ClassificationDanish is a Germanic languages, Germanic language of the North Germanic languages, North Germanic branch. Other names for this group are the Nordic or Scandinavian languages. Along with Swedish, Danish descends from the Eastern dialects of the Old Norse language; Danish and Swedish are also classified as East Scandinavian or East Nordic languages. Scandinavian languages are often considered a dialect continuum, where no sharp dividing lines are seen between the different vernacular languages. Like Norwegian and Swedish, Danish was significantly influenced by Low German in the Middle Ages, and has been influenced by English since the turn of the 20th century. Danish itself can be divided into three main dialect areas: West Danish (Jutlandic), Insular Danish (including the standard variety), and East Danish (including Bornholmsk dialect, Bornholmian and Scanian dialect, Scanian). Under the view that Scandinavian is a dialect continuum, East Danish can be considered intermediary between Danish and Swedish, while Scanian can be considered a Swedified East Danish dialect, and Bornholmsk is its closest relative. Contemporary Scanian is fully mutually intelligible with Swedish and less so with Danish since it shares a standardized vocabulary and less distinct prounciations with the rest of Sweden than in the past. Blekinge and Halland, the two other provinces further away from Copenhagen that transitioned to Sweden in the 17th century speak dialects more similar to standard Swedish.
Mutual intelligibilityDanish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian language, Norwegian and Swedish language, Swedish. Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can often understand the others fairly well, though studies have shown that speakers of Norwegian generally understand both Danish and Swedish far better than Swedes or Danes understand each other. Both Swedes and Danes also understand Norwegian better than they understand each other's languages. The reason Norwegian occupies a middle position in terms of intelligibility is because of its shared border with Sweden resulting in a similarity in pronunciation, combined with the long tradition of having Danish as a written language which has led to similarities in vocabulary. Among younger Danes, Copenhageners are worse at understanding Swedish than Danes from the provinces. In general, younger Danes are not as good at understanding the neighboring languages as are Norwegian and Swedish youths.
HistoryThe Danish philologist Johannes Brøndum-Nielsen divided the history of Danish into a period from 800 AD to 1525 to be "Old Danish", which he subdivided into "Runic Danish" (800-1100), Early Middle Danish (1100–1350) and Late Middle Danish (1350–1525).
Runic DanishBy the eighth century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had undergone some changes and evolved into . This language was generally called the "Danish tongue" (), or "Norse language" (). Norse was written in the runic alphabet, first with the elder futhark and from the 9th century with the younger futhark. From the seventh century, the common Norse language began to undergo changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, resulting in the appearance of two dialect areas, Old West Norse ( and Iceland) and Old East Norse ( and ). Most of the changes separating East Norse from West Norse started as innovations in Denmark, that spread through Scania into Sweden and by maritime contact to southern Norway. A change that separated Old East Norse (Runic Swedish/Danish) from Old West Norse was the change of the diphthong ''æi'' (Old West Norse ''ei'') to the monophthong ''e'', as in to . This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read and the later . Also, a change of ''au'' as in into ''ø'' as in occurred. This change is shown in runic inscriptions as a change from into . Moreover, the ''øy'' (Old West Norse ''ey'') diphthong changed into ''ø'', as well, as in the Old Norse word for "island". This monophthongization started in Jutland and spread eastward, having spread throughout Denmark and most of Sweden by 1100. Through Danish conquest, Old East Norse was once widely spoken in the Danelaw, northeast counties of England. Many words derived from Norse, such as "gate" () for street, still survive in Yorkshire, the East Midlands and East Anglia, and Danelaw, parts of eastern England colonized by Danish Vikings. The city of York was once the Viking settlement of Jorvik. Several other English words derive from Old East Norse, for example "knife" (), "husband" (), and "egg" (). The suffix "-by" for 'town' is common in place names in Yorkshire and the east Midlands, for example Selby, Whitby, Derby, and Grimsby. The word "dale" meaning valley is common in Yorkshire and Derbyshire placenames.
