Darul uloom Islamic school in
India where the
Deobandi Islamic movement
Deobandi Islamic movement began. It is located at Deoband, a town in
Saharanpur district, Uttar Pradesh. The school was founded in 1866 by
the ulema (Islamic scholars)
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, Rasheed Ahmed
Gangohi and 'Abid Husaiyn.
2 Role in the Indian independence movement
3 Fatwas and controversy
6 See also
8 External links
The school teaches manqulat (revealed Islamic sciences) according to
Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence. In this seminary,
Nanautawi instituted modern methods of learning such as teaching in
classrooms, a fixed and carefully selected curriculum, lectures by
academics who were leaders in their fields, exam periods, merit
prizes, and a publishing press. Students were taught in Urdu, and
Arabic for theological reasons or Persian, for cultural
and literary reasons. The curriculum is based on a highly modified
version of the 17th century Indo-Islamic syllabus known as
Dars-e-Nizami. The students learn the Quran and its exegesis; Hadith
and its commentary; and juristic rulings with textual and rational
proofs. They also study the biography of Muhammad,
language and literature, and Farsi (Persian).
The syllabus consists of many stages. The five-year Nazirah (primary
course) teaches Urdu, Persian, Hindi and English. The next level is
the Hifze Quran. This involves the memorization of the Quran over two
to four years. A few students will then choose Tajwid e Hafs
(melodious recitation). The student is taught the detailed recitation
rules of the Quran as laid down by Qari Hafs. Still fewer will take up
the next course, the Sab'ah and 'Asharah
Qira'at (study of all the ten
A post graduate studies equivalent is the Fazilat course taken over
eight years. It commences with Arabi Awwal, in which the basics of the
Arabic language is the main aim, and finishes with Daura e Hadith, in
which the main books of the saying of the Holy Prophet are taught. A
prerequisite for this course is completion of primary education.
Memorization of the Quran is also recommended. Students who complete
the Fazilat may use the title Alim or Maulvi. The Daurae
year) class is taught in the basement of the large Masjid Rasheed
(Rasheed Mosque) which was constructed in the style of the Taj Mahal.
In the 2012 - 2013 academic year (1434 AH), 1063 students attended the
Almost a quarter of the students who complete the Daurae Hadith
continue their studies. These advanced courses include Takmil Ifta
(Jurisprudence); Takmil Adab (
Arabic literature); and Takhassus fil
Hadith (Hadith). Students who complete the Takmil Ifta take the
Role in the Indian independence movement
The political ideals of Darul-Uloom
Deoband were founded up to ten
years prior to the opening of the seminary. In 1857 (AH 1274),
Imdadullah Muhajir Makki
Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (a spiritual leader) and his followers,
Muhammad Yaqoob Nanautavi and
Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi
Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and others,
Thana Bhawan in violent protest against British rule and
continued their call for the independence of India.
In 1913 AD (1333 HD), Nanautavi's pupil,
Mahmud al-Hasan was a leader
in the independence movement. He incited revolution through a scheme
Rowlatt committee called the Silken Letters. However, the
scheme failed and al-Hasan and his followers were arrested and exiled.
In 1920 AD (1338HD), al-Hasan was returned from exile in Malta. His
group, Jami'atul-Ulama, which included Husain Ahmad Madani,
Kifayatullah Dehlavi, Fakhrud-Deen Ahmad, and later on, Hifzur Rahman,
Ateequr-Rahman Usmani, Minnatullah Rahmani, Habibur-Rahman Ludhyanvi,
Deobandi joined with the Indian National Congress.
In 1926 AD (1345 HD) and 1927 AD (1346 HD), graduates of the school
called for Indian independence at Jami'atul-Ulama meetings in Calcutta
and Peshawar. Madani opposed the suggestion of the All-
League for the partition of
India along sectarian lines. He also
advocated democratic government with religious freedoms and
On 29 December 1929 AD, Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam
(Majlis-e-Ah'rãr-e-Islam,Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام, or
Ahrar), a conservative
Deobandi political party was
founded in Lahore, Punjab, . The founding members of the party were
Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Maulana
Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Maulana Mazhar Ali Azhar, Maulana Zafar Ali
Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi. The founding members were disillusioned
by the Khilafat Movement, which had aligned with the Indian National
Congress. The party gathered support from the urban lower-middle
class. It opposed
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the All-
League and it objected to the persecution of the
In 1969 AD (1389 HD), Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Pashtun
independence activist, addressed the students of the school and said,
"I have had relation with Darul-Uloom since the time the Shaikhul-Hind
Maulana Mahmood Hasan was alive. Sitting here we used to make plans
for the independence movement as to how we might drive away the
English from this country and how we could make
India free from the
yoke of slavery of the English. This institution has made great
efforts for the freedom of this country".
Fatwas and controversy
In January 2012, scholars from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa
(religious edict) calling for the author
Salman Rushdie to be barred
India to attend a literature festival because he had
offended Muslim sentiments.
In May 2010, clerics from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa stating
that men and women cannot work together in public offices unless the
women are properly clothed.
In September 2013, scholars from a
Deobandi school issued a fatwa
banning photography as un-Islamic.
The spread of the
Deobandi movement in the United Kingdom has produced
some criticism concerning their views on interfaith dialogue and
values like democracy or the rule of (secular) law. In September 2007
Andrew Norfolk of
The Times published an article titled "the hardline
takeover of British mosques" about the influence of the Deobandis whom
the author called a "hardline islamic sect".
In February 2008, an anti-terrorism conference, organized by the
seminary, denounced all forms of terrorism.
