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Dalian
Dalian
is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province, China. It is the southernmost city of the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula. Dalian is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status.[5] The Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
lies southwest across the Bohai Strait
Bohai Strait
and Korea
Korea
lies across the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
to the east. Today, a financial, shipping and logistics centre for Northeast Asia, Dalian
Dalian
has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports. Dalian
Dalian
was previously known as both Dalniy[6] (Russian: Дальний; Dal'nii) and Dairen (Japanese: 大連). However, the city was better known as Port
Port
Arthur (Russian: Порт-Артур; Port-Artur) and Ryojun (Japanese: 旅順) from the original Port Arthur, now the city's Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
district. In 2016, Dalian
Dalian
ranks 48th in the Global Financial Centres Index, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Beijing
Beijing
and Qingdao.[7] In 2012, Dalian
Dalian
ranked 82nd in the Global City Competitiveness Index.[8] In 2006, Dalian
Dalian
was named China's most livable city by China
China
Daily.[9]

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Ancient 2.2 Qing Dynasty 2.3 British, Russian, and Japanese occupations 2.4 Post-World War II 2.5 Post 1990 2.6 Post 2010

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Environmental issues

4 Administration

4.1 Municipal government 4.2 Administrative divisions

5 Demographics 6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture and aquaculture 6.2 Heavy, light and distribution industries 6.3 Industrial zones 6.4 Financial and IT industry

7 Tourism

7.1 Four inner-city districts 7.2 Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs) 7.3 Lüshunkou District
Lüshunkou District
(in the southwestern suburbs) 7.4 Three Northern District and Cities of Greater Dalian 7.5 Hot Spring and Ski Resorts

8 Transportation

8.1 Local transportation 8.2 Domestic and international

9 Culture

9.1 Dalian
Dalian
dialect 9.2 Cuisine 9.3 Theaters 9.4 Sports 9.5 City-wide festivals and events 9.6 Inter-governmental 9.7 Religion

10 Notable people 11 Education

11.1 Colleges and universities 11.2 Research centres 11.3 High schools 11.4 International schools

12 Twin towns and sister cities 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 Further reading 17 External links

Names[edit] Modern Dalian
Dalian
originated from Qingniwa (Chinese: 青泥洼; pinyin: Qīngníwā; literally: "cyan mud swamp") or Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
(Chinese: 青泥洼桥; pinyin: Qīngníwāqiáo; literally: "bridge over the cyan mud swamp"), a small fishing village. Russia
Russia
built a commercial town for the Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
after assuming control in 1898 and called it "Dalniy" (Russian: Дальний Dal'nii, lit. 'a remote one (in reference to the town's location)',[10] rendered as Chinese: 达里尼; pinyin: Dálǐní) from 1898–1905. After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan
Japan
occupied the Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
and renamed the city Dairen (Japanese: 大連/だいれん)[10] after the Chinese name for Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
(simplified Chinese: 大连湾; traditional Chinese: 大連灣; pinyin: Dàlián Wān). English sources called the city "Dairen" in this period, from the Japanese. In 1950, Dalian
Dalian
merged with nearby town called Lüshun
Lüshun
(Chinese: 旅顺) (formerly "Ryojun" and before that, " Port
Port
Arthur") to form the city of Lüda[10] (Chinese: 旅大; pinyin: Lǚdà), a name formed from the first syllable of each constituent's name which was usually rendered as Luta in English during that era. In 1981, the State Council again renamed the city, from Lüda to "Dalian" (simplified Chinese: 大连; traditional Chinese: 大連; pinyin: Dàlián, the same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen), effective 5 March 1981.[10] History[edit] Ancient[edit] In the Qin and Han periods (221 BC–AD 220), Chinese expanded their territories into northern Korea
Korea
through the Dalian
Dalian
region, then under the jurisdiction of Liaodong
Liaodong
county.[10] During the Sixteen Kingdoms era (3rd through 5th centuries), the kingdom of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
controlled this region. In the early Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907), the Dalian
Dalian
region was part of Andong
Andong
Prefecture in Jili state; during the Liao Dynasty (916–1125), it was part of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang
Liaoyang
county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin (220–420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), and Qingniwakou during the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
(1644–1911). Qing Dynasty[edit] In the 1880s, Jinzhou, the north of downtown within Dalian, now Jinzhou
Jinzhou
District, was a walled town and centre for political intrigue and economic activity. The Qing government built bridges and heavily fortified the peninsula. Mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, near what became downtown Dalian. British, Russian, and Japanese occupations[edit] Main articles: Russian Dalian
Russian Dalian
and Kwantung Leased Territory

Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square, then Ōhiroba, ca. 1940. It was initially built in 1898 as Nikolayevskaya Square.

An old clock on a heritage building near the port

Dalian
Dalian
Hotel, formerly Yamato Hotel, was built in 1914

The British occupied Qingniwa in 1858,[11] but it returned to Chinese control in the 1860. Port
Port
Arthur at the peninsula's tip took its English name from Royal Navy Lieutenant William C. Arthur, but Chinese called it Lüshun. Although China
China
heavily fortified the area, in which it allowed trade with foreigners, Japan
Japan
swiftly overcame those defenses[citation needed] in the First Sino-Japanese War, committing the Port
Port
Arthur massacre during the war in November 1894. In April 1895, China
China
conceded defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, ceding Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula, Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu, and making many other concessions in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The Triple Intervention
Triple Intervention
by Russia, France
France
and Germany
Germany
forced Japan
Japan
to return the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
to China, despite the treaty's terms; instead the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
coerced a lease of the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
in 1898. For Russia
Russia
the region of the peninsula was of particular interest as one of the few areas in the region that had the potential to develop ice-free ports.[12] The Russians built a modern commercial port city, which they wanted to become the Paris of the Far East, and called it Dal'niy (Russian: Дальний).[13] Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line from Harbin, Dalniy became Russia's primary port-city in Asia, and also served other western traders. Russia
Russia
signed the Pavlov Agreement (1898) with China, which granted Russia
Russia
a 25-year lease on Dalian
Dalian
and Lüshun
Lüshun
and exclusive right to lay a branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway—what would become the South Manchurian Railway.[14] Russia
Russia
spent more than 10 million golden rubles (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's rubles) building the new ice-free port city.[15] Russia
Russia
heavily fortified both Dalniy ( Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
of Zhongshan District) and the Port
Port
Arthur naval base (Lüshunkou) before and after the Boxer Rebellion. Missionaries and converts were killed in the peninsula during the insurrection, although the massive massacres of ethnic Chinese Christians including Metrophanes, Chi Sung
Metrophanes, Chi Sung
occurred at Harbin.[16] Also, Western expeditionary forces suppressed the Boxers across the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
in Shandong. During the Russo-Japanese War, the peninsula became a major battleground. Major-General Baron Anatoly Stoessel
Anatoly Stoessel
defended the siege of Port
Port
Arthur, for five months, but the Japanese army managed to sink several Russian ships attempting to relieve him through long-distance fire in early December. Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff was blamed for splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles (8,047 km) across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
and Manchurian Railway between Dalniy and Port
Port
Arthur. After the Japanese navy crippled the remaining Russian battleship Sevastopol in three weeks of constant attacks, and explosives detonated in tunnels destroyed Port Arthur's remaining defenses at year's end, Russia
Russia
surrendered the port on 2 January 1905.[citation needed] The Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty of Portsmouth
ceded Port
Port
Arthur to Japan, which set up the Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
or Guandongzhou (關東州), on roughly the southern half ( Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
and south) of present-day Dalian. Japanese invested heavily in the region, which became the main trading port between Manchuria and Japan. Japan
Japan
leased the area from Manchukuo after establishing the puppet state in 1932. In 1937, as the Second Sino-Japanese War began, Japan
Japan
enlarged and modernized the trade zone as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun ( Lüshun
Lüshun
or Port
Port
Arthur).