Old and Middle dialectsIn the medieval period, Danish emerged as a separate language from Swedish. The main written language was Latin, and the few Danish-language texts preserved from this period are written in the Latin alphabet, although the runic alphabet seems to have lingered in popular usage in some areas. The main text types written in this period are laws, which were formulated in the vernacular language to be accessible also to those who were not Latinate. The Codex Holmiensis, Jutlandic Law and Scanian Law were written in vernacular Danish in the early 13th century. Beginning in 1350, Danish began to be used as a language of administration, and new types of literature began to be written in the language, such as royal letters and testaments. The orthography in this period was not standardized nor was the spoken language, and the regional laws demonstrate the dialectal differences between the regions in which they were written. Throughout this period, Danish was in contact with Low German language, Low German, and many Low German loan words were introduced in this period. With the Protestant Reformation in Denmark, Protestant Reformation in 1536, Danish also became the language of religion, which sparked a new interest in using Danish as a literary language. Also in this period, Danish began to take on the linguistic traits that differentiate it from Swedish and Norwegian, such as the ''stød'', the voicing of many stop consonants, and the weakening of many final vowels to /e/. The first printed book in Danish dates from 1495, the (''Rhyming Chronicle''), a history book told in rhymed verses. The first complete translation of the Bible in Danish, the Bible of Christian II translated by Christiern Pedersen, was published in 1550. Pedersen's orthographic choices set the ''de facto'' standard for subsequent writing in Danish.
Early ModernFollowing the first Bible translation, the development of Danish as a written language, as a language of religion, administration, and public discourse accelerated. In the second half of the 17th century, grammarians elaborated grammars of Danish, first among them Rasmus Bartholin's 1657 Latin grammar ''De studio lingvæ danicæ''; then Laurids Olufsen Kock's 1660 grammar of the Zealand dialect ''Introductio ad lingvam Danicam puta selandicam''; and in 1685 the first Danish grammar written in Danish, ''Den Danske Sprog-Kunst'' ("The Art of the Danish Language") by Peder Syv. Major authors from this period are Thomas Kingo, poet and psalmist, and Leonora Christina Ulfeldt, whose novel ''Jammersminde'' (''Remembered Woes'') is considered a literary masterpiece by scholars. Orthography was still not standardized and the principles for doing so were vigorously discussed among Danish philologists. The grammar of Jens Pedersen Høysgaard was the first to give a detailed analysis of Danish phonology and prosody, including a description of the ''stød''. In this period, scholars were also discussing whether it was best to "write as one speaks" or to "speak as one writes", including whether archaic grammatical forms that had fallen out of use in the vernacular, such as the plural form of verbs, should be conserved in writing (i.e. ''han er'' "he is" vs. ''de ere'' "they are"). The East Danish provinces were lost to Sweden after the Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645) after which they were gradually Swedified; just as Norway was politically severed from Denmark, beginning also a gradual end of Danish influence on Norwegian (influence through the shared written standard language remained). With the History of Denmark#Absolutism, introduction of absolutism in 1660, the Danish state was further integrated, and the language of the Danish chancellery, a Zealandic variety with German and French influence, became the ''de facto'' Lingua franca, official standard language, especially in writing—this was the original so-called ''rigsdansk'' ("Danish of the Realm"). Also, beginning in the mid-18th century, the ''skarre-R'', the Guttural R, uvular R sound (), began spreading through Denmark, likely through influence from Parisian French and German. It affected all of the areas where Danish had been influential, including all of Denmark, Southern Sweden, and coastal southern Norway. In the 18th century, Danish philology was advanced by Rasmus Rask, who pioneered the disciplines of Comparative linguistics, comparative and Historical linguistics, historical linguistics, and wrote the first English-language grammar of Danish. Literary Danish continued to develop with the works of Ludvig Holberg, whose plays and historical and scientific works laid the foundation for the Danish literary canon. With the Danish colonization of Greenland by Hans Egede, Danish became the administrative and religious language there, while Iceland and the Faroe Islands had the status of Danish colonies with Danish as an official language until the mid-20th century.
