HOME
The Info List - Cupressaceae


--- Advertisement ---



Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27–30 genera (17 monotypic), which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130–140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or (rarely) dioecious trees and shrubs 1–116 m (3 ft 3 in–380 ft 7 in) tall. The bark of mature trees is commonly orange- to red- brown and of stringy texture, often flaking or peeling in vertical strips, but smooth, scaly or hard and square-cracked in some species.

Contents

1 Description 2 Classification 3 Superlatives 4 Uses 5 Disease vectors 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit]

Fallen foliage sprays (cladoptosis) of Metasequoia

The leaves are arranged either spirally, in decussate pairs (opposite pairs, each pair at 90° to the previous pair) or in decussate whorls of three or four, depending on the genus. On young plants, the leaves are needle-like, becoming small and scale-like on mature plants of many genera; some genera and species retain needle-like leaves throughout their lives. Old leaves are mostly not shed individually, but in small sprays of foliage (cladoptosis); exceptions are the leaves on shoots, which develop into branches, which eventually fall off individually when the bark starts to flake. Most are evergreen with the leaves persisting 2–10 years, but three genera (Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia
Metasequoia
and Taxodium) are deciduous or include deciduous species.

Tetraclinis
Tetraclinis
cones

The seed cones are either woody, leathery, or (in Juniperus) berry-like and fleshy, with one to several ovules per scale. The bract scale and ovuliferous scale are fused together except at the apex, where the bract scale is often visible as a short spine (often called an umbo) on the ovuliferous scale. As with the foliage, the cone scales are arranged spirally, decussate (opposite) or whorled, depending on the genus. The seeds are mostly small and somewhat flattened, with two narrow wings, one down each side of the seed; rarely (e.g. Actinostrobus) triangular in section with three wings; in some genera (e.g. Glyptostrobus
Glyptostrobus
and Libocedrus), one of the wings is significantly larger than the other, and in some others (e.g. Juniperus, Microbiota, Platycladus, and Taxodium) the seed is larger and wingless. The seedlings usually have two cotyledons, but in some species up to six. The pollen cones are more uniform in structure across the family, 1–20 mm long, with the scales again arranged spirally, decussate (opposite) or whorled, depending on the genus; they may be borne singly at the apex of a shoot (most genera), in the leaf axils (Cryptomeria), in dense clusters ( Cunninghamia
Cunninghamia
and Juniperus
Juniperus
drupacea), or on discrete long pendulous panicle-like shoots ( Metasequoia
Metasequoia
and Taxodium). Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
is a widely distributed conifer family, with a near-global range in all continents except for Antarctica, stretching from 71°N in arctic Norway
Norway
( Juniperus
Juniperus
communis) south to 55°S in southernmost Chile
Chile
( Pilgerodendron
Pilgerodendron
uviferum), while Juniperus
Juniperus
indica reaches 5200 m altitude in Tibet, the highest altitude reported for any woody plant. Most habitats on land are occupied, with the exceptions of polar tundra and tropical lowland rainforest (though several species are important components of temperate rainforests and tropical highland cloud forests); they are also rare in deserts, with only a few species able to tolerate severe drought, notably Cupressus dupreziana in the central Sahara. Despite the wide overall distribution, many genera and species show very restricted relictual distributions, and many are endangered species. Classification[edit]

Phylogeny of the family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
( Xanthocyparis
Xanthocyparis
is missing.)

The family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
is now widely regarded as including the Taxodiaceae, previously treated as a distinct family, but now shown not to differ from the Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
in any consistent characteristics. The one exception in the former Taxodiaceae
Taxodiaceae
is the genus Sciadopitys, which is genetically distinct from the rest of the Cupressaceae, and is now treated in its own family, Sciadopityaceae. The family is divided into seven subfamilies, based on genetic and morphological analysis as follows:[3]

Subfamily Cunninghamioideae
Cunninghamioideae
(Zucc. ex Endl.) Quinn[4]

Cunninghamia
Cunninghamia
R.Br.