 Dalian

↓British Invasion

↓LS Massacre

↓Treaty of Portsmouth

WWII
WWII
Ends

Dalian
Dalian
Transferred to China

UK

Qing rule

Russian

Japanese rule

Soviet

People's Pepublic of China

 China

↓Second Opium War

↓Jiawu War

↓Xinhai Revolution

↓WWII

↓Civil War

↓Sino-Soviet split

Qing Empire

Republic of China    

People's Republic of China

│ 1858

│ 1868

│ 1878

│ 1888

│ 1898

│ 1908

│ 1918

│ 1928

│ 1938

│ 1948

│ 1958

│ 1968

Post-World War II[edit]

A retired China
China
Railways SY, built jointly by Dalian
Dalian
Locomotive Works and Tangshan
Tangshan
Locomotive Works in 1959, on display in front of Dalian Modern Museum

With the unconditional surrender of Japan
Japan
in August 1945, Dairen was passed to the Soviets, whose Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation had liberated the city. The Soviets and Chinese Communists
Chinese Communists
cooperated to develop the city, relatively undamaged during the war,[10] especially its industrial infrastructure and the port. The Soviet government rented the port and in 1945 the first Chinese Communist mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) had been appointed.[citation needed]

Joint Chinese-Soviet travel document issued at Dalian
Dalian
(Guandong) in 1948

In 1950, the USSR presented the city to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation. Dalian
Dalian
and Lüshun
Lüshun
(former Port Arthur) merged as Lüda on 1 December 1950. From 12 March 1953 to 1 August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955.[10] After the Soviets left, the PRC made Lüda a major shipbuilding centre. In 1981, it was renamed Dalian, with Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
becoming a constituent district.[10] In 1984, the Chinese Government designated the city a Special
Special
Economic Zone. At the time, Dalian
Dalian
was China's largest foreign trade port.[17] Post 1990[edit]

Modern day Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
shopping district

Modern day Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square

The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai
(later Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both the mayor of the city and one of the major leaders in the province, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He also worked as former Minister of Commerce of the PRC. In 2008, about 1,000 people protested and blocked traffic as a response of the 2008 Tibetan anti-Chinese protests,[18] and forced the temporary closure of the local Carrefour
Carrefour
store.[19] In 2010, one of the worst recorded oil spills in China's history occurred in Dalian. Since 2007, Dalian
Dalian
has been hosting the Annual Meeting of the New Champions ("Summer Davos"), organised by the World Economic Forum, in alternating years with Tianjin.[20] The venue for the forum is Dalian International Conference Center in Donggang CBD. Post 2010[edit]

14 August 2011 - Dalian PX protest occurred. June 2014 - China's tenth national new area, Dalian
Dalian
Jinpu New Area officially established. 14 June 2016 - Dalian
Dalian
taxi incident occurred. 5 August 2016 - Dalian
Dalian
Huabiao
Huabiao
incident occurred.

Geography[edit]

Dalian

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    8.9     0 −7

    5.8     1 −5

    12     7 0

    25     15 7

    47     20 12

    83     24 17

    140     27 21

    155     27 22

    65     24 17

    29     18 11

    20     10 3

    11     3 −4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.4     31 20

    0.2     35 23

    0.5     45 32

    1     58 44

    1.9     68 54

    3.3     76 63

    5.5     80 70

    6.1     81 71

    2.6     75 63

    1.1     64 51

    0.8     49 37

    0.4     38 26

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Dalian
Dalian
and vicinities, Landsat 5
Landsat 5
satellite image, 3 August 2010

One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian municipal area today consists of Dalian
Dalian
proper and the smaller Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
(formerly Lüshun
Lüshun
city, known in Western and Russian historic references as Port
Port
Arthur), about forty nautical miles (74 kilometres; 46 miles) farther along the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalniy (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
was 40 kilometres (25 miles) from Port
Port
Arthur/ Lüshun
Lüshun
(known today as Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
or literally, Lüshun
Lüshun
Port). Dalian
Dalian
is located on Korea
Korea
Bay north of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
and roughly in the middle of the Liaodong
Liaodong
peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 km (1,184 mi), it governs the majority of the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian
Dalian
Bay.

Shore in Dalian

Climate[edit] Dalian
Dalian
has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by warm wet summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C (12.2 °F). The monthly percent of possible sunshine ranges from 49% in July to 68% in September and October, with 2,740 hours of bright sunshine annually. The annual mean temperature is 10.90 °C (51.6 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −21.1 °C (−6 °F) on 4 January 1970 to 36.6 °C (98 °F) on 14 July 2015.[21]

Climate data for Dalian
Dalian
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 14.2 (57.6) 20.1 (68.2) 28.5 (83.3) 33.8 (92.8) 35.6 (96.1) 36.6 (97.9) 34.4 (93.9) 33.4 (92.1) 28.2 (82.8) 21.7 (71.1) 14.4 (57.9) 36.6 (97.9)

Average high °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 1.4 (34.5) 7.2 (45) 14.6 (58.3) 20.2 (68.4) 24.2 (75.6) 26.6 (79.9) 27.3 (81.1) 23.9 (75) 17.5 (63.5) 9.7 (49.5) 3.1 (37.6) 14.6 (58.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −2.1 (28.2) 3.2 (37.8) 10.2 (50.4) 16.0 (60.8) 20.3 (68.5) 23.4 (74.1) 24.1 (75.4) 20.3 (68.5) 13.8 (56.8) 6.0 (42.8) −0.5 (31.1) 10.9 (51.6)

Average low °C (°F) −6.8 (19.8) −5 (23) 0.2 (32.4) 6.6 (43.9) 12.2 (54) 17.2 (63) 21.0 (69.8) 21.6 (70.9) 17.4 (63.3) 10.6 (51.1) 2.8 (37) −3.5 (25.7) 7.9 (46.1)

Record low °C (°F) −21.1 (−6) −17.1 (1.2) −15.3 (4.5) −4.2 (24.4) 3.7 (38.7) 10.5 (50.9) 14.2 (57.6) 14.5 (58.1) 6.4 (43.5) −1.9 (28.6) −12.8 (9) −19.0 (−2.2) −21.1 (−6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.9 (0.35) 5.8 (0.228) 12.1 (0.476) 24.7 (0.972) 47.0 (1.85) 83.2 (3.276) 140.1 (5.516) 155.4 (6.118) 65.1 (2.563) 29.0 (1.142) 20.0 (0.787) 10.6 (0.417) 601.9 (23.695)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.3 2.9 3.7 5.4 7.0 9.3 11.8 9.2 6.0 5.2 5.3 3.4 72.5

Average relative humidity (%) 56 56 55 56 61 74 84 81 69 62 60 58 64.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.0 200.2 238.8 256.9 277.6 254.7 220.7 240.8 251.5 234.6 182.1 183.9 2,739.8

Percent possible sunshine 66 66 65 65 63 57 49 57 68 68 60 63 62.3

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration[22]

Environmental issues[edit]

Autumn mountain foliage

View from Xiaochangshan Island (小长山岛) in Changhai County

Beach side sunset

Seascape at Heishijiao (黑石礁) Geological Park

In 2001, The United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
awarded the Dalian Municipal Government for its outstanding contribution to the protection of the environment.[23] The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with Air Pollution Index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ (Superior).[24] Dalian
Dalian
frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to State Environmental Protection Administration.[25] However, the environmental effects of economic growth are of concern, according to Dalian
Dalian
Environmental Protection Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than 2010.[26] The water quality of offshore marine space remained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the National Seawater Quality Standard, with the exception of Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
and the city's southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources is considered good and complies with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.[24] Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, the explosion of two petroleum pipelines released 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea, according to official statements. Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace, says that the figure could be upwards of 400,000.[27] It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China,[28][29] and involved 2,000 firefighters.[30] The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilized for the cleanup.[31] The incident caused President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang moved in to help direct the rescue work.[32] A researcher with the China
China
Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans – as the pollution enters the food chain – could last 10 years."[33] This has compounded aquatic pollution, affecting the city's fishing industry.[26] In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia Factory in Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have ordered the plant to be shut down.[34] Around 12,000 residents protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in Dalian.[35][36] Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move, leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.[37] Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air quality.[26][38] The United States
United States
National Academy of Engineering have raised concern about rising traffic in Dalian
Dalian
stating that "rapid growth of traffic in Dalian
Dalian
and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and other U.S. cities, if not better managed."[39] Administration[edit] Dalian
Dalian
is the second largest city of Liaoning
Liaoning
province, after Shenyang, the provincial capital. Dalian
Dalian
City is governed by the Dalian
Dalian
Municipal People's Government. Municipal government[edit] The municipal government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level. There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):

The Development Zone (开发区) The Free Trade Zone (保税区) The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区) The Jīnshítān ("Golden Pebble Beach") National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)

Administrative divisions[edit] (see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China) The city administers 7 districts, 2 county-level cities, and 1 county:

There are 92 sub-districts and 69 towns and townships.[40] Zhongshan, Xigang, Shahekou and Ganjingzi Districts make up the urban core. Changhai County
Changhai County
is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.

Map

1 2 3 Ganjingzi Lüshunkou Jinzhou Pulandian Changhai County Wafangdian (city) Zhuanghe (city) 1.Zhongshan 2.Xigang 3.Shahekou

Name Chinese Meaning in English Standard Mandarin Jiaoliao Mandarin Population (est. 2015) Area (km²) Density (/km²)

City proper

Zhongshan
Zhongshan
District 中山区 Named after Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(Not historical based) Zhōngshān Qū Zhong2 San4 Qu4 360,722 40.1 8,996

Xigang District 西岗区 West Sentry (Named by Japanese) Xīgǎng Qū Xi4 Gang4 Qu4 293,316 23.94 12,252

Shahekou District 沙河口区 Sand River Estuary Shāhékǒu Qū Sa4 He2 Kou3 Qu4 648,719 34.71 18,690

Ganjingzi District 甘井子区 Sweet Well (Named by a legend) Gānjǐngzi Qū Gan4 Jinge3 Qu4 843,342 451.52 1,868

Suburban

Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
District 旅顺口区 Safe Travel Estuary (also named Port
Port
Arthur) Lǚshùnkǒu Qū Lv3 Sun4 Kou3 Qu4 221,356 512.15 432

Jinzhou
Jinzhou
District 金州区 Golden State (Named by Emperor Taizong of Tang Jīnzhōu Qū Jin4 Zhou0 Qu4 681,543 1,352.54 504

Pulandian District 普兰店区 Land of Brambles (Manchu) Pǔlándiàn Qū Pulan4 Dian4 Qu4 915,595 2,769.9 331

Satellite cities

Wafangdian 瓦房店市 Land of Tile-roofed Houses Wǎfángdiàn Shì Wa4 Fang4 Dian4 Si4 997,830 3,576.4 279

Zhuanghe 庄河市 Zhuang River Zhuānghé Shì Zuang4 He0 Si4 901,182 3,655.7 247

Rural

Changhai County 长海县 Long Sea (formerly named Elliot Islands) Chánghǎi Xiàn Chang2-hai Xian4 72,033 156.89 459

Demographics[edit] The population of Dalian
Dalian
according to the 2010 census totaled 6.69 million. The total registered population on household at year end 2014 was 5.943 million, with a net increase of 29,000 over the previous year.[1] Economy[edit]

Wang Jianlin, Chairman of the Dalian
Dalian
Wanda Group, at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum, Dalian
Dalian
2009

Main article: Economy of Dalian The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase in GDP since 1992.[41] In 2014, the city's GDP registered a 5.8% increase, reaching RMB 765.56 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB 109,939.[1] According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian
Dalian
ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength.[41] The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.[42]

Street view on Renmin Road, Dalian

Agriculture and aquaculture[edit] Dalian
Dalian
was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai
Yantai
and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishers of Shandong, across the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
during the Chuang Guandong (闯关东) era. Heavy, light and distribution industries[edit]

Ex-Varyag undergoing refit in Dalian
Dalian
Shipbuilding Industry Company (2011), which later became China's first aircraft carrier Liaoning

Even before and during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were located in the city such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company
Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company
and Dalian
Dalian
Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the WWII, Dalian
Dalian
became an important centre of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian
Dalian
Heavy Industry Co., Dalian
Dalian
Chemical Group, and Wafangdian
Wafangdian
Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, such as the Dashang Group. Dalian
Dalian
Port
Port
is an important port for international trade. It has established trading and shipping links with more than 300 ports in 160 countries and regions of the world. There are over 100 international and domestic container shipping routes.[43] A harbor for oil tankers (the largest by tonnage in China),[43] at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing
Daqing
oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian
Dalian
is the 6th largest port in China;[44] and according to AAPA world port ranking data, Dalian
Dalian
is the 8th busiest port in the world by cargo tonnage in 2012, and the 12th busiest container port in the world by total number of TEUs handled in 2013.[45][46] Accordingly, Dalian
Dalian
is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production. Also completed in 1993 is a newer port called Dayaowan Port
Port
(Chinese: 大窑湾港; pinyin: Dà yáo wān gǎng), on Dagushan (Chinese: 大孤山; pinyin: Dà gū shān) Peninsula in the northern suburbs, specialising in import-export of mining and oil products. Together with the Dalian
Dalian
Railway Station, Dalian
Dalian
North Railway Station, Dalian International Airport and two major express roads to Shenyang
Shenyang
(Shenda Expressway), Changchun
Changchun
(Changda Expressway), Harbin
Harbin
(Hada Expressway) in the north and to Dandong
Dandong
to the east, Dalian
Dalian
has been an important distribution centre.[47]