Standardized national languageFollowing the loss of Schleswig to Germany, a sharp influx of German speakers moved into the area, eventually outnumbering the Danish speakers. The political loss of territory sparked a period of intense nationalism in Denmark, coinciding with the so-called "Danish Golden Age, Golden Age" of Danish culture. Authors such as N.F.S. Grundtvig emphasized the role of language in creating national belonging. Some of the most cherished Danish-language authors of this period are existentialism, existential philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and prolific fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen. The influence of popular literary role models, together with increased requirements of education did much to strengthen the Danish language, and also started a period of homogenization, whereby the Copenhagen standard language gradually displaced the regional vernacular languages. After the Schleswig plebiscites, 1920, Schleswig referendum in 1920, a number of Danes remained as a Danish minority of Southern Schleswig, minority within German territories. Throughout the 19th century, Danes emigrated, establishing small expatriate communities in the Americas, particularly in the US, Canada, and Argentina, where memory and some use of Danish remains today. After the occupation of Denmark by Germany in World War II, the 1948 orthography reform dropped the German-influenced rule of capitalizing nouns, and introduced the letter Å/å. Three 20th-century Danish authors have become Nobel Prize laureates in Nobel Prize in Literature, Literature: Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Karl Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan (joint recipients in 1917) and Johannes Vilhelm Jensen, Johannes V. Jensen (awarded 1944). With the exclusive use of ''rigsdansk'', the High Copenhagenian Standard, in national broadcasting, the traditional dialects came under increased pressure. In the 20th century, they have all but disappeared, and the standard language has extended throughout the country. Minor regional pronunciation variation of the standard language, sometimes called ''regionssprog'' ("regional languages") remain, and are in some cases vital. Today, the major varieties of Standard Danish are High Copenhagenian, associated with elderly, well to-do, and well educated people of the capital, and low-Copenhagenian traditionally associated with the working class, but today adopted as the prestige variety of the younger generations. Also, in the 21st century, the influence of immigration has had linguistic consequences, such as the emergence of a so-called multiethnolect in the urban areas, an immigrant Danish variety (also known as ''Perkerdansk''), combining elements of different immigrant languages such as Arabic, Turkish, and Kurdish, as well as English and Danish.
Geographic distributionDanish is the national language of Denmark and one of two official languages of the Faroe Islands (alongside Faroese language, Faroese). Until 2009, it had also been one of two official languages of Greenland (alongside Greenlandic language, Greenlandic). Danish is widely spoken in Greenland now as ''lingua franca'', and an unknown portion of the native Greenlandic population has Danish as their first language; a large percentage of the native Greenlandic population speaks Danish as a second language since its introduction into the education system as a compulsory language in 1928. Danish was an official language in Iceland until 1944, but is today still widely used and is a mandatory subject in school taught as a second foreign language after English. Iceland was a territory ruled by Denmark-Norway, one of whose official languages was Danish. In addition, a noticeable community of Danish speakers is in Southern Schleswig, the portion of Germany bordering Denmark, where it is an officially recognized regional language, just as German language, German is north of the border. Furthermore, Danish is one of the official languages of the European Union and one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. Under the Nordic Language Convention, Danish-speaking citizens of the Nordic countries have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable for any interpreting, interpretation or translation costs. The more widespread of the two varieties of written Norwegian language, Norwegian, ''Bokmål'', is very close to Danish, because standard Danish was used as the ''de facto'' administrative language until 1814 and one of the official languages of Denmark-Norway.'' Bokmål ''is based on Danish, unlike the other variety of Norwegian, ''Nynorsk'', which is based on the Norwegian dialects, with Old Norwegian as an important reference point. No law stipulates an official language for Denmark, making Danish the ''de facto'' language only. The Code of Civil Procedure does, however, lay down Danish as the language of the courts. Since 1997, public authorities have been obliged to observe the official spelling by way of the Orthography Law. In the 21st century, discussions have been held regarding creating a language law that would make Danish the official language of Denmark.
DialectsFile:Denmark-gender.png, The distribution of one, two, and three grammatical genders in Danish dialects. In Zealand, the transition from three to two genders has happened fairly recently. West of the red line, the definite article goes before the word as in English or German; east of the line it takes the form of a suffix. Standard Danish (''rigsdansk'') is the language based on dialects spoken in and around the capital, Copenhagen. Unlike Swedish and Norwegian, Danish does not have more than one regional speech norm. More than 25% of all Danish speakers live in the metropolitan area of the capital, and most government agencies, institutions, and major businesses keep their main offices in Copenhagen, which has resulted in a very homogeneous national speech norm. Danish dialects can be divided into the traditional dialects, which differ from modern Standard Danish in both phonology and grammar, and the Danish accents or regional languages, which are local varieties of the Standard language distinguished mostly by pronunciation and local vocabulary colored by traditional dialects. Traditional dialects are now mostly extinct in Denmark, with only the oldest generations still speaking them. Danish traditional