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Donn Alan "D. A." Pennebaker (/ˈpɛniːbeɪkər/; born July 15, 1925) is an American documentary filmmaker and one of the pioneers of Direct Cinema. Performing arts
Performing arts
and politics are his primary subjects. In 2013, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
recognized his body of work with an Academy Honorary Award or "lifetime Oscar".[1] Pennebaker has been described as "arguably the pre-eminent chronicler of sixties counterculture".[2]

Contents

1 Life and career 2 Process and style 3 Filmography 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Life and career[edit] Pennebaker (known as "Penny" to his friends) was born in Evanston, Illinois, the son of Lucille Levick (née Deemer) and John Paul Pennebaker, who was a commercial photographer.[3] Pennebaker served in the Navy and later worked as an engineer, founding Electronics Engineering (the makers of the first computerized airline reservation system) before beginning his film career.[4] After falling under the influence of experimental filmmaker Francis Thompson, Pennebaker directed his first film, Daybreak Express, in 1953. Set to a classic Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
recording of the same name, the five-minute short of the soon-to-be-demolished Third Avenue elevated subway station in New York City is the earliest known example of Pennebaker's penchant for blending together documentary and experimental filmmaking techniques.[5] According to Pennebaker, Ellington responded favourably to the film.[6] In 1959, Pennebaker joined the equipment-sharing Filmakers' [sic] Co-op and co-founded Drew Associates with Richard Leacock
Richard Leacock
and former LIFE magazine editor and correspondent Robert Drew. A crucial moment in the development of Direct Cinema, the collective produced documentary films for clients like ABC News
ABC News
(for their television series, Close-up) and Time-Life
Time-Life
Broadcast (for their syndicated television series, Living Camera). Their first major film, Primary (1960), documented John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Hubert Humphrey's respective campaigns in the 1960 Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Democratic Primary election. Drew, Leacock and Pennebaker, as well as photographers Albert Maysles, Terrence McCartney Filgate and Bill Knoll, all filmed the campaigning from dawn to midnight over the course of five days. Widely considered to be the first candid and comprehensive look at the day-by-day events of a Presidential race, it was the first film in which the sync sound camera could move freely with characters throughout a breaking story, a major technical achievement that laid the groundwork for modern-day documentary filmmaking. It would later be selected as an historic American film for inclusion in the Library of Congress' National Film Registry in 1990.[7] Drew Associates would produce nine more documentaries for Living Camera, including Crisis, which chronicled President Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy's conflict with governor George Wallace over school desegregation. Then in 1963, Pennebaker and Leacock left the organization to form their own production firm, Leacock-Pennebaker, Inc. Pennebaker would direct a number of short films over the course of two years. One of them was a rare recording of jazz vocalist Dave Lambert, as he formed a new quintet with singers such as David Lucas, and auditioned for RCA. The audition was not successful, and Lambert died suddenly in a car accident shortly thereafter, leaving Pennebaker's film as one of the few visual recordings of the singer, and the only recording of the songs in those rehearsals. The documentary got attention in Europe,[8][9] and a few weeks later, Bob Dylan's manager, Albert Grossman, approached Pennebaker about filming Dylan while he was touring in England.[10] The resulting work, Dont Look Back
Dont Look Back
(there is no apostrophe in the title) became a landmark in both film and rock history, "evoking the '60s like few other documents", according to film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum.[11] The opening sequence alone (set to Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" with Dylan standing in an alleyway, dropping cardboard flash cards) became a precursor to modern music videos.[5] It would later be included in the Library of Congress' National Film Registry
National Film Registry
in 1998, and it was later ranked at No. 6 on Time Out magazine's list of the 50 best documentaries of all time.[12] Pennebaker would also film Dylan's subsequent tour of England in 1966, but while some of this work has been released in different forms (supplying the framework for Martin Scorsese's Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
documentary, No Direction Home, and re-edited by Dylan himself in the rarely distributed Eat the Document), Pennebaker's own film of the tour (Something Is Happening) remains unreleased. Nevertheless, the tour itself has become one of the most celebrated events in rock history, and some of the Nagra recordings made for Pennebaker's film were later released on Dylan's own records. All of the Nagra recordings made during the 1966 European appearances were made by Richard Alderson, who, for years, never received recognition. All of his tapes are what comprise the 2016 released "Bob Dylan: the 1966 Live Recordings". It is Mr Alderson who notes that many of the UK concerts were, in fact, filmed by Howard Alk. The same year Dont Look Back
Dont Look Back
was released in theaters, Pennebaker worked with author Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
on the first of many film collaborations. He was also hired to film the Monterey Pop
Monterey Pop
Festival, which is now regarded as an important event in rock history on par with 1969's Woodstock Festival. Pennebaker produced a number of films from the event, capturing breakthrough performances from the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Otis Redding
Otis Redding
and Janis Joplin
Janis Joplin
that remain seminal documents in rock history. The first of these films, Monterey Pop, was released in 1968 and was later ranked at No. 42 on Time Out magazine's list of the 50 best documentaries of all time.[13] Other performers like Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane
and the Who also received major exposure from Pennebaker's work.[4] Pennebaker continued to film some of the era's most influential rock artists, including John Lennon
John Lennon
(whom he first met while filming Dylan in England), Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and David Bowie
David Bowie
during his "farewell" concert in 1973. He also collaborated with Jean-Luc Godard, who had been impressed by Primary. Their initial plan was to film "whatever we saw happening around us" in a small town in France, but this never came to fruition. In 1968, the two worked on a film that Godard initially conceived as "One AM" (One American Movie) on the subject of anticipated mass struggles in the United States – similar to the uprisings in France that year. When it became clear that Godard's assessment was incorrect, he abandoned the film. Pennebaker eventually finished the project himself and released it several years later as One PM, meaning "One Perfect Movie" to Pennebaker and "One Pennebaker Movie" to Godard.[6] Pennebaker's film company was also a notable distributor of foreign films, including Godard's La Chinoise
La Chinoise
(the American opening of which became the context for One PM), but the endeavor was ultimately a short-lived and costly business venture. Then around 1976, Pennebaker met experimental filmmaker turned documentarian Chris Hegedus. The two soon became collaborators and then married in 1982.[5] In 1988, Pennebaker, Hegedus and David Dawkins followed Depeche Mode as they toured the U.S. in support of Music for the Masses, the band's commercial breakthrough in America. The resulting film, 101, was released the following year, and prominently features a group of young fans travelling across America as winners of a "be-in-a-Depeche-Mode-movie-contest," which culminates at Depeche Mode's landmark concert at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena.[14] Because of this, the film is widely considered to be the impetus for the "reality" craze that swept MTV in the following years, including The Real World and Road Rules.[15][16][17][18] In various interviews, DVD commentaries and on their own website, both Pennebaker and Hegedus have cited 101 as "their favorite" and "the one that was the most fun to make" out of all their films to date.[19][20]

