The Info List - Curtonotidae

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The Curtotonidae or quasimodo flies[1] are a small family of small grey to dark brown humpbacked flies (Diptera) with a worldwide distribution, but with very few species in the Nearctic, Australasian/Oceanian, and Palaearctic regions. Most members of the family are found in tropical to subtropical latitudes in Africa and the Neotropics. Many remain undescribed in collections, since little work on the family has been done since the 1930s.[2]


1 Description 2 Classification 3 Genera and Species 4 Distribution 5 Biology 6 Fossils 7 Identification 8 Phylogeny 9 Gallery 10 References and sources 11 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera Medium-sized flies.The postvertical bristles on head are well developed and cruciate and there are three orbital bristles on head on each side of frons. Arista with long plumosity. Costa with two interruptions one more distal to the humeral crossvein and one before subcosta. Subcosta developed throughout its length up to costa.The posterior basal wing cell and discoidal wing cell are fused. The costa bears spinules. Classification[edit] The family has at various times been placed in the Drosophilidae, Diastatidae, and Ephydridae. In 1934 Duda proposed the family name Curtonotidae and nowadays family rank is now widely accepted.[3] Genera and Species[edit]

Genus Axinota Wulp, 1886

A. kyphosis Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[4] A. obscuripes Meijere, 1911 A. pictiventris Wulp, 1886 A. rufipes Okada, 1966 A. sarawakensis Delfinado, 1969 A. simulans Delfinado, 1969

Genus Curtonotum Macquart, 1844

C. adusticrus Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. atlanticum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. balachowskyi Tsacas, 1974 C. bivittatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. boeny Tsacas, 1974 C. brunneum Klymko & Marshall, 2011. [3] C. ceylonense Delfinado, 1969 C. coronaeformis Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1] C. curtispinum Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3] C. desperatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. flavisetum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. floridense Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. gladiiformis Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1] C. gracile Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3] C. griveaudi Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1] C. hunkingi Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. irwini Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1] C. keiseri Tsacas, 1974 C. nigrum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. papillatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3] C. parkeri Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1] C. pauliani Tsacas, 1974 C. rinhatinana Kirk-Spriggs, 2011 [1] C. sakalava Tsacas, 1974 C. scambum Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3] C. sternithrix Tsacas, 1974 C. stuckenbergi Tsacas, 1974

Genus Cyrtona Séguy, 1938

C. albomacula (Curran, 1933) C. capensis Hackman, 1960 C. consobrina Hackman, 1960 C. pictipennis (Thomson 1869)

Genus Tigrisomyia Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]

T. amnoni Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2] T. kinskii Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2] T. rhayaderi Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2] T. scoliosis Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]


Palaearctic 1 species Nearctic 1 species Australasian/Oceanian 1 species Afrotropical many species


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Curtonotum simile oviposits into wet sand under a Acacia in the Al Marmoum Conservation Reserve, Dubai, UAE.

Greathead (1958) records the immature stages as scavengers within egg pods of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria . Cuthbertson (1936) reared an Afrotropical species, Cyrtona albomacula Curran, from human faeces in Zimbabwe. Others have been found in the burrows of warthogs and ant bears. Fossils[edit] Only one fossil species of Curtonotidae is known, Curtonotum gigas Théobald, from Oligocene deposits in France. Identification[edit]

Duda, O. (1934), Curtonotidae 6, 1,58d, 1-5 In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6: 1–115. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German). A.A. Shtakel 'berg Family Curtonotidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.






 Diastatidae sensu lato






McAlpine (1989)[5] Grimaldi (1990)[6]

Gallery[edit] See images at [2] and at Diptera.info [3] References and sources[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2011). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part III - the Malagasy species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of six new species". African Invertebrates. KwaZulu-Natal: KwaZulu-Natal Museum. 52 (2): 391–456. doi:10.5733/afin.052.0212.  ^ a b c d e f Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2010). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Curtonotidae: Schizophora). Part II – the East African Afromontane genus Tigrisomyia gen. n., with descriptions of four new species.". African Entomology (pdf)format= requires url= (help). 18: 127–146. doi:10.4001/003.018.0111.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Klymko, John; Marshall, Stephen A. (2011). "Systematics of New World Curtonotum Macquart (Diptera: Curtonotidae)". Zootaxa (PDF)format= requires url= (help). Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 3079: 1–110. ISBN 978-1-86977-802-6.  ^ Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2010). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Curtonotidae: Schizophora). Part I – the genus Axinota van der Wulp, with the description of three new species". African Entomology (pdf)format= requires url= (help). 18: 99–126. doi:10.4001/003.018.0110.  ^ McAlpine, J.F. 1989. Chapter 116. Phylogeny and classification of the Muscomorpha. In Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 3. Coordinated by J.F. McAlpine and D.M. Wood. Agriculture Canada Monograph, 32. pp. 1397–1518. ^ David Grimald, 1990 A phylogenetic, revised classification of genera in the Drosophilidae (Diptera) Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 1971-139 [1]

McAlpine, J. P. (ed.), 1981-89.Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Monograph Papp, L. 1998. Family Curtonotidae. I: Papp, L. and Darvas, B. (Ed.). Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. 3: 497-502. Science Herald, Budapest. no:Curtonotidae Pollck, J.N., 2002 Observations on the biology and anatomy of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Schizophora), by J. N. Pollock Journal of Natural History, 36,14:1725 - 1745.New information concerning the biology and anatomy of Curtonotum quinquevittatum.During the hot, dry season the latter species leaves its warthog burrow refuges at night. Cyrtona spp. rest in densely shaded humid habitats during the same season, dispersing in the cooler parts of the year. Meier, R., Kotrba, M., Barber, K. 1997. On the natural history and morphology of the egg, first instar larva, puparium, and female reproductive system of Curtonotum helvum (Curtonotidae; Ephydroidea; Diptera). American Museum Novitates 3219:1-20.[4] Greathead, D.J., Kooyman, C., Launois-Luong, M.H. and Popov,G.B., 1994. Les ennemis nanurels des criquets du Sahel ES collection Acridologie Opérationnelle no 8 (1994)[5] Some information on Curtonotidae on pp. 17–18. Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Freidberg, A. 2007. The Palaearctic species of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Schizophora), with special reference to the fauna of Israel. Bulletin de l’Institut r. des sciences naturelles de Belgique (Entomologie) 77: 133–146.

External links[edit]

RU Revision of the Afrotropical species of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Ephydroidea) systematics, biology, immature stages and biogeography Proposal

Wikispecies has information related to Curtonotidae

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera





Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)


Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)


Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae



Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)


Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)



Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)


Psychodidae (moth flies)


Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)



Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)


Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera



Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)


Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)


Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)




Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)


Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)




Conopidae (thick-headed flies)


Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)


Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)


Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae


Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)


Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae


Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae


Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae


Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)


Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)


Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)



Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)


Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)


Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)



Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)



Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)


Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)






Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q3699691 BugGuide: 385313 EoL: 472 Fauna Europaea: 10906 Fossilworks: 255305 GBIF: 7301 iNaturalist: 174137 ITIS: