The DARUL ULOOM DEOBAND (Hindi : दारुल उलूम
Urdu : دارالعلوم دیوبند,
Arabic : الجامعة الإسلامية دار العلوم
بديوبند) is the
Darul uloom Islamic school in
Deobandi Islamic movement began. It is located at
Deoband , a town
Saharanpur district ,
Uttar Pradesh . The school was founded in
1866 by the _ulema _ (Islamic scholars)
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi ,
Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi and 'Abid Husaiyn.
* 1 Program
* 2 Role in the Indian independence movement
* 3 Fatwas and controversy
* 4 Alumni
* 5 Publications
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
The school teaches _manqulat_ (revealed Islamic sciences) according
Hanafi school of
Islamic jurisprudence . In this seminary,
Nanautawi instituted modern methods of learning such as teaching in
classrooms, a fixed and carefully selected curriculum, lectures by
academics who were leaders in their fields, exam periods, merit
prizes, and a publishing press. Students were taught in
Urdu , and
Arabic for theological reasons or Persian , for cultural
and literary reasons. The curriculum is based on a highly modified
version of the 17th century Indo-Islamic syllabus known as
Dars-e-Nizami . The students learn the Quran and its exegesis; Hadith
and its commentary; and juristic rulings with textual and rational
proofs. They also study the biography of
language and literature, and Farsi (Persian).
The syllabus consists of several stages. The five-year _Nazirah_
(primary course) teaches Urdu, Persian, Hindi and English. The next
level is the _Hifze Quran_. This involves the memorization of the
Quran over two to four years. A few students will then choose _Tajwid
e Hafs_ (melodious recitation). The student is taught the detailed
recitation rules of the Quran as laid down by Qari Hafs. Still fewer
will take up the next course, the _Sab'ah and 'Asharah Qira\'at _
(study of all the ten Quran recitations.
A post graduate studies equivalent is the _Fazilat_ course taken over
eight years. It commences with _Arabi Awwal_, in which the basics of
Arabic language is the main aim, and finishes with _Daura e
Hadith_, in which the main books of the saying of the Holy Prophet are
taught. A prerequisite for this course is completion of primary
education. Memorization of the Quran is also recommended. Students who
complete the Fazilat may use the title _Alim_ or _Maulvi_. The _Daurae
Hadith_ (final year) class is taught in the basement of the large
_Masjid Rasheed_ (Rasheed Mosque) which was constructed in the style
Taj Mahal . In the 2012 - 2013 academic year (1434 AH), 1063
students attended the Daurae
Almost a quarter of the students who complete the Daurae Hadith
continue their studies. These advanced courses include _Takmil Ifta_
Jurisprudence ); _Takmil Adab_ (
Arabic literature); and _Takhassus
fil Hadith_ (
Hadith ). Students who complete the _Takmil Ifta_ take
the title _
ROLE IN THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
The political ideals of Darul-Uloom
Deoband were founded up to ten
years prior to the opening of the seminary. In 1857 (AH 1274),
Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (a spiritual leader) and his followers,
Muhammad Yaqoob Nanautavi and
Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and others,
Thana Bhawan in violent protest against British rule and
continued their call for the independence of India.
In 1913 AD (1333 HD), Nanautavi's pupil,
Mahmud al-Hasan was a leader
in the independence movement. He incited revolution through a scheme
Rowlatt committee called the _Silken Letters_. However, the
scheme failed and al-Hasan and his followers were arrested and exiled.
In 1920 AD (1338HD), al-Hasan was returned from exile in
Malta . His
group, _Jami'atul-Ulama_, which included
Husain Ahmad Madani ,
Kifayatullah Dehlavi, Fakhrud-Deen Ahmad, and later on, Hifzur Rahman,
Ateequr-Rahman Usmani, Minnatullah Rahmani, Habibur-Rahman Ludhyanvi,
Deobandi joined with the
Indian National Congress .
In 1926 AD (1345 HD) and 1927 AD (1346 HD), graduates of the school
called for Indian independence at Jami'atul-Ulama meetings in Calcutta
Peshawar . Madani opposed the suggestion of the All-
League for the partition of
India along sectarian lines. He also
advocated democratic government with religious freedoms and tolerance.
On 29 December 1929 AD, _Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam_
Urdu : مجلس احرارلأسلام,
or _Ahrar_), a conservative
Deobandi political party was
Lahore , Punjab , . The founding members of the party were
Chaudhry Afzal Haq ,
Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , Maulana
Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi ,
Maulana Mazhar Ali Azhar , Maulana Zafar
Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi. The founding members were disillusioned
Khilafat Movement , which had aligned with the Indian National
Congress . The party gathered support from the urban lower-middle
class. It opposed
Muhammad Ali Jinnah , leader of the All-
League and it objected to the persecution of the
In 1969 AD (1389 HD),
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan , the Pashtun
independence activist, addressed the students of the school and said,
"I have had relation with Darul-Uloom since the time the Shaikhul-Hind
Maulana Mahmood Hasan was alive. Sitting here we used to make plans
for the independence movement as to how we might drive away the
English from this country and how we could make
India free from the
yoke of slavery of the English. This institution has made great
efforts for the freedom of this country".