dialects are divided into three main dialect areas: * Insular Danish (''ømål''), including dialects of the Danish islands of Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Falster, and Møn * Jutlandic (''jysk''), further divided in North, East, West, and South Jutlandic * Bornholmsk dialect, Bornholmian (''bornholmsk''), the dialect of the island of Bornholm Jutlandic is further divided into Southern Jutlandic and Northern Jutlandic, with Northern Jutlandic subdivided into North Jutlandic and West Jutlandic. Insular Danish is divided into Zealand, Funen, Møn, and Lolland-Falster dialect areas―each with addition internal variation. The term "Eastern Danish" is occasionally used for Bornholmian, but including the dialects of Scanian dialects, Scania (particularly in a historical context)―Jutlandic dialect, Insular Danish, and Bornholmian. Bornholmian is the only Eastern Danish dialect spoken in Denmark, since the other Eastern Danish dialects were spoken in areas ceded to and subsequently swedified. Traditional dialects differ in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary from standard Danish. Phonologically, one of the most diagnostic differences is the presence or absence of ''stød''. Four main regional variants for the realization of stød are known: In Southeastern Jutlandic, Southernmost Funen, Southern Langeland, and Ærø, no ''stød'' is used, but instead a pitch accent. South of a line ( da, Stødgrænsen "The Stød border") going through central South Jutland, crossing Southern Funen and central Langeland and north of Lolland-Falster, Møn, Southern Zealand and Bornholm neither ''stød'' nor pitch accent exists. Most of Jutland and on Zealand use'' stød'', and in Zealandic traditional dialects and regional language,'' stød'' occurs more often than in the standard language. In Zealand, the ''stød'' line divides Southern Zealand (without ''stød''), an area which used to be directly under the Crown, from the rest of the Island that used to be the property of various noble estates. Grammatically, a dialectally significant feature is the number of grammatical genders. Standard Danish has two genders and the definite form of nouns is formed by the use of suffixes, while Western Jutlandic has only one gender and the definite form of nouns uses an article before the noun itself, in the same fashion as West Germanic languages. The Bornholmian dialect has maintained to this day many archaic features, such as a distinction between three grammatical genders. Insular Danish traditional dialects also conserved three grammatical genders. By 1900, Zealand insular dialects had been reduced to two genders under influence from the standard language, but other Insular varieties, such as Funen dialect had not. Besides using three genders, the old Insular or Funen dialect, could also use personal pronouns (like he and she) in certain cases, particularly referring to animals. A classic example in traditional Funen dialect is the sentence: "Katti, han får unger", literally ''The cat, he is having kittens'', because cat is a masculine noun, thus is referred to as ''han'' (he), even if it is female cat.
PhonologyThe sound system of Danish is unusual, particularly in its large vowel inventory and in the unusual prosody. In informal or rapid speech, the language is prone to considerable reduction of unstressed syllables, creating many vowel-less syllables with syllabic consonants, as well as reduction of final consonants. Furthermore, the language's prosody does not include many clues about the sentence structure, unlike many other languages, making it relatively more difficult to segment the speech flow into its constituent elements. These factors taken together make Danish pronunciation difficult to master for learners, and Danish children are indicated to take slightly longer in learning to segment speech in early childhood.
VowelsAlthough somewhat depending on analysis, most modern variants of Danish distinguish 12 long vowels, 13 short vowels, and two ''schwa'' vowels, and that only occur in unstressed syllables. This gives a total of 27 different vowel phonemes – a very large number among the world's languages. At least 19 different diphthongs also occur, all with a short first vowel and the second segment being either , , or . The table below shows the approximate distribution of the vowels as given by in Modern Standard Danish, with the symbols used in Help:IPA/Danish, IPA/Danish. Questions of analysis may give a slightly different inventory, for example based on whether r-colored vowels are considered distinct phonemes. gives 25 "full vowels", not counting the two unstressed ''schwa'' vowels.
ConsonantsThe consonant inventory is comparatively simple. distinguishes 16 non-syllabic consonant phonemes in Danish. Many of these phonemes have quite different allophones in Syllable onset, onset and Syllable coda, coda. Phonetically there is no voicing distinction among the stops, rather the distinction is one of aspiration and fortis vs. lenis. are aspirated in onset realized as , but not in coda. The pronunciation of ''t'', , is in between a simple aspirated and a fully affricated as has happened in German with many words that now contain ''z''. /v/ is pronounced as a [w] in syllable coda, so e.g. /grav/ ("grave") is pronounced . often have slight frication, but are usually pronounced as approximants. Danish differs from the similar sound in English and Icelandic, in that it is not a dental fricative but an alveolar approximant which sounds like and is frequently mistaken for an [l] by second language learners. The sound is found for example in the word /sjovˀ/ "fun" pronounced and /tjalˀ/ "marijuana" pronounced . Some analyses have posited it as a phoneme, but since it occurs only after or and doesn't occur after these phonemes, it can be analyzed as an allophone of , which is devoiced after voiceless alveolar frication. This makes it unnecessary to postulate a -phoneme in Danish. In onset is realized as a voiced uvular fricative, uvu-pharyngeal approximant, , but in coda it is either realized as a non-syllabic near-open central vowel, low central vowel, or simply coalesces with the preceding vowel. The phenomenon is comparable to the ''r'' in German or in non-rhotic pronunciations of English. The Danish pronunciation of as a so-called skarre-r distinguishes the language from those varieties of Norwegian and Swedish that use trilled .
