ Auld 2003 , p. 219.
* ^ Knight 1991 , p. 853.
* ^ McKenzie 2004 , p. 32.
* ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 232-233.
* ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2007 , p. 26-27.
* ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 220-221.
* ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times,
Princeton University Press, 1992 pp.301–307, p.301.
* ^ Thompson TL. "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of
* ^ Mazar A. Archaeology and the Biblical Narrative: The Case of
United Monarchy (PDF).
* ^ Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001.Review of Baruch
Halpern\'s "David\'s Secret Demons".
* ^ Finkelstein and Silberman, "
David and Solomon", 2006. See
review "Archaeology" magazine.
* ^ A B Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College,
* ^ Baden, Joel (2014-07-29). The Historical David: The Real Life
of an Invented Hero. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780062188373 .
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) . "8. In the
Shadow of Empire (842-720 BCE)". The
Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's
New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts (First
Touchstone Edition 2002 ed.). New York: Touchstone. pp. 189–190.
ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1 . Archaeologically and historically, the
redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has
enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that
there was ever a united monarchy based in
Jerusalem and suggests that
Solomon were, in political terms, little more than hill
country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly
local level, restricted to the hill country.
* ^ Israel Finkelstein;
Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The
Bible Unearthed: Archaeology\'s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the
Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 23. ISBN
978-0-7432-2338-6 . the narrative of the
Bible was uniquely suited to
further the religious reform and territorial ambitions of Judah.
* ^ Israel Finkelstein;
Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The
Bible Unearthed: Archaeology\'s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the
Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 158. ISBN
978-0-7432-2338-6 . we still have no hard archaeological
evidence--despite the unparalleled biblical description of its
Jerusalem was anything more than a modest highland
village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam.
* ^ "Table Two" (Finklestein and Silberman, 2002: 131).
* ^ Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous."
(Finkelstein and Silberman 2002: 181).
* ^ "The
Bible and Interpretation". bibleinterp.com.
* ^ Commentary on II
Samuel 22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II
P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. , 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN
* ^ Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament,
Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan:Zondervan Publishing
House ISBN 0-310-40200-X
1 Samuel 21:15
* ^ "DAVID - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com.
* ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin. pp. 107a.
* ^ Zohar Bereishis 91b
* ^ "David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
* ^ John Corbett (1911) King
The Catholic Encyclopedia (New
York: Robert Appleton Company)
* ^ McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of
Christianity. p. 101.
* ^ Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic
Church, Washington, D.C.
* ^ Lindsay of the Mount, Sir
David (1542). Lindsay of the Mount
* ^ A B Garipzanov, Ildar H. The Symbolic Language of Royal
Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751-877). BRILL. pp. 128, 225.
ISBN 9004166696 .
* ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr. (1997). Imagining History at the
Crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written
Georgian Past. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. p. 528.
* ^ A-Z of Prophets in
Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, David
* ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Dawud
* ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of David
* ^ O'Kane, Martin (1999). "The Biblical King
David and His
Artistic and Literary Afterlives". In Exum, Jo Cheryl. Beyond the
Biblical Horizon: The
Bible and the Arts. p. 86. ISBN 9004112901 .
Retrieved 15 August 2015.
* ^ Gilbert, Matthew (3 October 2015). "\'The Secret Chord\' by
Geraldine Brooks". Boston Globe. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
* ^ "G. F. Handel\'s Compositions". The Handel Institute. Retrieved
28 September 2013.
* ^ "Mad About You". Sting.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
* ^ "Lyrics Database".
Little Feat website. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
* ^ "snopes.com: Four Kings in Deck of Cards". snopes.com.
* ^ "Courts on playing cards", by
David Madore, with illustrations
of the Anglo-American and French court cards
* Auld, Graeme (2003). "1 & 2 Samuel". In James D. G. Dunn and John
William Rogerson. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN
David T. (1996). 1, 2 Samuel. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN
* Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "Introduction to the Historical Books".