The National at BAM during the webcast directed by Pennebaker and Hegedus

In 1992, during the start of the Democratic primaries, Pennebaker and Hegedus approached campaign officials for Arkansas
Arkansas
governor Bill Clinton about filming his presidential run. They were granted limited access to the candidate but allowed to focus on lead strategist James Carville and communications director George Stephanopoulos. The resulting work, The War Room, became one of their most celebrated films, winning the award for Best Documentary from the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures and earning an Academy Award nomination for Best Documentary Feature. Pennebaker and Hegedus continue to produce a large number of documentary films through their company, Pennebaker Hegedus Films, most notably Moon Over Broadway (1998), Down from the Mountain
Down from the Mountain
(2001), Startup.com
Startup.com
(2001), Elaine Stritch: At Liberty (2004), Al Franken: God Spoke (2006), and Kings of Pastry
Kings of Pastry
(2009). In May 2010, they directed their first live show when they directed a YouTube
YouTube
webcast of the National performing a benefit show at the Brooklyn Academy of Music.[21] That same year Kings of Pastry
Kings of Pastry
opened at multiple film festivals, including IDFA, Sheffield Doc/Fest, DOX BOX, the Berlin International Film Festival and Hot Docs, before premiering in New York City. Needham received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Taurus World Stunt Awards. In 2012 he was awarded a Governors Award, introduced by Michael Moore. Currently, Pennebaker and his wife are creating a documentary that will focus on the Nonhuman Rights Project
Nonhuman Rights Project
and its efforts to have certain animals, such as cetaceans, elephants, and apes, be classified as legal persons.[22] Process and style[edit] Pennebaker's films, usually shot with a hand-held camera, often eschew voice-over narration and interviews in favor of a "simple" portrayal of events typical of the direct cinema style Pennebaker helped popularize in the U.S. Of such an approach, Pennebaker told interviewer G. Roy Levin published in 1971 that "it's possible to go to a situation and simply film what you see there, what happens there, what goes on, and let everybody decide whether it tells them about any of these things. But you don't have to label them, you don't have to have the narration to instruct you so you can be sure and understand that it's good for you to learn." In that same interview with Levin, Pennebaker goes so far as to claim that Dont Look Back
Dont Look Back
is "not a documentary at all by my standards". He instead repeatedly asserts that he does not make documentaries, but "records of moments", "half soap operas", and "semimusical reality things". An accomplished engineer, Pennebaker developed one of the first fully portable, synchronized 16mm camera and sound recording systems which revolutionized modern filmmaking.[23] His aesthetic and technical breakthroughs have also had a major influence on narrative filmmaking, influencing such realist masterworks as Barbara Loden's Wanda, which was filmed and edited by one of Pennebaker's protégés, Nicholas Proferes,[24] and even popular satires such as Tim Robbins' Bob Roberts. Filmography[edit]