ProsodyDanish is characterized by a prosody (linguistics), prosodic feature called ''stød'' (lit. "thrust"). This is a form of laryngealization or creaky voice. Some sources have described it as a glottal stop, but this is a very infrequent realization, and today phoneticians consider it a phonation type or a prosodic phenomenon. It has phonemic status, since it serves as the sole distinguishing feature of words with different meanings in minimal pairs such as ''bønder'' ("peasants") with stød, versus ''bønner'' ("beans") without stød. The distribution of stød in the vocabulary is related to the distribution of the common Scandinavian pitch accents found in most dialects of Norwegian phonology#Accent, Norwegian and Swedish phonology#Stress and pitch, Swedish. stress (linguistics), Stress is phonemic and distinguishes words such as ''billigst'' "cheapest" and ''bilist'' "car driver".
GrammarSimilarly to the case of English, modern Danish grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European Dependent-marking language, dependent-marking pattern with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly Analytic language, analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax. Some traits typical of Germanic languages persist in Danish, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong inflection, strong stems inflected through ablaut or Umlaut (linguistics), umlaut (i.e. changing the vowel of the stem, as in the pairs ''tager/tog'' ("takes/took") and ''fod/fødder'' ("foot/feet")) and weak stems inflected through affixation (such as ''elsker/elskede'' "love/loved", ''bil/biler'' "car/cars"). Vestiges of the Germanic case and gender system are found in the pronoun system. Typical for an Indo-European language, Danish follows Nominative–accusative language, accusative morphosyntactic alignment. Danish distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, numerals, adjectives, adverbs, articles, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections and ideophones.
NounsNouns are inflected for number (singular vs. plural) and definiteness, and are classified into two grammatical genders. Only pronouns inflect for case, and the previous genitive case has become an enclitic. A distinctive feature of the Nordic languages, including Danish, is that the definite articles, which also mark noun gender, have developed into suffixes. Typical of Germanic language plurals are either irregular or "strong inflection, strong" stems inflected through Umlaut (linguistics), umlaut (i.e. changing the vowel of the stem (e.g. ''fod/fødder'' "foot/feet", ''mand/mænd'' "man/men") or "weak" stems inflected through affixation (e.g. ''skib/skibe'' "ship/ships", ''kvinde/kvinder'' "woman/women").
GenderStandard Danish has two Grammatical gender, nominal genders: ''common'' and ''neuter''; the common gender arose as the historical feminine and masculine genders conflated into a single category. Some traditional dialects retain a three-way gender distinction, between masculine, feminine and neuter, and some dialects of Jutland have a masculine/feminine contrast. While the majority of Danish nouns (ca. 75%) have the ''common'' gender, and ''neuter'' is often used for inanimate objects, the genders of nouns are not generally predictable and must in most cases be memorized. The gender of a noun determines the form of adjectives that modify it, and the form of the definite suffixes.
DefinitenessDefiniteness is marked by two mutually exclusive articles, a preposed demonstrative article which occurs with nouns that are modified by an adjective or a postposed enclitic. Neuter nouns take the clitic ''-et'', and common gender nouns take ''-en''. Indefinite nouns take the articles ''en'' (common gender) or ''et'' (neuter). Hence, the common gender noun ''en mand'' "a man" (indefinite) has the definite form ''manden'' "the man", whereas the neuter noun ''et hus'' "a house" (indefinite) has the definite form, "the house" (definite) ''huset''. Indefinite: *''Jeg så et hus'': "I saw a house" Definite with enclitic article: *''Jeg så huset'': "I saw the house" Definite with preposed demonstrative article: *''Jeg så det store hus'':Note here that in Swedish and Norwegian the preposed and the enclitic article occur together (e.g. ''det store huset''), whereas in Danish the enclitic article is replaced by the preposed demonstrative. "I saw the big house" The plural definite ending is ''-(e)ne'' (e.g. ''drenge'' "boys > ''drengene'' "the boys" and ''piger'' "girls" > ''pigerne'' "the girls"), and nouns ending in -''ere'' lose the last ''-e'' before adding the -ne suffix (e.g. ''danskere'' "Danes" > ''danskerne'' "the Danes"). When the noun is modified by an adjective, the definiteness is marked by the definite article ''den'' (common) or ''det'' (neuter) and the definite/plural form of the adjective: ''den store mand'' "the big man", ''det store hus'' "the big house".