Subfamily Taiwanioideae
Taiwanioideae
L.C.Li[4]

Taiwania
Taiwania
Hayata

Subfamily Athrotaxidoideae
Athrotaxidoideae
L.C.Li[4]

Athrotaxis
Athrotaxis
D.Don – Tasmanian cedar

Subfamily Sequoioideae
Sequoioideae
Saxton[4]

Sequoia Endl. – coast redwood Sequoiadendron
Sequoiadendron
J.Buchholz – giant sequoia Metasequoia
Metasequoia
Hu & W.C.Cheng – dawn redwood

Subfamily Taxodioideae
Taxodioideae
Endl. ex K.Koch[4]

Taxodium
Taxodium
Rich. – bald cypress Glyptostrobus
Glyptostrobus
Endl. – Chinese swamp cypress Cryptomeria
Cryptomeria
D.Don – sugi × Taxodiomeria

Subfamily Callitroideae
Callitroideae
Saxton[5]

Callitris
Callitris
Vent. – cypress-pine Actinostrobus
Actinostrobus
Miq. – cypress-pine Neocallitropsis
Neocallitropsis
Florin Widdringtonia
Widdringtonia
Endl. Diselma
Diselma
Hook.f. Fitzroya
Fitzroya
Hook.f. ex Lindl. – alerce Austrocedrus
Austrocedrus
Florin & Boutelje Libocedrus
Libocedrus
Endl. Pilgerodendron
Pilgerodendron
Florin Papuacedrus
Papuacedrus
H.L.Li

Subfamily Cupressoideae Rich. ex Sweet[6]

Thuja
Thuja
L. – thuja or arborvitae Thujopsis
Thujopsis
Siebold & Zucc. ex Endl. – hiba Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis
Spach – cypress Fokienia
Fokienia
A.Henry & H.H.Thomas – Fujian cypress Calocedrus
Calocedrus
Kurz – incense-cedar Tetraclinis
Tetraclinis
Mast. Microbiota Kom. Platycladus
Platycladus
Spach – Chinese arborvitae Xanthocyparis
Xanthocyparis
Farjon & T. H. Nguyên – cypress Cupressus
Cupressus
L. – cypress Juniperus
Juniperus
L. – juniper

A 2010 study of Actinostrobus
Actinostrobus
and Callitris
Callitris
places the three species of Actinostrobus
Actinostrobus
within an expanded Callitris
Callitris
based on analysis of 42 morphological and anatomical characters.[7] Superlatives[edit] The family is notable for including the largest, tallest, and stoutest individual trees in the world, and also the second longest lived species in the world:

Largest - General Sherman, a Giant Sequoia with 1486.9 m³ trunk volume Tallest - Hyperion, a Coast Redwood
Redwood
that is 115.55 m tall Stoutest - Árbol del Tule, a Montezuma Cypress
Cypress
or Ahuehuete, 14.05 m diameter Second oldest - Sarv-e Abarkuh, an Alerce estimated (though not proven) to be 4000 years old (second after Great Basin Bristlecone Pine)

In addition to the above, many other members of the family list among the tallest, most massive, stoutest and most long-lived tree species in the world, including Taiwania, Sugi, Western Redcedar, Incense Cedar, Tibetan Cypress, and Formosan Cypress
Cypress
among others. Uses[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Juniperus
Juniperus
bermudiana was the key to Bermuda's shipbuilding industry, and used in building houses, and in furniture. It also comprised the habitat for other endemic and native species, and provided Bermudians with shelter from wind and sun.