The school has links to national and international Islamic educational
and theological organizations. Graduates of the school have
established seminaries such as
Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam in
Hyderabad; Camperdown, near
Durban in South Africa; Darul 'Uloom
Karachi, Jami'ah Ashrafiyah Lahore,; Jami'ah Ziyaul-Qur'an
(Al-Ma'ruf Bagh-Wali Masjid), Faisalabad; and Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul
Ulum Moinul Islam, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Notable alumni of the school include:
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani,
Moualana lutfur rahman, Bangladeshi
Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Allamah and
Hadith scholar known for his
photographic memory. Former Shaikhul
Darul Uloom Deoband
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi, a sufi sheikh, known for his Quran
exegesis, Bayanul Quran, and Bahishti Zewar (about jurisprudence for
Mufti Menk, Islamic preacher.
Ghulam Murshid, former honorary khateeb at Badshahi Mosque, Lahore.
Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, leader of Ahrari.
Husain Ahmed Madani, former shaikhul hadith of Darul Uloom, Deoband
and leader of Jamiat Ulama e Hind.
Mahmood Hasan Deobandi, shaikhul hind, first student of Darul Uloom,
Deoband and leader of the anti-colonial Silk Letter Conspiracy.
Muhammad Ilyas Kandhalawi, founder of Tabligh Jamaat
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat, former chief minister of
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Shaikhul Islam and former Member, Constituent
Assembly of Pakistan
Syed Abuzar Bukhari
Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, former president of All-India
Ubaidul Haq, former chief cleric of Bangladesh.
The following journals and magazines are published under the aegis of
Deoband and its alumni.
Arabic monthly periodical.
Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom,
Urdu monthly periodical.
Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom,
Urdu fortnightly periodical.
Darul Uloom Zakariyya
List of Mohtamims of
Darul Uloom Deoband
^ " Qawaide Dakhilah." Darululoom-deoband.com.
^ "Regulations" Daraluloom Deoband.com
^ Ghazzali A. Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality." Ghazali.net
^ Jaffrelot C. and Beaumont G. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins.
p224. ISBN 1-84331-149-6.
Barelvi Islam." Globalsecurity.org
^ Ahmad, N.Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system
perspective. Greenwood Press, New York, 1991. p175.
^ Jaffrelot C.A history of Pakistan and its origins. Anthem Press,
2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6, ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2.
^ Bahadur K. Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts. Har Anand
Publications 1998 p176.
Darul Uloom Farangimahal fatwa Rushdie Jaipur visit. Siasat.com
^ Cleric seeks apology from Rushdie. Kashmir monitor.org 19 January
^ "Young Muslim women fume at
Deoband diktat." News-views.India.
Deoband fatwa: It's illegal for women to work, support family."
Times of India.com 12 May 2010.
^ "Insurance policy is un-Islamic: Deoband." Express India.com
^ "Times of India:
Deoband issues fatwa banning photography as
un-Islamic." 11 September 2013.
^ "Muslim clerics declare terror "un-Islamic"" Times of
^ In'amiyyah "Madrasah In'amiyyah" Alinam.org
^ "Welcome to Ashrafia Islamic University Lahore." Ashrafia.org.pk 14
September 1947. Accessed 6 August 2011.
^ Ameeni K. (ed.) Al-Da'ee/Ad-Da'ee.
^ Qaasmi H. (ed.) Maah Namah Darul ‘Uloom.
^ 'Alwi K. (ed.) Aaeenah Darul ‘Uloom.
Deoband Ulema's Movement for the Freedom of India. Jamiat
Ulama i-Hind, New Delhi, pdf at Attahawi blog, July 2007.
Darul ‘Uloom Deoband, India, official website.
Deoband movement website.
Deoband Indian mosques blog.
Khabrein Indian Muslim news and opinion website.
Deobandi Islam Global security organisation website.
Metcalf B. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and
Talibs. Social Science Research Council, non-profit organisation,
Brooklyn, New York.
‘Ulama's progressive stand on Yoga, terrorism, other issues needs to
be praised. Indscribe's Blog, February 2009.
Islamism in South Asia
Bangladesh Islami Chhatra Shibir
Islami Jatiya Oikya Front
Islami Oikya Jote
Islamic Front Bangladesh
Bangladesh Islamic Front
Darul Uloom Deoband
Girls Islamic Organisation of India
National Development Front
Popular Front of India
Students Islamic Movement of India
Students Islamic Organisation of India
Jamiat Ahle Hadith
Ahlehadeeth Movement Bangladesh
India Khilafat Committee
Muslim National Guard
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
Qazi Syed Rafi Mohammad
Qazi Mir Imdad Ali
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
Mian Tufail Mohammad
Ashraf Ali Thanwi
Anwar Shah Kashmiri
Mohammad Ali Jouhar
Abul A'la Maududi
Shah Ahmad Noorani
Muhammad Ilyas Qadri
Motiur Rahman Nizami
Muhammad Hussain Najafi
Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain Najafi
Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Muhammad Asadullah Al-Ghalib
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
Arif Hussain Hussaini
Delwar Hossain Sayeedi
Syed Nazeer Husain
Khalid Mehmood Soomro
Siddiq Hasan Khan
Ehsan Elahi Zaheer
Abul Kalam Azad
Fazlul Haque Amini
Nurul Islam Farooqi
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization
Shah Bano case
Pakistani Islamisation programme referendum, 1984
Part of Islamism
Islamism in South Asia
Coordinates: 29°41′32″N 77°40′39″E / 29.69222°N
77.67750°E / 29.69222; 77.67750