Daybreak Express (1953) Baby (1954) Opening in Moscow (1959) Breaking It Up at the Museum (1960) Anatomy of Cindy Fink (1960) Primary (1960) Jingle Bells (1964) with Robert F. Kennedy You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You (1964) Lambert & Co., or "Audition at RCA" (1964)[8][9] Dont Look Back
Dont Look Back
(1967, filmed 1965) with Bob Dylan Something Is Happening (unreleased, filmed 1966) with Bob Dylan Eat the Document
Eat the Document
(limited release, filmed 1966) with Bob Dylan Monterey Pop
Monterey Pop
(1968, filmed 1967) Rainforest (1968) Sweet Toronto (1971, filmed 1969) with The Plastic Ono Band Alice Cooper
Alice Cooper
(1970) Queen of Apollo (1970) 1 PM (1971) Original Cast Album: Company (1971) with Stephen Sondheim Keep on Rockin (1969) – a film involving Little Richard Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1973) with David Bowie The Energy War (1978) Town Bloody Hall (1979) DeLorean (1981) with John DeLorean Dance Black America (1983) Jimi Plays Monterey (1986) with Jimi Hendrix 101 (1989) with Depeche Mode The War Room
The War Room
(1993) Woodstock Diary
Woodstock Diary
(1994) Keine Zeit (1996) with German artist Marius Müller-Westernhagen Victoria Williams
Victoria Williams
– Happy Come Home (1997) with singer Victoria Williams Moon Over Broadway (1997) Bessie (1998) Down from the Mountain
Down from the Mountain
(2000) Startup.com
Startup.com
(2001) Only the Strong Survive (2002) Elaine Stritch: At Liberty (2004) Emmy-winning portrait of Elaine Stritch Al Franken: God Spoke (2006) as executive producer Rock N Roll Music – a film involving Chuck Berry 65 Revisited (2007) – a one-hour documentary accompanying the new DVD release of Dont Look Back Kings of Pastry
Kings of Pastry
(2009) Unlocking the Cage (2016)

References[edit]

^ Taylor, Drew. "Honorary Oscars Go To Documentarian D.A. Pennebaker & More IndieWire". IndieWire.com. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ Lim, Dennis (November 23, 1997). "Arts: A marriage made in verite". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on June 6, 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
Biography (1925–) ^ a b Fandango biography ^ a b c D.A. Pennebaker film biography ^ a b Phillips, Richard. "Pennebaker and Hegedus: seminal figures in American documentary film". World Socialist Web Site. International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved June 2, 2013.  ^ History of Drew Associates ^ a b Pennebaker, D.A. (1964). "The Audition". Pennebaker Hegedus Films. Archived from the original (video) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2011.  ^ a b Myers, Marc (May 31, 2011). "Dave Lambert: Audition at RCA". JazzWax. Retrieved June 4, 2011.  ^ BBC Storyville: Interview with D.A. Pennebaker (2005) ^ Rotten Tomatoes Critics Aggregator ^ Time Out's 50 best documentaries of all time (2010) ^ Time Out's 50 best documentaries of all time (2010) ^ Giles, Jeff (12–26 July 1990), " Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
Interview (Sidebar)", Rolling Stone (582/583): 60–65  ^ Doole, Kerry (July 1989), "The Class of 101", Music Express magazine, 13 (138): 40–44  ^ DA Pennebaker: No Spinal Tap jokes, please... ^ "The Story Of 101". YouTube. 1989. Retrieved 11 March 2017.  ^ This 80s Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
Doc Starring Teen Fans Was the First True Reality Show ^ Pennebaker/Hegedus Films: Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
101 ^ depechemode.com: 101 DVD Press Release ^ Pitchfork: D.A. Pennebaker to Direct the National ^ And the Oscar goes to…D.A. Pennebaker! : The Nonhuman Rights Project Archived August 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ John Grierson International Gold Medal Award biography Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ L.A. Weekly article on Barbara Loden's Wanda

Further reading[edit]

Aitken, Ian ed. Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film. Routledge (2005). Dave Saunders. Direct Cinema: Observational Documentary and the Politics of the Sixties. London: Wallflower Press, 2007. Pennebaker, D.A. "Interview with Donn Alan Pennebaker by G. Roy Levin". In Documentary Explorations: 15 Interviews with Film-makers, 221–70. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. Jeanne Hall. "Don't You Ever Just Watch?: American Cinema Verite and Don't Look Back". In Documenting the Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video, 223–37. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to D. A. Pennebaker.

Pennebaker Hegedus Films D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
on IMDb Pennebaker Hegedus Films on IMDbPro (subscription required) Q&A with D. A. Pennebaker, 2007 English language podcast interview with D.A. Pennebaker and Chris Hegedus D.A. Pennebaker, Robert Drew, Hope Ryden and James Lipscomb discuss Mooney vs. Fowle and Richard Leacock

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
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James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
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Monsieur Vincent
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Sid Grauman
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Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
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Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
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Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
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Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32191417 LCCN: n84167422 ISNI: 0000 0000 7839 2113 GND: 131417460 SUDOC: 094825165 BNF: cb139725891 (data) SNAC: w6h43m5p

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