of the Tour de France
postage stamp depicting Gustav-Adolf Schur
Image:Tour of gippsland final stage.jpg|thumb|The final stage in Australia's Tour of [[Gippsland
climbing up "The Gap" to [[Omeo, Victoria|Omeo]] ]]
Cycle sport is [[Competition|competitive]] [[physical activity]] using [[bicycle]]s. There are several categories of bicycle racing including [[road bicycle racing]], [[Individual time trial|time trialling]], cyclo-cross
, mountain bike racing
, track cycling
, and cycle speedway
. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling
, cycle polo
, freestyle BMX
and mountain bike trials
. The Union Cycliste Internationale
(UCI) is the world governing body
and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association
is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI. ThUltraMarathon Cycling Association
is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling
Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport
. Bicycle races are popular all over the world, especially in Europe. The countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, United States and Colombia.
The first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud
. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore
who rode a wooden bicycle with solid rubber tires
. The machine is now on display at the museum in Ely
The Union Cycliste Internationale
was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France, Italy, and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association
, which had been formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues.
Road bicycle racing
involve both team and individual competition, and races are contested in various ways. They range from the one-day road race, criterium
, and time trial
to multi-stage events like the Tour de France
and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours
The races typically take place from spring through to autumn. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional
races range from the three-week "Grand Tour
" stage races such as the Tour de France
, Giro d'Italia
and the Vuelta a España
to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse
and Tour of California
, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders
and Milan–San Remo
. The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling
which covers the 206 miles (332 km) from Logan, Utah
to Jackson, Wyoming
s are races based on circuits typically less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time (60 min, 90 min, etc.) rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America.
In Belgium, kermesses
are popular, single-day events of usually over 120 km. As well as road races in which all riders start simultaneously, individual time trial
and team time trial
events are also held on road-based courses.
encompasses races that take place on banked tracks or velodromes
. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycle
s which do not have brakes or freewheels.
originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races typically take place in the autumn and winter (the international or World Cup season is September–January) and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, grass, steep hills, and obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion. Races for senior categories are generally between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as Belgium (Flanders in particular) and France.
Mountain bike races
are held off-road and involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties; the main categories are cross-country, enduro and downhill
but also 4X or four cross racing.
takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks typically on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of jumps and banked and flat corners.
is bicycle racing on short outdoor dirt tracks, 70–90 m in length.
use motorcycles for pacing so cyclists achieve higher speeds.
Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are usually greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile (flats and hills), wind conditions, temperatures and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis
achieved an average of with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics
was recorded by Chris Hoy
. Average speeds clearly drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic
it is . In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix
, Fabian Cancellara
set a speed of , while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508
, the speed drops dramatically to . For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America
, the average speed of the record holder is , while the 2350 km Freedom Trail
over mountainous terrain in South Africa
is at a record speed of .
Mountain bike trials
Mountain bike trials
is a sport where riders navigate natural and man-made obstacles without putting down their foot, or "dabbing". It is similar to motorcycle trial
s. Points are awarded for bike handling skills.
Freestyle BMX is an extreme sport
of stunt riding BMX bike
is a discipline where athletes perform tricks (called exercises) in a format similar to ballet or gymnastics.
*Downhill mountain biking
*The Cyclists' Alliance
*Mountain bike trials
*Glossary of cycling
*List of doping cases in cycling
*List of professional cyclists who died during a race
*Outline of cycling
*2018 European Cycling Championships
Cycling on International Paralympic Committee website
Category:Summer Olympic sports