Xinghai CBD houses the headquarters of Dalian
Dalian
Commodity Exchange

Donggang (Chinese: 东港; literally: "East Harbour") CBD houses the Dalian
Dalian
International Conference Center

Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Zone

Industrial zones[edit] Main article: Dalian
Dalian
Development Zone Dalian
Dalian
has been given many benefits by the Chinese government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special
Special
Economic Zone). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou
Jinzhou
District, to which many Japanese companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba, followed by South Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer). In 2007, Intel
Intel
announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site since 1992. The facility began operation in October 2010.[48] Dalian
Dalian
also houses auto-manufacturing plants for Chery,[49] Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle Company,[50] and BYD Automobile
BYD Automobile
(a production base for BYD K9 electric buses).[51] Other zones in the city include the Dalian
Dalian
Economic and Technological Development Zone, Dalian
Dalian
Export Processing Zone, Dalian
Dalian
Free Trade Zone, and Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Zone. Financial and IT industry[edit] Main article: Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Zone Dalian
Dalian
is the financial centre of Northeast China. There are the Dalian
Dalian
branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China
China
Construction Bank, Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China. Dalian
Dalian
City Commercial Bank is now called Bank of Dalian, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian
Dalian
Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation. Bank of Dalian
Bank of Dalian
has opened branches in Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Shenyang, among five other cities.[52] Founded in 1993, Dalian Commodity Exchange
Dalian Commodity Exchange
(DCE) is the only futures exchange in Northeast China. The futures industry leaped forward in its development. Among its 16 listed futures products approved by the China
China
Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) are corn, corn starch, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, RBD palm olein, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), coke, coking coal, iron ore, egg, fiberboard and blockboard. In 2014, DCE achieved 770 million lots and RMB 41.5 trillion respectively in trading volume and turnover. According to the Futures Industry Association (FIA) of the U.S., DCE ranked the 10th out of the global leading derivative exchanges in 2014.[53] Since the 1990s, Dalian
Dalian
has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-Tech Zone
Dalian Hi-Tech Zone
and Dalian
Dalian
Software Park in the western suburbs near Dalian University
Dalian University
of Technology. Dalian High-Tech Zone is the base of high-tech industries, housing more than 4,700 enterprises, including 80 Fortune Global 500 companies.[54] Not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, Hisoft and Neusoft Group, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located there, including Infosys, IBM, Dell, HP, Ericsson, Panasonic, Sony, Accenture, Oracle, Hitachi
Hitachi
and Cisco.[54] Nine professional business incubators are also located in the area, including the Hi-tech Business Incubator, animation and software incubators, with over 400 companies incubated.[54] Currently, the " Lüshun
Lüshun
South Road Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian
Dalian
Software Park Phase 3. Intel's Fab 68 is located in Dalian. The plan was announced on 26 March 2007, and operations started on 26 October 2010. It is Intel's first chip-manufacturing fabrication in East Asia.[55] Tourism[edit]

Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
is the largest city square in the world

Dalian
Dalian
is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea
Korea
and Russia.[10] Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China
China
have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous beaches are Jīnshítān Golden Coast (金石滩黄金海岸) beach, Fùjiāzhuāng (付家庄) beach, Bàngchuídǎo (棒棰岛) beach, Xīnghǎi Park (星海公园) beach, Xīnghǎi Bay (星海湾) beach, and Xiàjiāhézi (夏家河子) beach. In 2007, it was one of the three cities named "China's best tourist city", along with Hangzhou and Chengdu, recognized by the National Tourism Administration
National Tourism Administration
and the United Nations World Tourism Organization.[56]

Grand Hyatt Dalian
Dalian
(left) and apartments at Xinghai Square

Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
amusement park with the Castle Hotel in the background

Xinghai Bay Bridge

Four inner-city districts[edit]

Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square

Originally designed by Russians in the 19th century, Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square (中山广场) is especially noted for the several classical buildings located around the square built during the first half of the 20th century by the Japanese.

Laohutan Ocean Park: the park contains the Polar Region Marine Animals World,[57] the Coral Aquarium, and the World of Birds.[57] The white whale and dolphin show is a major attraction in the Polar Region Marine Animals World.[58] The Tigers Sculpture Square is nearby, whose tiger sculpture is the symbol of Tiger Beach (老虎滩; Lǎohǔtān). A retired Anshan-class destroyer
Anshan-class destroyer
Taiyuan
Taiyuan
is open to visitors.

Dalian
Dalian
Laohutan Ocean Park

Xinghai Square: situated at the Xinghai Bay, Xinghai Square (星海广场; "Square of the Sea of Stars") was built at the centennial of the City of Dalian
Dalian
(1998) and is the largest city square in the world. Hēishíjiāo Geological Park and Dalian
Dalian
Natural History Museum Sunasia Ocean World Dalian
Dalian
Forest Zoo Bangchuidao Scenic Area: a well-maintained park used as a State Guesthouse since 1960, the Bangchuidao Scenic Area is now open to the public with upgraded features including lavish greens, Chinese and western style villas, hot spring, tennis courts, badminton courts, a recreation center, a golf course and the Bangchuidao beach.[59] The Bangchui Island (棒棰岛; Bàngchuí Dǎo, named for an islet in the shape of an ancient washing tool Bangchui)[60] can be seen from the beach. As a State Guesthouse, the scenic area has received numerous Chinese and foreign leaders and high-profile officials, including Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, Henry Kissinger, Boris Yeltsin, Gerhard Schröder, Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
and so on.[61]

Play media

Video showing Bangchuidao beach during winter season

Dalian
Dalian
Sightseeing Tower

Dalian
Dalian
Sightseeing Tower, formerly Dalian
Dalian
Radio & TV Tower

Dalian
Dalian
Modern Museum

Dōnggǎng Music
Music
Fountain Fùjiāzhuāng

Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)[edit]

Dahei Mountain Jinshitan National Holiday Resort and the Discoveryland (pinyin: jinshitan l=Golden Pebble Beach) is composed of eastern peninsula, western peninsula, open ground between two peninsulas and the ten-mile Golden Coast beach. Major sightseeing points include, Golden Pebble Waxworks Museum, Geological Museum, Coastal National Geopark, International Vehicle Campsite, Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Hot Spring Resort, Golden Rock Park, Wanfuding Park, China
China
Martial Arts Hall, Discoveryland Theme Park, Mao Zedong Badge Exhibition Hall, Model Movie & TV Art Center, Golden Pebble Hunting Club, Golden Pebble Equestrianism Base, Golden Pebble International Convention Center & Resort, Golden Pebble Golf Club, and Golden Gulf Golf Course. Several themed events, such as Dalian
Dalian
International Beach Carnival, International Winter Swimming Festival and Grape Festival, take place in Jinshitan annually.[62]

The Discoveryland Theme Park (发现王国, also translated as "the Discovery Kingdom") was built in 2006 and covers an area of 470,000 square miles (1,217,294 square kilometres).[63] It was designed by Romero Petrilli VanRell Associates who participated in the design of the Disney theme park.[63]

Lüshunkou District
Lüshunkou District
(in the southwestern suburbs)[edit]

Lüshun
Lüshun
Museum Lüshun
Lüshun
Railway Station East Jīguàn Mountain (东鸡冠山), 203 Hill
203 Hill
and Shuishiying Meeting Place

The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun
Lüshun
during the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904–05).