NumberThere are three different types of regular plurals: Class 1 forms the plural with the suffix -''er'' (indefinite) and -''erne'' (definite), Class 2 with the suffix ''-e'' (indefinite) and -''ene'' (definite.), and Class 3 takes no suffix for the plural indefinite form and -''ene'' for the plural definite. Most irregular nouns take an ablaut plural (with a change in the stem vowel), or combine ablaut stem-change with the suffix, and some have unique plural forms. Unique forms may be inherited (e.g. the plural of ''øje'' "eye", which is the old dual form ''øjne''), or for loan words they may be borrowed from the donor language (e.g. the word ''konto'' "account" which is borrowed from Italian and uses the Italian masculine plural form ''konti'' "accounts").
PossessionPossessive phrases are formed with the enclitic -''s'', for example ''min fars hus'' "my father's house" where the noun ''far'' carries the possessive enclitic. This is however not an example of genitive case marking, because in the case of longer noun phrases the -s attaches to the last word in the phrase, which need not be the head-noun or even a noun at all. For example, the phrases ''kongen af Danmarks bolsjefabrik'' "the king of Denmark's candy factory", or ''det er pigen Uffe bor sammen meds datter'' "that is the daughter of the girl that Uffe lives with", where the enclitic attaches to a stranded preposition.
PronounsAs does English, the Danish pronominal system retains a distinction between subjective and oblique case. The subjective case form of pronouns is used when pronouns occur as grammatical subject of a sentence, and oblique forms are used for all non-subjective occurrences including accusative, dative, predicative, comparative and other types of constructions. The third person singular pronouns also distinguish between and animate masculine (''han'' "he"), animate feminine (''hun'' "she") forms, as well as inanimate neuter (''det'' "it") and inanimate common gender (''den'' "it"). *''Jeg sover'': "I sleep" *''Du sover'': "you sleep" *''Jeg kysser dig'': "I kiss you" *''Du kysser mig'': "you kiss me" Possessive pronouns have independent and adjectival forms. The adjectival form is used immediately preceding the possessed noun (''det er min hest'' "it is my horse"), whereas the independent possessive pronoun is used in place of the possessed noun (''den er min'' "it is mine"). In the third person singular ''sin'' is used when the owner is also the subject of the sentence, whereas ''hans'' ("his"), ''hendes'' (her) and ''dens/dets'' "its" is used when the owner is different from the grammatical subject. *''Han tog sin hat'': He took his (own) hat * ''Han tog hans hat'': He took his hat (someone else's hat)
Nominal compoundsLike all Germanic languages, Danish forms compound nouns. These are represented in Danish orthography as one word, as in ''kvindehåndboldlandsholdet'', "the female national handball team". In some cases, nouns are joined with an extra ''s'', originally possessive in function, like ''landsmand'' (from ''land'', "country", and ''mand'', "man", meaning "compatriot"), but ''landmand'' (from same roots, meaning "farmer"). Some words are joined with an extra ''e'', like ''gæstebog'' (from ''gæst'' and ''bog'', meaning "guest book").
VerbsDanish verbs are morphologically simple, marking very few grammatical categories. They do not mark person or number of subject, although the marking of plural subjects was still used in writing as late as the 19th century. Verbs have a past, non-past and infinitive form, past and present participle forms, and a passive, and an imperative.
Tense, aspect, mood, and voiceVerbs can be divided into two main classes, the strong/irregular verbs and the regular/weak verbs. The regular verbs are also divided into two classes, those that take the past suffix -''te'' and those that take the suffix -''ede''. The infinitive always ends in a vowel, usually -e (pronounced ), infinitive forms are preceded by the article ''at'' (pronounced ). The non-past or present tense takes the suffix -''r'', except for a few strong verbs that have irregular non-past forms. The past form does not necessarily mark past tense, but also counterfactuality or conditionality, and the non-past has many uses besides present tense time reference. The present participle ends in -''ende'' (e.g. ''løbende'' "running"), and the past participle ends in -''et'' (e.g. ''løbet'' "run"), ''-t'' (e.g. købt "bought"). Perfect (grammar), Perfect tense is constructed with ''at have'' ("to have") and participial forms, like in English. But some transitive verbs can also form an imperfective perfect using ''at være'' ("to be") instead. * ''Hun har gået''. ''Flyet har fløjet'': ''She has walked''. ''The plane has flown'' * ''Hun er gået''. ''Flyet er fløjet'': ''She has left''. ''The plane has taken off'' * ''Hun havde gået''. ''Flyet havde fløjet'': ''She had walked''. ''The plane had flown'' * ''Hun var gået''. ''Flyet var fløjet'': ''She had left''. ''The plane had taken off'' The passive form takes the suffix -s: ''avisen læses hver dag'' ("the newspaper is read every day"). Another passive construction uses the auxiliary verb ''at blive'' "to become": ''avisen bliver læst hver dag''. The imperative mood is formed from the infinitive by removing the final schwa-vowel: *''løb!'': "run!"
SyntaxDanish basic constituent order in simple sentences with both a subject and an object is Subject–verb–object, Subject–Verb–Object. However, Danish is also a V2 word order, V2 language, which means that the verb must always be the second constituent of the sentence. Following the Danish grammarian Paul Diderichsen Danish grammar tends to be analyzed as consisting of slots or fields, and in which certain types of sentence material can be moved to the pre-verbal (or "grounding") field to achieve different pragmatic effects. Usually the sentence material occupying the preverbal slot has to be pragmatically marked, usually either new information or Topic and comment, topics. There is no rule that subjects must occur in the preverbal slot, but since subject and topic often coincide, they often do. Therefore, whenever any sentence material that is not the subject occurs in the preverbal position the subject is demoted to postverbal position and the sentence order becomes VSO. *''Peter (S) så (V) Jytte (O)'': "Peter saw Jytte" but *''I går så (V) Peter (S) Jytte (O)'': "Yesterday, Peter saw Jytte" When there is no pragmatically marked constituents in the sentence to take the preverbal slot (for example when all the information is new), the slot has to take a Dummy pronoun, dummy subject "der". *''der kom en pige ind ad døren'': there came a girl in through the door, "A girl came in the door"
Main clausesdescribes the basic order of sentence constituents in main clauses as comprising the following 8 positions: Position 0 is not part of the sentence and can only contain sentential connectors (such as conjunctions or interjections). Position 1 can contain any sentence constituent. Position 2 can only contain the main verb. Position 3 is the subject position, unless the subject is fronted to occur in position 1. Position 4 can only contain light adverbs and the negation. Position 5 is for non-finite verbs, such as auxiliaries. Position 6 is the position of direct and indirect objects, and position 7 is for heavy adverbial constituents. Questions with Interrogative word, wh-words are formed differently from yes/no questions. In wh-questions the question word occupies the preverbal field, regardless of whether its grammatical role is subject or object or adverbial. In yes/no questions the preverbal field is empty, so that the sentence begins with the verb. Wh-question: *''hvem så hun?: whom saw she, "whom did she see?" *''så hun ham?'': saw she him?, "did she see him?"
Subordinate clausesIn subordinate clauses, the syntax differs from that of main clauses. In the subordinate clause structure the verb is preceded by the subject and any light adverbial material (e.g. negation). Complement clauses begin with the particle ''at'' in the "connector field". *''Han sagde, at han ikke ville gå'': he said that he not would go, "He said that he did not want to go" Relative clauses are marked by the relative articles ''som'' or ''der'' which occupy the preverbal slot: *''Jeg kender en mand, som bor i Helsingør: "I know a man who lives in Elsinore"
VocabularyAbout 2 000 of Danish non-compound words are derived from the Old Norse language, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European language, Proto Indo-European. Of these 2 000 words, 1 200 are nouns, 500 are verbs, 180 are adjectives and the rest belong to other word classes. Danish has also absorbed a large number of loan words, most of which were borrowed from Middle Low German in the late medieval period. Out of the 500 most frequently used words in Danish, 100 are medieval loans from Middle Low German, as Low German is the other official language of Denmark-Norway. In the 17th and 18th centuries, German language, standard German and French language, French superseded Low German influence and in the 20th century English became the main supplier of loan words, especially after World War II. Although many old Nordic words remain, some were replaced with borrowed synonyms, as can be seen with ''æde'' (to eat) which became less common when the Low German ''spise'' came into fashion. As well as loan words, new words are freely formed by compounding existing words. In standard texts of contemporary Danish, Middle Low German loans account for about 16‒17% of the vocabulary, Graeco-Latin-loans 4‒8%, French 2‒4% and English about 1%. Danish and English are both Germanic languages. Danish is a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse, and English is a West Germanic language descended from Old English. Old Norse exerted a strong influence on Old English in the early medieval period. To see their shared Germanic heritage, one merely has to note the many common words that are very similar in the two languages. For example, commonly used Danish nouns and prepositions such as ''have'', ''over'', ''under'', ''for'', ''give'', ''flag,'' ''salt,'' and ''kat'' are easily recognizable in their written form to English speakers. Similarly, some other words are almost identical to their Scots language, Scots equivalents, e.g., ''kirke'' (Scots ''kirk'', i.e., 'church') or ''barn'' (Scots ''bairn'', i.e. 'child'). In addition, the word ''by'', meaning "village" or "town", occurs in many English place-names, such as ''Whitby'' and ''Selby'', as remnants of the Danelaw, Viking occupation. During the latter period, English adopted "are", the third person plural form of the verb "to be", as well as the corresponding personal pronoun form "they" from contemporary Old Norse.