Many of the species are important timber sources, especially in the genera Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cunninghamia, Cupressus, Sequoia, Taxodium, and Thuja. These and several other genera are also important in horticulture. Junipers are among the most important evergreen shrubs, groundcovers and small evergreen trees, with hundreds of cultivars selected, including plants with blue, grey, or yellow foliage. Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis
and Thuja
Thuja
also provide hundreds of dwarf cultivars as well as trees, including Lawson's cypress and the infamous hybrid Leyland cypress. Dawn redwood is widely planted as an ornamental tree because of its excellent horticultural qualities, rapid growth and status as a living fossil. Giant sequoia is a popular ornamental tree and is occasionally grown for timber. Giant sequoia, Leyland cypress, and Arizona cypress are grown to a small extent as Christmas trees. Sugi
Sugi
( Cryptomeria
Cryptomeria
japonica) is the national tree of Japan, and Ahuehuete ( Taxodium
Taxodium
mucronatum) the national tree of Mexico. Coast redwood and giant sequoia were jointly designated the state tree of California
California
and are famous California
California
tourist attractions. Redwood National and State Parks and several parks including Giant Sequoia National Monument protect almost half the remaining stands of Coast Redwoods and Giant sequoias. Bald cypress is the state tree of Louisiana. Bald cypress, often festooned with Spanish moss, of southern swamps are another tourist attraction. They can be seen at Big Cypress
Cypress
National Preserve in Florida. Bald cypress "knees" are often sold as knick knacks, made into lamps or carved to make folk art. Monterey cypress is another famous picturesque tree often visited by tourists and photographers. Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Louisiana
("red stick") was named after the decay-resistant red wood of Juniperus
Juniperus
virginiana, used by Native Americans in the region for waymarking. Its heartwood is fragrant and used in clothes chests, drawers and closets to repel moths. It is a source of juniper oil used in perfumes and medicines. The wood is also used as long lasting fenceposts and for bows. The fleshy cones of Juniperus
Juniperus
communis are used to flavour gin. Calocedrus
Calocedrus
decurrens is the main wood used to make wooden pencils and is also used for cupboards and chests. In China, cypress wood known as baimu or bomu,[8] was carved into furniture, using notably Cupressus funebris,[8] and particularly in tropical areas, Fujian cypress[9] and the aromatic wood of the Glyptostrobus.[10] Native Americans and early European explorers used Thuja
Thuja
leaves as a cure for scurvy. Distillation of Fokienia
Fokienia
roots produces an essential oil called pemou oil[11] used in medicine and cosmetics.[12] Disease vectors[edit] The pollen of many genera of Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
is allergenic, causing major hay fever problems in areas where they are abundant,[13] most notably by Cryptomeria
Cryptomeria
japonica (sugi) pollen in Japan.[14] Highly allergenic species of cypress with an OPALS allergy scale rating of 8 or higher include: Taxodium, Cupressus, Callitris, Chamaecyparis, and the males and monoicous variants of Austrocedrus
Austrocedrus
and Widdringtonia.[15] However, the females of some species have a very low potential for causing allergies (an OPALS allergy scale rating of 2 or lower) including Austrocedrus
Austrocedrus
females and Widdringtonia
Widdringtonia
females.[15] Several genera are an alternate host of Gymnosporangium
Gymnosporangium
rust, which damages apples and other related trees in the subfamily Maloideae.[16] References[edit]