Japanese and Russian Prison Site Museum in Lüshun

The prison was built by Russians in 1902 and later expanded by the Japanese. During World War II, the prison was used to detain people of various nationalities who were against Japanese invasion. An Jung-geun, the Korean independence activist who assassinated Itō Hirobumi, was imprisoned and killed there.[64]

Lüshun
Lüshun
Snake Museum, and Lüshun
Lüshun
Bird Port
Port
and Snake Island Reservation Hengshan Temple and Longwangtang Cherry Blossom Park

Héngshān Temple (横山寺) is near Lóngwángtáng Reservoir (龙王塘水库). The temple dates back to the Han Dynasty, and was rebuilt in 2003.[65]

Hengshan Temple in Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
District

Three Northern District and Cities of Greater Dalian[edit]

Ānbō Hotspring and Ski Course (安波温泉滑雪场), in Pulandian District Changxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian Bīngyùgōu (冰峪沟) Scenic Area and Bùyún Mountain Hot Spring (步云山温泉), in Zhuanghe Islands of Changhai County

Hot Spring and Ski Resorts[edit] There are various hot spring hotels in Dalian. Notable ones include, Laotieshan Hot Spring Hotel in Lüshun, Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Hot Spring Resort in Jinshitan, Minghu Hot Spring Hotel in Wafangdian
Wafangdian
City, Chengyuan Hot Spring Villa in Ganjingzi District, and Tianmu Hot Spring Hotel in Lüshun. Skiing has become increasingly popular in Dalian. Famous ski resorts are, Linhai
Linhai
Ski Resort in Ganjingzi District, Anbo Ski Resort in Pulandian District, Minghu Ski Resort & Minghu International Skiing Holiday Village in Wafangdian
Wafangdian
City, and Dalian
Dalian
Happy Snow World in Ganjingzi District
Ganjingzi District
near the airport.[66] Transportation[edit]

Dalian
Dalian
Metro, Line 2

Dalian
Dalian
historical tramway, still used in a limited area of the city.

Local transportation[edit] Not many people ride bicycles in Dalian
Dalian
because of the hilly roads. Dalian
Dalian
is also one of the many cities in China
China
where there are few motorcycles, because motorcycle riding on most roads is banned by law.[67] The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient metro system. As of November 2015, the Dalian Metro
Dalian Metro
consists of the underground Line 1, Line 2, and the overground Line 12 (Formerly called line R2) and Line 3[68]. New lines and expansion of the metro system are under way. The Dalian
Dalian
Tram system is the second oldest in China. Most of the public transportation in the city can be accessed using the Mingzhu IC Card (明珠卡). Domestic and international[edit]

Internal view of Dalian
Dalian
North Railway Station

In 2005 Dalian
Dalian
expanded the international airport, Dalian
Dalian
Zhoushuizi International Airport, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to cities in Thailand, South Korea, Japan
Japan
and many countries in East Asia. In 2014, the airport was the 20th busiest airport in China
China
with 13,551,223 passengers.[69] The airport is the hub of Dalian
Dalian
Airlines. The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Beijing or Shanghai. With the high-speed rail system, trips from Dalian
Dalian
to Shenyang
Shenyang
can be completed in 1.5 hours, to Changchun
Changchun
2.5 hours and to Harbin
Harbin
3.5 hours. The city has two railway stations, namely Dalian Railway Station and Dalian North Railway Station
Dalian North Railway Station
(IATA: DBL)[citation needed], the latter being part of the Harbin– Dalian
Dalian
High-Speed Railway. In addition to local and express bus services to Beijing
Beijing
and other areas in the northeast, Dalian
Dalian
is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, including Tianjin, Yantai, Weihai, Penglai and Dongying, as well as Incheon, South Korea.[43] Culture[edit]

Dalian
Dalian
Peking Opera
Peking Opera
House

In 2006, Dalian
Dalian
was selected as the most liveable city in China according to China
China
Daily.[70] Dalian
Dalian
dialect[edit] Main article: Dalian
Dalian
dialect Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
is usually spoken in Dalian
Dalian
because it is a city with people from various locations. But Dalian
Dalian
natives use Dalian dialect, which belongs to the Jiaoliao Mandarin
Jiaoliao Mandarin
subgroup spoken in parts of Shandong
Shandong
and Liaoning
Liaoning
provinces. Most of the residents of Dalian
Dalian
were farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong
Shandong
Province in a large population move, the Chuang Guandong, during which era Dalian
Dalian
was occupied by the Japanese as the Kwantung Leased Territory. The Dalian dialect
Dalian dialect
incorporates a few loanwords from Japanese and Russian (very rare in Chinese), reflecting the history of foreign occupation.[71] Dalian dialect
Dalian dialect
is mostly distinguishable from Standard Mandarin based on a low-falling Yinping 阴平 (31), and it was[clarify] often referred to as "oyster flavored" by the locals.[citation needed] Cuisine[edit]

Salted fish with corn cake

Dalian
Dalian
Menzi, a popular local snack

Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Art Museum

Dalian
Dalian
cuisine is a branch of Shandong
Shandong
cuisine, with influence from Northeastern Chinese cuisine, and is widely known for its unique style of seafood dishes. The variety of seafood in Dalian
Dalian
includes fish, prawns, clams, crabs, scallops, sea urchins, oysters, sea cucumbers, mussels, lobsters, conches, abalone, algae, razor clams, urechis unicinctus, mantis shrimps, jellyfish and so on. During the winter, many seafoods such as clams, mussels and abalone gain the most fat.[72] Colorful snowflake scallops (五彩雪花扇贝) is a local seafood dish, where egg white is made into snowflake-shape to embrace the scallops, with seasonal greens, carrot and hot pepper cut into small pieces as decorations on top.[73] Another popular local dish is Salted fish with corn cake (咸鱼饼子), where steamed or fried corn cake is served with fried salted fish. Legend goes that, in the old days fishermen going out fishing in the morning couldn't return home to have lunch, so they baked fresh fish to eat with corn cakes, and the habit passed down from generation to generation and eventually became a famous food among local people.[74] Dalian
Dalian
Menzi (焖子) is a traditional local snack. A protein-rich starch paste coagulated from an extract of potatoes is cut into pieces and fried on a pan to create a crisp cover. A mixed seasoning of smashed garlic, sesame, and sauces is added on eating.[74] Other popular local specialties include Dalian-style grilled squid, seafood noodles, roast full prawns, salt baked conches, lantern-shaped steamed abalone, and so on.[75] Theaters[edit] Well-known theaters in Dalian
Dalian
are: Dalian
Dalian
People's Culture Club (mainly for music), Hongqi Grand Stage
Hongqi Grand Stage
(for Beijing
Beijing
Opera), Working People's Theater-Doudou Grand Stage (Chinese: 工人剧院/豆豆大舞台, mainly for Er ren zhuan) and Development Area Grand Theater (Chinese: 开发区大剧院)[76]. Sports[edit]

China
China
Martial Arts Hall, at Jinshitan National Holiday Resort

Sports play a big role in the local culture. Dalian's former association football club, Dalian Shide
Dalian Shide
(formerly known as Dalian Wanda as the club was originally sponsored by the Dalian
Dalian
Wanda Group), achieved a total of eight titles from China's top-tier football league, the Chinese Jia-A League and the later rebranded Chinese Super League, and was widely considered one of the most successful clubs in Chinese football history.[77] In the Asian Football Confederation, the club reached the 1997–98 Asian Club Championship
1997–98 Asian Club Championship
and 2000–01 Asian Cup Winners' Cup finals. Several of China’s greatest players, including Sun Jihai, Hao Haidong and Li Ming, made their names with Dalian
Dalian
Shide. Dalian
Dalian
also produced many top Chinese football players thanks to its youth training system and grassroots football culture.[78] As of the 2014 season of the Chinese Super League, out of the 448 registered Chinese players, a total of 71 players are from Dalian.[78] Therefore, Dalian
Dalian
earned its nickname of China's "Football City" (足球城),[79] and a giant football statue was placed in the Labor Park near downtown Dalian
Dalian
in its honor. Current football clubs in the city are Dalian Yifang
Dalian Yifang
playing in the Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
and Dalian Transcendence
Dalian Transcendence
playing in the country's 2nd-tier league, the China
China
League One. Their home stadiums are Dalian Sports Center
Dalian Sports Center
Stadium and Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Stadium, respectively. Some other popular sports played in Dalian
Dalian
are swimming, skiing, golf, cycling, bowling and billiards. The government hold various events every year in Dalian, like marathon, tennis and so on.[80] As part of the 2013 National Games of China
China
in Liaoning
Liaoning
in 2013, Dalian
Dalian
was a host city for 12 events, including synchronized swimming, field hockey, gymnastics, sailing and canoeing.[81] City-wide festivals and events[edit]

Binhai
Binhai
Road is the main route for Dalian
Dalian
International Walking Festival. View of mountain on one side and sea on the other makes it a popular exercise destination for local people.

Xinghai Square, Dalian
Dalian
Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center, the Dalian
Dalian
World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Road are the main places where Dalian's major annual events are held. Every year from January to February, the Bingyugou Ice Lantern Festival is held in Bingyugou Scenic Area in Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe
City. The event features a large number of ice sculptures, snow sculptures and colorful ice lanterns. Visitors can also participate in a series of ice-sports including ice-skating, ice hockey and iceboating.[82] From late April to May, the Lüshun
Lüshun
International Cherry Blossom Festival is held. The main site is 203 Hill, and the other site is Longwangtang Cherry Blossom Park. It is said that the very first cherry trees were planted by Japanese soldiers stationed in Lüshun during World War II, in order to ease their homesickness. Today, the 203 Hill
203 Hill
site has more than 3000 cherry trees, and boasts to be the largest cherry blossom park in China
China
with the most varieties.[83] Each May, the Dalian
Dalian
International Walking Festival takes place. The purpose of the festival is to foster health and peace for the whole community. It is widely popular among citizens and attracts many foreign participants. Dalian
Dalian
is the only city in China
China
recognized by the IML Walking Association.[84] Four different routes of 30 kilometres (19 miles), 20 kilometres (12 miles), 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) and 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) are provided for participants, with the longest route going from Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
along Binhai
Binhai
Road to Laohutan Ocean Park, Bangchuidao Scenic Area and finally reaching Dalian
Dalian
International Conference Center. Starting from 2012, Jinshitan National Holiday Resort also serves as a venue for the festival.[85] Every May, Dalian International Marathon
Dalian International Marathon
is held. With the first marathon held in 1987, it is one of the four oldest marathon races in China.[86] The main venue is the Jinshitan National Holiday Resort. Every June, the China
China
International Software & Information Service Fair is held in Dalian
Dalian
World Expo Center. Officials from overseas government departments, CEOs of World Top 500, well-known consulting firms and overseas IT associations attend the fair each year.[87] Dalian
Dalian
International Beer Festival takes place in Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
every year from July to August. It is similar to Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
in Munich
Munich
and is a widely popular event in the city. Activities of the Beer Festival include exhibitions by beer manufacturers, a beer disco plaza, a beer culture exhibition, a beer drinking contest, a photography contest, the Beer Industry Summit, and a beer quiz.[88] Dalian
Dalian
International Automotive Exhibition is held in August in Dalian Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center and Dalian
Dalian
World Expo Center.[89] The annual Dalian
Dalian
International Fashion Festival is held in September in Dalian
Dalian
Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center and Dalian
Dalian
World Expo Center. For the past decade, the festival has been attracting the world's top fashion designers, businessmen and models to Dalian. Arrangement for the show includes various theme activities including the Garment Export Fair, fashion exhibitions, fashion competitions and a model contest.[90] Inter-governmental[edit] Japan
Japan
maintains a branch office for its Consulate General
Consulate General
of Japan
Japan
at Shenyang
Shenyang
and a JETRO office in Dalian, reflecting a relatively large Japanese population. Japan
Japan
Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members.[citation needed] Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian
Dalian
Society. Religion[edit]

Lianhuashan (lit. "lotus flower mountain") Temple, Dalian

As of 2005[update], Dalian
Dalian
had 29 Christian churches (27 of them Protestant, 2 of them Catholic), 10 mosques, 34 Buddhist temples, and 7 Taoist
Taoist
temples, according to the statistics of the city government.[91] Taoist
Taoist
temples can be found in various districts including downtown Dalian
Dalian
(Hua Temple in Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Park), in Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
(Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian). Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian
Dalian
(Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street and Lianhuashan Temple on Yingchun Road), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain ( Anshan
Anshan
Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lüshunkou District
Lüshunkou District
(Hengshan Temple at Longwangtang), and in Jinzhou District
Jinzhou District
(Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain). Dalian Catholic Church
Dalian Catholic Church
(built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian
Dalian
Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square (Yuguang Street Church, the former Dalian
Dalian
Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England and Anglican Church of Japan
Japan
jointly), on Changjiang Road ( Beijing
Beijing
Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an
Xi'an
Road (Christian Church for Korean Chinese and South Koreans), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Church) and in Lüshunkou District
Lüshunkou District
(Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). Dalian Mosque is on Beijing Street.[91] Notable people[edit]

Liu Changchun
Changchun
statue at Olympic Square, Dalian

Bi Fujian (毕福剑), director, host and professor. Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai
(薄熙来), former mayor, removed from Politburo under corruption charges. Dong Jie (董洁), actress. Lai Yawen (赖亚文), retired middle blocker and current assistant coach of the China
China
women's national volleyball team. Li Changchun
Changchun
(李长春), Chinese politician, former member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China. Li Yongbo
Li Yongbo
(李永波), retired badminton player and current head coach of the China
China
National Badminton Team. Lin Peng
Lin Peng
(林鹏), actress. Liu Changchun
Changchun
(刘长春), sprinter, first athlete to represent China in competition at the Olympic Games. Lou Yixiao (娄艺潇), actress. Sun Jihai (孙继海), footballer. Sun Nan (孙楠), singer. Xia Deren
Xia Deren
(夏德仁), former mayor from October 2006 to May 2009.[92][93] Xue Jiye (薛继业), painter and sculptor. Yu Nan
Yu Nan
(余男), actress. Kelly Yu (于文文), singer.