NumeralsIn the word forms of numbers above 20, the units are stated before the tens, so 21 is rendered ''enogtyve'', literally "one and twenty". The numeral ''halvanden'' means 1½ (literally "half second", implying "one plus half of the second one"). The numerals ''halvtredje'' (2½), ''halvfjerde'' (3½) and ''halvfemte'' (4½) are obsolete, but still implicitly used in the vigesimal system described below. Similarly, the time, temporal designation (''klokken'')'' halv tre'', literally "half three (o'clock)", is half past two. One peculiar feature of the Danish language is that the numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 are (as are the French language, French numerals from 80 through 99) based on a vigesimal system, meaning that the 20 (number), score (20) is used as a base unit in counting. ''Tres'' (short for ''tre-sinds-tyve'', "three times twenty") means 60, while 50 is ''halvtreds'' (short for ''halvtredje-sinds-tyve'', "half third times twenty", implying two score plus half of the third score). The suffix, ending ''sindstyve'' meaning "times twenty" is no longer included in cardinal numbers, but may still be used in ordinal numbers. Thus, in modern Danish fifty-two is usually rendered as ''tooghalvtreds'' from the now obsolete ''tooghalvtredsindstyve'', whereas 52nd is either ''tooghalvtredsende'' or ''tooghalvtredsindstyvende''. Twenty is ''tyve'' (derived from Old Danish ''tiughu'', a haplology of ''tuttiughu'', meaning 'two tens'), while thirty is ''tredive'' (Old Danish ''þrjatiughu'', "three tens"), and forty is ''fyrre'' (Old Danish ''fyritiughu'', "four tens", Dansk sprognævn – De danske tal halvtreds, tres, halvfjerds, firs og halvfems
Writing system and alphabetThe oldest preserved examples of written Danish (from the Iron and Viking Ages) are in the Runic alphabet. The introduction of Christianity also brought the Latin script to Denmark, and at the end of the High Middle Ages Runes had more or less been replaced by Latin letters. Danish orthography is Conservative (linguistics), conservative, using most of the conventions established in the 16th century. The spoken language however has changed a lot since then, creating a gap between the spoken and written languages. The modern Danish alphabet is similar to the English one, with three additional letters: ''æ'', ''ø'', and ''å'', which come at the end of the Danish alphabet, alphabet, in that order. The letters c, q, w, x and z are only used in loan words. A spelling reform in 1948 introduced the letter ''å'', already in use in Norwegian and Swedish, into the Danish alphabet to replace the digraph (orthography), digraph ''aa''. The old usage continues to occur in some personal and geographical names; for example, the name of the city of ''Aalborg'' is spelled with Aa following a decision by the City Council in the 1970s and ''Aarhus'' decided to go back to Aa in 2011. When representing the ''å'' sound, ''aa'' is treated like ''å'' in collating, alphabetical sorting, though it appears to be two letters. When the letters are not available due to technical limitations, they are often replaced by ''ae'' (Æ, æ), ''oe'' or ''o'' (Ø, ø), and ''aa'' (Å, å), respectively. The same spelling reform changed the spelling of a few common words, such as the past tense ''vilde'' (would), ''kunde'' (could) and ''skulde'' (should), to their current forms of ''ville'', ''kunne'' and ''skulle'' (making them identical to the infinitives in writing, as they are in speech). Modern Danish and Norwegian use the same alphabet, though spelling differs slightly, particularly with the phonetic spelling of loanwords; for example the spelling of ''station'' and ''garage'' in Danish remains identical to other languages, whereas in Norwegian, they are transliterated as ''stasjon'' and ''garasje''.
See alsoRealm languages: * Faroese language, Faroese * Greenlandic language, Greenlandic Nordic languages: * Icelandic language, Icelandic * Norwegian language, Norwegian * Swedish language, Swedish
Notes and references
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