^ Watson, Frank D.; James E. Eckenwalder. " Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
Bartlett: Redwood
Redwood
or Cypress
Cypress
Family". eFloras. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  ^ Bosma, Hylke F.; Kunzmann, Lutz; Kvaček, Jiří; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A. (August 2012). "Revision of the genus Cunninghamites (fossil conifers), with special reference to nomenclature, taxonomy and geological age". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. Elsevier. 182: 20–31. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2012.06.004.  ^ Qu, X. J.; Jin, J. J.; Chaw, S. M.; Li, D. Z.; Yi, T. S. (2017). "Multiple measures could alleviate long-branch attraction in phylogenomic reconstruction of Cupressoideae (Cupressaceae)". Scientific Reports. 7: 41005. doi:10.1038/srep41005. PMC 5264392 . PMID 28120880.  (Gadek et al. 2000, Farjon 2005; a more complete phylogeny, based on 10,000 nucleotides of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequence from 122 species, representing all genera is provided in Mao et al. 2012. ^ a b c d e Armin Jagel, Veit Dörken: Morphology and morphogenesis of the seed cones of the Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
- part I. Cunninghamioideae, Athrotaxoideae, Taiwanioideae, Sequoioideae, Taxodioideae. In: Bulletin of the Cupressus
Cupressus
Conservation Project, 3(3): 117-136 (PDF) ^ Armin Jagel, Veit Dörken: Morphology and morphogenesis of the seed cones of the Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
- part III. Callitroideae. In: Bulletin of the Cupressus
Cupressus
Conservation Project 4(3): 91-103 (PDF) ^ Armin Jagel, Veit Dörken: Morphology and morphogenesis of the seed cones of the Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
- part II. Cupressoideae. In: Bulletin of the Cupressus
Cupressus
Conservation Project 4(2): 51-78 (PDF) ^ Piggin, J.; Bruhl, J.J. (2010). "Phylogeny reconstruction of Callitris
Callitris
Vent. (Cupressaceae) and its allies leads to inclusion of Actinostrobus
Actinostrobus
within Callitris". Australian Systematic Botany. 23: 69–93.  ^ a b "Chinese Furniture Materials: Cypress
Cypress
(Baimu, Bomu) 柏木". Curtis Evarts. Archived from the original on 18 November 2000.  citing Evarts, Curtis (1999). C. L. Ma Collection: Traditional Chinese Furniture from the Greater Shanxi Region. Hong Kong: C.L. Ma Furniture. ISBN 978-962-7956-19-8.  ^ Thomas, P. & Yang, Y. (2013). " Fokienia
Fokienia
hodginsii". The IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T32351A2815809. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T32351A2815809.en. Retrieved 23 December 2017.  ^ "Glyptostrobus" (PDF). Flora of China. 1999. pp. 57–58. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2017.  ^ Weyerstahl, Peter; Marschall, Helga; Phan, Tong Son; Phan, Mhin Giang (1999). "Constituents of Vietnamese pemou oil—a reinvestigation". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 14 (6): 409–410. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199911/12)14:6<409::AID-FFJ843>3.0.CO;2-B.  ^ Lesueur, Dominique; et al. (2006). "Analysis of the root oil of Fokienia
Fokienia
hodginsii (Dunn) Henry et Thomas (Cupressaceae) by GC, GC–MS and 13C‐NMR". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 21 (1): 171–174. doi:10.1002/ffj.1557.  ^ Charpin, Denis; et al. (2013). " Cypress
Cypress
pollen allergy". Revue des Maladies Respiratoires. 30 (10): 868–878. doi:10.1016/j.rmr.2013.09.014. PMID 24314710.  ^ Krihara (Kurihashi), M. (1997). "Physiochemical and immunological characterization of major allergens of Japanese cedar pollen and false cypress pollen". Allergology (in Japanese). Japanese Society of Allergology. 3: 203–211.  ^ a b Ogren, Thomas Leo (2015). The Allergy-Fighting Garden: Stop Asthma and Allergies with Smart Landscaping. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-60774-491-7.  ^ Kern, Frank D. (1973). "A host survey of Gymnosporangium". Mycopathologia et Mycologia applicata. 51 (1): 99–101. doi:10.1007/BF02141290. 

Farjon, A. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 300 p. ISBN 1-900347-54-7. Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4. Farjon, A.; Hiep, N. T.; Harder, D. K.; Loc, P. K.; Averyanov, L. (2002). "A new genus and species in the Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
(Coniferales) from northern Vietnam, Xanthocyparis
Xanthocyparis
vietnamensis". Novon. 12: 179–189. doi:10.2307/3392953.  Gadek, P. A., Alpers, D. L., Heslewood, M. M., & Quinn, C. J. (2000). Relationships within Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
sensu lato: a combined morphological and molecular approach. American Journal of Botany 87: 1044–1057. Available online. Little, D. P., Schwarzbach, A. E., Adams, R. P. & Hsieh, Chang-Fu. (2004). The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of Callitropsis and the newly described genus Xanthocyparis (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (11): 1872–1881. Available online. Mao, K., Milne, R. I., Zhang, L., Peng, Y., Liu, J., Thomas, P., Mill, R. R. and S. S. Renner. (2012). Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy, USA 109(20): 7793-7798 -Open Access. Arboretum de Villardebelle Cone images of many species Gymnosperm Database: Cupressaceae Flora of China
Flora of China
- Cupressaceae Flora of North America - Cupressaceae ×Taxodiomeria peizhongii tree named 'Dongfangshan’ US PP17767 P3

External links[edit]

Media related to Cupressaceaes at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
at Wikispecies