FATWAS AND CONTROVERSY
In January 2012, scholars from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa
(religious edict) calling for the author
Salman Rushdie to be barred
India to attend a literature festival because he had
offended Muslim sentiments.
In May 2010, clerics from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa stating
that men and women cannot work together in public offices unless the
women are properly clothed.
In September 2013, scholars from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa
banning photography as un-Islamic.
The spread of the
Deobandi movement in the United Kingdom has
produced some criticism concerning their views on interfaith dialogue
and values like democracy or the rule of (secular) law. In September
2007 Andrew Norfolk of
The Times published an article titled "the
hardline takeover of British mosques" about the influence of the
Deobandis whom the author called a "hardline islamic sect".
In February 2008, an anti-terrorism conference, organized by the
seminary, denounced all forms of terrorism.
It should be noted that the
Deobandi Dar ul-Ulooms do not issue
centralised fatwas, and every graduate of the legal reasoning course
has the scope to issue their own fatwa, which may vary from others
The school has links to national and international Islamic
educational and theological organizations. Graduates of the school
have established seminaries such as Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam in
Hyderabad ; Camperdown, near
South Africa ; Darul \'Uloom
Karachi , Jami\'ah Ashrafiyah
Lahore ,; Jami'ah Ziyaul-Qur'an
(Al-Ma'ruf Bagh-Wali Masjid),
Faisalabad ; and Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul
Ulum Moinul Islam ,
Notable alumni of the school include:
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani ,
* Moualana lutfur rahman, Bangladeshi
Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema , head of Darul Uloom Khatme Nabuwwat (a
Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri , Allamah and
Hadith scholar known for
his photographic memory. Former Shaikhul
Hadith of Darul Uloom Deoband
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi , a sufi sheikh, known for his Quran
exegesis , _Bayanul Quran_, and _Bahishti Zewar_ (about jurisprudence
Ghulam Murshid , former honorary khateeb at
Badshahi Mosque ,
* Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi , leader of Ahrari.
Husain Ahmed Madani , former shaikhul hadith of Darul Uloom,
Deoband and leader of Jamiat Ulama e Hind.
* Mahmood Hasan
Deobandi , shaikhul hind, first student of Darul
Deoband and leader of the anti-colonial Silk Letter Conspiracy
Muhammad Ilyas Kandhalawi , founder of
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat , former chief minister of
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani , Shaikhul Islam and former Member,
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
Syed Abuzar Bukhari
Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , former president of All-India
Ubaidul Haq , former chief cleric of
The following journals and magazines are published under the aegis of
Deoband and its alumni.
Arabic monthly periodical.
* _Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom_,
Urdu monthly periodical.
* _Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom_,
Urdu fortnightly periodical.
Darul Uloom Zakariyya
* List of Mohtamims of Darul Uloom
* List of
* ^ " Qawaide Dakhilah." Darululoom-deoband.com.
* ^ "Regulations" Daraluloom Deoband.com
* ^ Ghazzali A. _Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality."_
* ^ Jaffrelot C. and Beaumont G. _A History of Pakistan and Its
Origins._ p224. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 .
* ^ "
Barelvi Islam." Globalsecurity.org
* ^ Ahmad, N._Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a
world-system perspective._ Greenwood Press, New York, 1991. p175.
* ^ Jaffrelot C._A history of Pakistan and its origins._ Anthem
Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 , ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2 .
* ^ Bahadur K. _Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts._ Har
Anand Publications 1998 p176.
* ^ "Darul Uloom Farangimahal fatwa Rushdie Jaipur visit.
* ^ _Cleric seeks apology from Rushdie._ Kashmir monitor.org 19
* ^ "Young Muslim women fume at
Deoband diktat." News-views.India.
* ^ "
Deoband fatwa: It\'s illegal for women to work, support
family." Times of India.com 12 May 2010.
* ^ "Insurance policy is un-Islamic: Deoband." Express India.com
* ^ "Times of India:
Deoband issues fatwa banning photography as
un-Islamic." 11 September 2013.
* ^ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/faith/article2098578.ece
* ^ "Muslim clerics declare terror "un-Islamic"" _Times of India_
25 February 2008.
* ^ In\'amiyyah "Madrasah In\'amiyyah" Alinam.org
* ^ "Welcome to Ashrafia Islamic University Lahore."
Ashrafia.org.pk 14 September 1947. Accessed 6 August 2011.
* ^ Ameeni K. (ed.) _Al-Da'ee/Ad-Da'ee_.
* ^ Qaasmi H. (ed.) _Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom_.
* ^ 'Alwi K. (ed.) _Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom_.
* Tabassum F. _
Deoband Ulema\'s Movement for the Freedom of India._
Jamiat Ulama i-Hind, New