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The DARUL ULOOM DEOBAND (Hindi : दारुल उलूम देवबन्द, Urdu
Urdu
: دارالعلوم دیوبند‎, Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة الإسلامية دار العلوم بديوبند‎‎) is the Darul uloom
Darul uloom
Islamic school in India
India
where the Deobandi Islamic movement began. It is located at Deoband , a town in Saharanpur district , Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
. The school was founded in 1866 by the _ulema _ (Islamic scholars) Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi , Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi and 'Abid Husaiyn.

CONTENTS

* 1 Program * 2 Role in the Indian independence movement * 3 Fatwas and controversy * 4 Alumni * 5 Publications * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

PROGRAM

The school teaches _manqulat_ (revealed Islamic sciences) according to the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Islamic jurisprudence . In this seminary, Nanautawi instituted modern methods of learning such as teaching in classrooms, a fixed and carefully selected curriculum, lectures by academics who were leaders in their fields, exam periods, merit prizes, and a publishing press. Students were taught in Urdu
Urdu
, and sometimes in Arabic
Arabic
for theological reasons or Persian , for cultural and literary reasons. The curriculum is based on a highly modified version of the 17th century Indo-Islamic syllabus known as Dars-e-Nizami . The students learn the Quran and its exegesis; Hadith and its commentary; and juristic rulings with textual and rational proofs. They also study the biography of Muhammad
Muhammad
, Arabic
Arabic
grammar, language and literature, and Farsi (Persian).

The syllabus consists of several stages. The five-year _Nazirah_ (primary course) teaches Urdu, Persian, Hindi and English. The next level is the _Hifze Quran_. This involves the memorization of the Quran over two to four years. A few students will then choose _Tajwid e Hafs_ (melodious recitation). The student is taught the detailed recitation rules of the Quran as laid down by Qari Hafs. Still fewer will take up the next course, the _Sab'ah and 'Asharah Qira\'at _ (study of all the ten Quran recitations.

A post graduate studies equivalent is the _Fazilat_ course taken over eight years. It commences with _Arabi Awwal_, in which the basics of the Arabic language
Arabic language
is the main aim, and finishes with _Daura e Hadith_, in which the main books of the saying of the Holy Prophet are taught. A prerequisite for this course is completion of primary education. Memorization of the Quran is also recommended. Students who complete the Fazilat may use the title _Alim_ or _Maulvi_. The _Daurae Hadith_ (final year) class is taught in the basement of the large _Masjid Rasheed_ (Rasheed Mosque) which was constructed in the style of the Taj Mahal . In the 2012 - 2013 academic year (1434 AH), 1063 students attended the Daurae Hadith
Hadith
class.

Almost a quarter of the students who complete the Daurae Hadith continue their studies. These advanced courses include _Takmil Ifta_ ( Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
); _Takmil Adab_ ( Arabic
Arabic
literature); and _Takhassus fil Hadith_ ( Hadith
Hadith
). Students who complete the _Takmil Ifta_ take the title _ Mufti _.

ROLE IN THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT

The political ideals of Darul-Uloom Deoband were founded up to ten years prior to the opening of the seminary. In 1857 (AH 1274), Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (a spiritual leader) and his followers, Muhammad
Muhammad
Yaqoob Nanautavi and Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and others, gathered at Thana Bhawan in violent protest against British rule and continued their call for the independence of India.

In 1913 AD (1333 HD), Nanautavi's pupil, Mahmud al-Hasan was a leader in the independence movement. He incited revolution through a scheme which the Rowlatt committee called the _Silken Letters_. However, the scheme failed and al-Hasan and his followers were arrested and exiled. In 1920 AD (1338HD), al-Hasan was returned from exile in Malta
Malta
. His group, _Jami'atul-Ulama_, which included Husain Ahmad Madani , Kifayatullah Dehlavi, Fakhrud-Deen Ahmad, and later on, Hifzur Rahman, Ateequr-Rahman Usmani, Minnatullah Rahmani, Habibur-Rahman Ludhyanvi, and Muhammad
Muhammad
Miyan Deobandi joined with the Indian National Congress . In 1926 AD (1345 HD) and 1927 AD (1346 HD), graduates of the school called for Indian independence at Jami'atul-Ulama meetings in Calcutta and Peshawar
Peshawar
. Madani opposed the suggestion of the All- India
India
Muslim League for the partition of India
India
along sectarian lines. He also advocated democratic government with religious freedoms and tolerance.

On 29 December 1929 AD, _Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam_ (_Majlis-e-Ah'rãr-e-Islam_, Urdu
Urdu
: مجلس احرارلأسلام‎, or _Ahrar_), a conservative Sunni Muslim Deobandi political party was founded in Lahore
Lahore
, Punjab , . The founding members of the party were Chaudhry Afzal Haq , Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi , Maulana Mazhar Ali Azhar , Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi. The founding members were disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement , which had aligned with the Indian National Congress . The party gathered support from the urban lower-middle class. It opposed Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Jinnah , leader of the All- India
India
Muslim League and it objected to the persecution of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
religious community.

In 1969 AD (1389 HD), Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
, the Pashtun independence activist, addressed the students of the school and said, "I have had relation with Darul-Uloom since the time the Shaikhul-Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan was alive. Sitting here we used to make plans for the independence movement as to how we might drive away the English from this country and how we could make India
India
free from the yoke of slavery of the English. This institution has made great efforts for the freedom of this country".

FATWAS AND CONTROVERSY

In January 2012, scholars from a Deobandi school issued a fatwa (religious edict) calling for the author Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
to be barred from entering India
India
to attend a literature festival because he had offended Muslim sentiments.

In May 2010, clerics from a Deobandi school issued a fatwa stating that men and women cannot work together in public offices unless the women are properly clothed.

In September 2013, scholars from a Deobandi school issued a fatwa banning photography as un-Islamic.

The spread of the Deobandi movement in the United Kingdom has produced some criticism concerning their views on interfaith dialogue and values like democracy or the rule of (secular) law. In September 2007 Andrew Norfolk of The Times published an article titled "the hardline takeover of British mosques" about the influence of the Deobandis whom the author called a "hardline islamic sect".

In February 2008, an anti-terrorism conference, organized by the seminary, denounced all forms of terrorism.

It should be noted that the Deobandi Dar ul-Ulooms do not issue centralised fatwas, and every graduate of the legal reasoning course has the scope to issue their own fatwa, which may vary from others significantly.

ALUMNI

The school has links to national and international Islamic educational and theological organizations. Graduates of the school have established seminaries such as Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
; Camperdown, near Durban
Durban
in South Africa
South Africa
; Darul \'Uloom Karachi , Jami\'ah Ashrafiyah Lahore
Lahore
,; Jami'ah Ziyaul-Qur'an (Al-Ma'ruf Bagh-Wali Masjid), Faisalabad
Faisalabad
; and Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam , Chittagong
Chittagong
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
.

Notable alumni of the school include:

* Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani , Bangladeshi
Bangladeshi
politician; * Moualana lutfur rahman, Bangladeshi * Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema , head of Darul Uloom Khatme Nabuwwat (a Deobandi institution), Chichawatni . * Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri , Allamah and Hadith
Hadith
scholar known for his photographic memory. Former Shaikhul Hadith
Hadith
of Darul Uloom Deoband * Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi , a sufi sheikh, known for his Quran exegesis , _Bayanul Quran_, and _Bahishti Zewar_ (about jurisprudence for women). * Ghulam Murshid , former honorary khateeb at Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
, Lahore
Lahore
. * Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi , leader of Ahrari. * Husain Ahmed Madani , former shaikhul hadith of Darul Uloom, Deoband and leader of Jamiat Ulama e Hind. * Mahmood Hasan Deobandi , shaikhul hind, first student of Darul Uloom, Deoband and leader of the anti-colonial Silk Letter Conspiracy . * Muhammad
Muhammad
Ilyas Kandhalawi , founder of Tabligh Jamaat * Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat , former chief minister of Kelantan State, Malaysia
Malaysia
. * Shabbir Ahmad Usmani , Shaikhul Islam and former Member, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan * Syed Abuzar Bukhari * Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , former president of All-India Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam . * Ubaidul Haq , former chief cleric of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
.

PUBLICATIONS

The following journals and magazines are published under the aegis of Darul ‘Uloom Deoband and its alumni.

* _Al-Da'ee/Ad-Da'ee_, Arabic
Arabic
monthly periodical. * _Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom_, Urdu
Urdu
monthly periodical. * _Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom_, Urdu
Urdu
fortnightly periodical.

SEE ALSO

* Tablighi Jamat * Nowshera District
Nowshera District
* Markazul Maarif * Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam * Darul Uloom Zakariyya * List of Mohtamims of Darul Uloom Deoband * List of Deobandi universities

REFERENCES

* ^ " Qawaide Dakhilah." Darululoom-deoband.com. * ^ "Regulations" Daraluloom Deoband.com * ^ Ghazzali A. _Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality."_ Ghazali.net * ^ Jaffrelot C. and Beaumont G. _A History of Pakistan and Its Origins._ p224. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 . * ^ " Barelvi
Barelvi
Islam." Globalsecurity.org * ^ Ahmad, N._Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective._ Greenwood Press, New York, 1991. p175. * ^ Jaffrelot C._A history of Pakistan and its origins._ Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 , ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2 . * ^ Bahadur K. _Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts._ Har Anand Publications 1998 p176. * ^ "Darul Uloom Farangimahal fatwa Rushdie Jaipur visit. Siasat.com * ^ _Cleric seeks apology from Rushdie._ Kashmir monitor.org 19 January 2012. * ^ "Young Muslim women fume at Deoband diktat." News-views.India. * ^ " Deoband fatwa: It\'s illegal for women to work, support family." Times of India.com 12 May 2010. * ^ "Insurance policy is un-Islamic: Deoband." Express India.com * ^ "Times of India: Deoband issues fatwa banning photography as un-Islamic." 11 September 2013. * ^ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/faith/article2098578.ece * ^ "Muslim clerics declare terror "un-Islamic"" _Times of India_ 25 February 2008. * ^ In\'amiyyah "Madrasah In\'amiyyah" Alinam.org * ^ "Welcome to Ashrafia Islamic University Lahore." Ashrafia.org.pk 14 September 1947. Accessed 6 August 2011. * ^ Ameeni K. (ed.) _Al-Da'ee/Ad-Da'ee_. * ^ Qaasmi H. (ed.) _Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom_. * ^ 'Alwi K. (ed.) _Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom_.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Tabassum F. _ Deoband Ulema\'s Movement for the Freedom of India._ Jamiat Ulama i-Hind, New