Education[edit] There were[clarify] 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.[citation needed] There are the following schools of higher education and research centres: Colleges and universities[edit]

Dalian Jiaotong University
Dalian Jiaotong University
(Founded in 1956) Dalian Maritime University
Dalian Maritime University
(Project 211) Dalian Medical University (Founded in 1947) Dalian Nationalities University
Dalian Nationalities University
(Founded in 1997) Dalian Naval Academy
Dalian Naval Academy
of the PLA Navy Dalian
Dalian
Neusoft University of Information (zh) Dalian Ocean University
Dalian Ocean University
(Founded in 1952) Dalian
Dalian
Polytechnic University Dalian University
Dalian University
of Foreign Languages Dalian University of Technology
Dalian University of Technology
(Project 985, Project 211) Dalian
Dalian
University Dongbei University of Finance and Economics Liaoning
Liaoning
Normal University

Research centres[edit]

Dalian
Dalian
Institute of Chemical Physics, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

High schools[edit] Notable high schools include:

Dalian
Dalian
Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Senior High School (大连市金州高级中学) Dalian
Dalian
Lüshun
Lüshun
Senior High School (大连市旅顺中学) Dalian
Dalian
No. 1 High School (大连市第一中学), Founded in 1922 by Japanese. It was the first school institute in Dalian. Dalian No. 8 High School
Dalian No. 8 High School
(大连市第八中学) Dalian
Dalian
No. 12 High School (大连市第十二中学) Dalian
Dalian
No. 23 High School (大连市第二十三中学) Dalian No. 24 High School (大连市第二十四中学) Dalian
Dalian
No. 36 Middle School (大连市第三十六中学) Dalian Yuming Senior High School
Dalian Yuming Senior High School
(大连育明高级中学) The High School Affiliated to Liaoning
Liaoning
Normal University (辽宁师范大学附属中学) Wafangdian
Wafangdian
Senior High School (瓦房店市高级中学)

International schools[edit]

Dalian
Dalian
American International School Dalian
Dalian
Korean International School  (ko ) Dalian
Dalian
Maple Leaf International School Japanese School of Dalian

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China Dalian
Dalian
is twinned with:

Adelaide, Australia Aomori, Japan[94] Bahía Blanca, Argentina Bremen, Germany[95] Enschede, Netherlands Glasgow, UK Incheon, South Korea

Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan Le Havre, France[96][97] Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan Oakland, California, USA Ohrid, Macedonia Rijeka, Croatia Rostock, Germany

Salisbury, Maryland, USA Szczecin, Poland[98] Vladivostok, Russia Zaragoza, Spain Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada

Since 29 April 2008, Dalian
Dalian
has had a friendship city agreement with Dallas, United States.[99][100] See also[edit]

Portals Access related topics

China
China
portal

References[edit]