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Cupressaceae

v t e

Extant Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
species

Subfamily Athrotaxidoideae

Athrotaxis

A. cupressoides A. selaginoides A. laxifolia

Subfamily Callitroideae

Actinostrobus

A. acuminatus A. arenarius A. pyramidalis

Austrocedrus

A. chilensis

Callitris

C. baileyi C. canescens C. columellaris C. drummondii C. endlicheri C. macleayana C. monticola C. muelleri C. neocaledonica C. oblonga C. preissii C. rhomboidea C. roei C. sulcata C. verrucosa

Diselma

D. archeri

Fitzroya

F. cupressoides

Libocedrus

L. austrocaledonicus L. bidwillii L. chevalieri L. plumosa L. yateensis

Neocallitropsis

N. pancheri

Papuacedrus

P. papuana

Pilgerodendron

P. uviferum

Widdringtonia

W. cafra W. cedarbergensis W. commersonii W. cupressoides W. dracomontana W. equisetiformis W. juniperoides W. mahoni W. natalensis W. nodiflora W. schwarzii W. stipitata W. whytei

Subfamily Cunninghamioideae

Cunninghamia

C. konishii C. lanceolata

Subfamily Cupressoideae

Calocedrus

C. decurrens C. formosana C. macrolepis C. rupestris

Chamaecyparis

C. formosensis C. lawsoniana C. obtusa C. pisifera C. taiwanensis C. thyoides

Cupressus

Old World Species:

C. atlantica C. austrotibetica C. cashmeriana C. chengiana C. duclouxiana C. dupreziana C. funebris C. gigantea C. sempervirens C. tonkinensis C. torulosa C. vietnamensis

New World Species:

C. abramsiana C. arizonica C. bakeri C. benthamii C. forbesii C. glabra C. goveniana C. guadalupensis C. lusitanica C. macnabiana C. macrocarpa C. montana C. nevadensis C. nootkatensis C. pigmaea C. revealiana C. sargentii C. stephensonii

Fokienia

F. hodginsii

Juniperus

Section Juniperus

J.  brevifolia J.  cedrus J. communis J. conferta J. drupacea J.  formosana J.  lutchuensis J.  macrocarpa J.  oxycedrus J. rigida

Section Sabina

Old World Species:

J.  chinensis J.  convallium J.  excelsa J.  foetidissima J.  indica J.  komarovii J.  phoenicea J.  pingii J.  procera J.  procumbens J.  pseudosabina J.  recurva J.  sabina J.  saltuaria J.  semiglobosa J.  squamata J.  thurifera J.  tibetica J.  wallichiana

New World Species:

J.  angosturana J.  ashei J.  arizonica J.  barbadensis J.  bermudiana J.  blancoi J.  californica J.  coahuilensis J.  comitana J.  deppeana J.  durangensis J.  flaccida J.  gamboana J.  horizontalis J.  jaliscana J.  monosperma J.  monticola J.  occidentalis J.  osteosperma J.  pinchotii J.  saltillensis J.  scopulorum J.  standleyi J.  virginiana J.  zanonii

Microbiota

M. decussata

Platycladus

P. orientalis

Tetraclinis

T. articulata

Thuja

T. koraiensis T. occidentalis T. plicata T. standishii T. sutchuenensis

Thujopsis

T. dolabrata

Xanthocyparis

X. nootkatensis X. vietnamensis

Subfamily Sequoioideae

Metasequoia

M. glyptostroboides

Sequoia

S. sempervirens

Sequoiadendron

S. giganteum

Subfamily Taiwanioideae

Taiwania

T. cryptomerioides

Subfamily Taxodioideae

Cryptomeria

C. japonica

Glyptostrobus

G. pensilis

Taxodium

T. ascendens T. distichum T. mucronatum

v t e

Pinophyta
Pinophyta
families

Pinaceae Araucariaceae Podocarpaceae Sciadopityaceae Cupressaceae Cephalotaxaceae Taxaceae

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q146037 Conifers.org: Cupressaceae EoL: 4065 EPPO: 1CUPF FloraBase: 22738 FNA: 10237 FoC: 10237 Fossilworks: 54792 GBIF: 8144 GRIN: 315 iNaturalist: 47374 IPNI: 77126767-1 ITIS: 18042 NCBI: 3367 Tropicos: 42

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61