In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The
New Oxford Annotated
Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803 .
* Coogan, Michael
David (2007). "Cultural Contexts: The Ancient Near
East and Israel". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi;
Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated
Bible with the
Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2007).
Solomon: In Search of the Bible\'s Sacred Kings and the Roots of the
Western Tradition. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743243636 .
* Gordon, Robert (1986). I & II Samuel, A Commentary. Paternoster
Press. ISBN 9780310230229 .
* Halpern, Baruch (2000). "David". In Freedman,
David Noel; Allen
C., Myers. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN
* Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who
ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4 .
* Dever, William G. (2001) What did the
Bible writers know and when
did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK.
* Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm (1964). I & II Samuel, A Commentary
(trans. from German 1960 2nd ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN
David Toshio (2007). The First book of Samuel. Eerdmans.
ISBN 9780802823595 .
* Breytenbach, Andries (2000). "Who Is Behind The Samuel
Narrative?". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past,
present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill.
ISBN 9004118713 .
* Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old
Hebrew Bible in its Context Oxford University Press
* Dick, Michael B (2004). "The History of "David's Rise to Power"
and the Neo-Babylonian Succession Apologies". In Bernard Frank Batto
and Kathryn L. Roberts.
David and Zion: biblical studies in honor of
J.J.M. Roberts. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060927 .
* Eynikel, Erik (2000). "The Relation Between the Eli Narrative and
the Ark Narratives". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy.
Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets.
Brill. ISBN 9004118713 .
* Halpern, Baruch (2001). David\'s secret demons: messiah, murderer,
traitor, king. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802827975 .
* Jones, Gwilym H (2001). "1 and 2 Samuel". In John Barton and John
Muddiman. The Oxford
Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Klein, R.W. (2003). "Samuel, books of". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W.
The international standard
Bible encyclopedia. Eerdmans. ISBN
* Knight, Douglas A (1995). "Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomists". In
James Luther Mays,
David L. Petersen and Kent Harold Richards. Old
Testament Interpretation. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567292896 .
* Knight, Douglas A (1991). "Sources". In Watson E. Mills, Roger
Aubrey Bullard. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University
Press. ISBN 9780865543737 .
* McKenzie, Steven L. (2004). Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I
& II Chronicles. Abingdon Press.
* Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and
Israel\'s Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0 .
* Pioski, Daniel (2015). David\'s Jerusalem: Between Memory and
* Pfoh, Emanuel (2016). The Emergence of Israel in Ancient
Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Routledge.
* Rosner, Steven (2012). A Guide to the
Psalms of David. Outskirts
* Schleffer, Eben (2000). "Saving
Saul from the Deuteronomist". In
Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future:
the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill.
* Soggin, Alberto (1987). Introduction to the Old Testament.
Westminster John Knox Press.
* Spieckerman, Hermann (2001). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Leo
G. Perdue. The Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible. Blackwell.
* Van Seters, John (1997). In search of history: historiography in
the ancient world and the origins of biblical history. Eisenbrauns.
* Walton, John H (2009). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Andrew E.
Hill, John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Zondervan.
* Alexander, David; Alexander, Pat, eds. (1983). Eerdmans' handbook
Bible (. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN
* Bright, John (1981). A history of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia:
Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-21381-2 .
* Bruce, F. F. (1963). Israel and the Nations. Grand Rapids, MI:
* Harrison, R.K. (1969). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand
Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
* Kidner, Derek (1973). The Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity
Press. ISBN 0-87784-868-8 .
* Noll, K. L. (1997). The faces of David. Sheffield: Sheffield Acad.
Press. ISBN 1-85075-659-7 .
* Thompson, J.A. (1986). Handbook of life in
Bible times. Leicester,
England: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-949-8 .
Adam (2007). King Saul, The True History of the First
Messiah. Cambridge, UK: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830741 .
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