^ a b c d "2014年大连市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (2014 Dalian
Dalian
Statistical Report for Economic and Social Development)". 大连市统计信息网 ( Dalian
Dalian
Statistics Bureau) (in Chinese). 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ 《大连市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报》 ^ "人类发展指数达到0.86 大连市已进入高人类发展水平". 半岛晨报. Retrieved 29 October 2014.  ^ 枫丹白露. " Dalian
Dalian
Promotional Video". v.qq.com. Retrieved 27 April 2015.  ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号" (in Chinese). 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ Old photos of "Dalniy" ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016.  ^ "The Global City Competitiveness Index" (PDF). Managementthinking.eiu.com. 12 March 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2015.  ^ Jing, Fu (3 January 2006). " Beijing
Beijing
drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China
China
Daily. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). "The Major Cities of Northern China". The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 165–168. ISBN 978-1-61530-182-9.  ^ They also renamed the bay for Queen Victoria. Kuramoto p. 19. ^ Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895–1955." Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, San Diego), p. 17. ^ Kuramoto p. 20. ^ Hess, p. 21. ^ March, G. Patrick. Eastern Destiny: Russia
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in Asia and the North Pacific (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 1996) ^ "Accounts of the Martyrs of the Chinese Orthodox Church who fell victim in Beijing
Beijing
in 1900". Nina Tkachuk Dimas. Retrieved 14 September 2011.  ^ China
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widens doors for foreign capital. Ottawa Citizen (3 October 1984) ^ "Anti-Western Protests Flare in Several Chinese Cities – Fox News". Fox News. 20 October 2011.  ^ "Protests continue; restraint urged". Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-02. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . China
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Daily (21 April 2008) ^ "World Economic Forum: The Inaugural Annual Meeting of the New Champions". China.org. Retrieved 29 August 2008.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-18.  ^ 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 [National Meteorological Information Center of China
China
Meteorological Administration] (in Chinese). China
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Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2009.  ^ Dalian
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Municipal Government of China, one of 18 Individuals and Organizations, to Receive United Nations Environment Award – United Nations Environment Programme. Unep.org (28 May 2001). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ a b " Dalian
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China
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– Environmental Protection". Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 2009-11-19. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . english.dl.gov.cn (7 April 2008). ^ "Air Quality Daily". Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 2009-11-19. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . Ministry of Environmental Protection of China ^ a b c Urban Security in China
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– A Case Study of Dalian
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– The Nautilus Institute. Nautilus.org (6 September 2011). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (30 July 2010). "Group Says China's Official Oil Spill Figure May Be Too Low". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Rush is on to stem Yellow Sea
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oil spill". The Boston Globe.  ^ 1st details on China
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oil spill's cause emerge. The China
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Post (24 July 2010). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ "Oil Leak From Dalian
Dalian
Pipeline Explosion, Fires Is Under Control, CNPC Says". Bloomberg. 17 July 2010.  ^ Watts, Jonathan (20 July 2010). " China
China
recruits 800 fishing boats to disperse Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
oil slick". The Guardian. London.  ^ China
China
port city cleans up pollution belt after fire – People's Daily Online. English.peopledaily.com.cn (18 July 2010). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ Martin, Dan (22 July 2010) Clean-up crews use bare hands against China
China
oil spill. AFP via mysinchew.com ^ Watts, Jonathan (14 August 2011). " China
China
orders petrochemical plant shutdown after protests". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ Thousands protest against Chinese chemical plant. BusinessWeek (14 August 2011). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ Lafraniere, Sharon; Wines, Michael (15 August 2011). "Plant Protest Shows China's Officials Under Pressure". The New York Times.  ^ Tang Hao (6 September 2011) Public storm in Dalian. chinadialogue. Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ In Fast-Growing China, a Warning About When Prosperity Isn't Enough – Christina Larson – International. The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China
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and the United States. Nap.edu (1 June 2003). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ Dalian
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Statistics Yearbook 2008 ^ a b China
China
Briefing Media (2006). "Dalian". Business Guide to Beijing and North-East China. China
China
Briefing Media. pp. 199–200. ISBN 9889867338.  ^ Haft, Jeremy (2007). All the Tea in China: How to Buy, Sell, and Make Money on the Mainland. Penguin. p. 76. ISBN 1591841593. [Dalian's] Key industries include food processing, machinery, IT, electronics, garments, petrochemicals, household goods, textiles, locomotives, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and petroleum refining.  ^ a b c 集团概况 [Group profile]. Official website of Port
Port
of Dalian
Dalian
(in Chinese). Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ Dalian
Dalian
port ideally placed on the cusp of prosperity – The National. Thenational.ae (13 December 2012). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ The JOC Top 50 World Container Ports ^ The Lloyd's List of the World's Busiest Container Ports 2013 Archived 28 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Eltschinger, Cyrill (2007). Source Code China: The New Global Hub of IT Outsourcing. John Wiley and Sons. p. 118. ISBN 0470106964.  ^ " Intel
Intel
debuts new Dalian
Dalian
fab". People's Daily Online. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 26 January 2012.  ^ Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shi. " Chery
Chery
Auto starts mass production in Dalian". China
China
Daily. Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ "Dongfeng Nissan Dalian
Dalian
Plant Commences Production". nissan-global.com. Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ 港媒:比亚迪纯电动巴士大连下线 电池项目已正式启动 [ Hong Kong
Hong Kong
media: BYD pure electric bus battery Dalian
Dalian
line project has been officially launched]. 凤凰财经 (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ "Introduction to Bank of Dalian". Official Website of Bank of Dalian. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ "The DCE at a Glance". Official Website of Dalian
Dalian
Commodity Exchange. Retrieved 30 November 2015.  ^ a b c "Overview of Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Zone". Official website of Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ Nystedt, Dan (25 October 2010). " Intel
Intel
opens first chip manufacturing plant in China". IDG. Retrieved 2 September 2011.  ^ Hangzhou, Chengdu, Dalian
Dalian
Named 'Best Tourist City'. china.org.cn (10 February 2007). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ a b "Brief information on Laohutan Ocean Park". China
China
Tour Online. Retrieved 27 November 2014.  ^ "Laohutan Ocean Park". Official website of Laohutan Ocean Park. Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ 休闲运动 [Leisure Sports]. Official Website of Dalian Bangchuidao Hotel (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ "Bangchui Island". Focus on Dalian. Retrieved 19 December 2014.  ^ 大连棒棰岛宾馆 [ Dalian
Dalian
Bangchui Island Hotel]. Baidu Baike (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ "Introduction to Jinshitan". Official website of Jinshitan National Holiday Resort. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  ^ a b " Dalian
Dalian
Discoveryland Theme Park". Official website of Jinshitan National Holiday Resort. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ "Museum Introduction". Official website of Japanese and Russian Prison Site Museum in Lushun. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  ^ 横山寺-大连-辽宁寺院. 佛教导航 (in Chinese). Retrieved 9 December 2014.  ^ Focus on Dalian
Dalian
Issue 43. Oriental Vision Communications Co., Ltd. Dalian. p. 27. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  ^ Yang, Chi-Jen (26 January 2010). "Launching strategy for electric vehicles: Lessons from China
China
and Taiwan" (PDF). Technological Forecasting & Social Change. 77. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2010.01.010. Retrieved 27 November 2014.  ^ "大连地铁集团有限公司". www.dlsubway.com.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ 2014年民航机场吞吐量排名 [2014 Airline airport throughput ranking] (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China. 3 April 2015. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ Jing, Fu (3 January 2006). " Beijing
Beijing
drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China
China
Daily.  ^ Mikami, Yoshi (2002-06-27): The Dalian
Dalian
Dialect (in Chinese) ^ " Dalian
Dalian
dining is all about abalone, sea cucumbers and sea urchins - 5 places to try them". South China
China
Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-09-21.  ^ " Dalian
Dalian
Cuisine". Visit Our China. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b " Dalian
Dalian
Dining". Travel China
China
Guide. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ " Dalian
Dalian
Dining". Tour-Beijing.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ Development Area Grand Theater (in Chinese) ^ van de Ven, Johan. "Death of an Institution: The Dalian
Dalian
Shide Story". Wild East Football. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ a b 没有中超咱大连仍是足球城 71连籍球员遍布中超. 网易体育 (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ van de Ven, Johan. "CHINA'S "FOOTBALL CITY" FACING WIPEOUT – DALIAN AERBIN IN CRISIS". Wild East Football. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ "大连市体育局". www.tyj.dl.gov.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-09-21.  ^ 全运会大连赛区正式赛12个项目大会 竞赛日程表. Official Website of 2013 National Games of China
China
(in Chinese). Retrieved 19 December 2014.  ^ "The Fairy Bingyu Valley Scenic Spot". China
China
Tour Advisors. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ 2014旅顺樱花节时间. 驴妈妈旅游网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Introduction to Dalian
Dalian
Walking Association". Official website of Dalian
Dalian
Walking Association. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ 2014大连徒步大会时间、路线、地址及报名信息. 蚂蜂窝 (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ 大连国际马拉松 城市名片不可丢. dl.sina.com.cn (in Chinese). 大连晚报. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Why CISIS?". CISIS official website. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ " Dalian
Dalian
Festivals". beijing-travels.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ " Dalian
Dalian
International Auto Exhibition". Official website of Dalian International Auto Exhibition (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "The 24th Fashion Carnival of Dalian
Dalian
International Fashion Festival". China
China
Exhibition. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b "《宗教概况》". Dalian: Ethnic Affairs Commission. Retrieved 11 September 2010  ^ Lippincott, Jonathan (2006). The World is Flat. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. p. 34. ISBN 0-374-29279-5.  ^ "Taiwan's logistics giant Evergreen Int'l Corp to expand investments in Dalian". What's on Dalian. Retrieved 14 June 2012.  ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.  ^ Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall - Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2013.  ^ Florence, Jeanne. " Le Havre
Le Havre
- Les villes jumelées" [ Le Havre
Le Havre
- Twin towns] (in French). Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ " Le Havre
Le Havre
- Les villes jumelées" [ Le Havre
Le Havre
- Twin towns]. City of Le Havre
Le Havre
(in French). Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin
Szczecin
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ Dallas
Dallas
mayor inks friendship pact with North China
China
port city www.pegasusnews.com Dallas/Fort Worth. www.pegasusnews.com (29 April 2008). Retrieved on 2 January 2013. ^ "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

Kuramoto, Kazuko. Manchurian Legacy: Memoirs of a Japanese Colonist, 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. 1 October 1999. ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0-87013-510-1, ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0-87013-725-9.

Further reading[edit]

Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego. McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 978-0-7607-2714-0. Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905–1931. China
China
and Japan
Japan
on the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada). Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. 8 February 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5. Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dalian.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dalian.

Dalian
Dalian
Government website Dalian
Dalian
Government website (in Chinese) Dalian
Dalian
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Former Prefecture-level cities

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Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

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Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Economic Development Zones of China

Special
Special
Economic Zones

Shenzhen Zhuhai Shantou Xiamen Kashgar Hainan
Hainan
Province

New open development zones

Dalian Qingdao Qinhuangdao Lianyungang Pudong Yantai Zhanjiang Ningbo Wenzhou Nantong Fuzhou Guangzhou Beihai Shuyang

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Bohai Economic Rim
Bohai Economic Rim
Region

List of major cities and ports in the BER region

Municipalities

Beijing Tianjin

Binhai

Hebei
Hebei
Province

Qinhuangdao Chengde Tangshan Shijiazhuang Cangzhou Langfang Baoding Zhangjiakou

Liaoning
Liaoning
Province

Dalian

Lüshun

Shenyang Huludao Jinzhou Yingkou Anshan Panjin

Shandong
Shandong
Province

Qingdao Jinan Weihai Weifang Yantai Dongying Binzhou Zibo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247299

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