Cumbric was a variety of the
Common Brittonic language spoken during
Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages in the
Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now
Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland. It was closely
Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. Place name
Cumbric may also have been spoken as far south as
Pendle and the
Yorkshire Dales. The prevailing view is that it became
extinct in the 12th century, after the incorporation of the
Kingdom of Strathclyde
Kingdom of Strathclyde into the Kingdom of Scotland.
1 Problems with terminology
2 Available evidence
2.1 Place names
2.3 Scots and English
3 Equivalence with Old Welsh
3.1 Retention of Brittonic *rk
3.2 Retention of Brittonic *mb
3.5 Loss of /w/
3.6 Semantics of Penn
3.7 Definite article
3.8 Absence of -ydd
3.9 Use of the name element Gos-
4 Date of extinction
5 Attempted revival
6 See also
Problems with terminology
Dauvit Broun sets out the problems with the various terms used to
Cumbric language and its speakers. The people seem to
have called themselves *Cumbri the same way that the Welsh call
themselves Cymry (most likely from Brittonic *kom-brogī meaning
"fellow countrymen"). It is likely that the Welsh and the Cumbric
speaking people of what are now southern
Scotland and northern England
felt they were actually one ethnic group.
Old Irish speakers called
them "Britons", Bretnach or Bretain. The Norse called them
Brettar. In Medieval Latin, the English term
Wales and the term
Cumbri were Latinised as Wallenses "of Wales" and respectively
Cumbrenses "of Cumbria". The usual English usage was to call them
Welsh. In Scots, a
Cumbric speaker seems to have been called
Wallace, from the Scots Wallis/Wellis "Welsh".
Cumbric region: modern counties and regions with the early
Cumbria itaque: regione quadam inter Angliam et Scotiam sita –
"Cumbria: a region situated between England and Scotland".
The Latinate term
Cambria is often used for Wales; nevertheless, the
Life of St Kentigern by
Jocelyn of Furness has the following passage:
When King Rederech (Rhydderch Hael) and his people had heard that
Kentigern had arrived from Wallia [i.e. Wales] into
Cumbria], from exile into his own country, with great joy and peace
both king and people went out to meet him.
John T. Koch defines the specifically
Cumbric region as "the area
approximately between the line of the river Mersey and the Forth-Clyde
isthmus", but goes on to include evidence from the Wirral peninsula in
his discussion and does not define its easterly extent. Kenneth
Cumbric as "the Brittonic dialect of Cumberland,
Westmorland, northern Lancashire, and south-west Scotland..." and goes
on to define the region further as being bound in the north by the
Firth of Clyde, in the south by the river Ribble and in the east by
the Southern Scottish Uplands and the Pennine ridge.
The evidence from
Cumbric comes to us almost entirely through
secondary sources, since there are no contemporary written records of
the language. The majority of evidence comes from place names of the
extreme northwest of England and the south of Scotland. Other sources
include the personal names of Strathclyde Britons in Scottish, Irish
and Anglo-Saxon sources, and a few
Cumbric words surviving into the
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages in southwest
Scotland as legal terms. Although the
language is long extinct it is arguable that traces of its vocabulary
have persisted into the modern era in the form of "counting scores"
and in a handful of dialectal words.
From this scanty evidence, little can be deduced about the singular
characteristics of Cumbric, not even the name by which its speakers
referred to it. What is generally agreed upon by linguists is that
Cumbric was a Western Brittonic language closely related to Welsh and,
more distantly, to Cornish and Breton.
It is believed that around the time of the battle described in the
poem Y Gododdin,
Common Brittonic was transitioning into its daughter
Cumbric in North Britain,
Old Welsh in Wales, and
Southwestern Brittonic, the ancestor of Cornish and Breton.
Kenneth Jackson concludes that the majority of changes that
transformed British into Primitive Welsh belong to the period from the
middle of the fifth to the end of the sixth century. This involved
syncope and the loss of final syllables. If the poem dates to this
time, it would have been written in an early form of Cumbric, the
usual name for the Brythonic speech of the Hen Ogledd. Jackson
suggested the name "Primitive Cumbric" for the dialect spoken at the
Cumbric place names are found in
Scotland south of the firths of Forth
and Clyde. Brittonic names north of this line are Pictish. They are
also found commonly in the historic county of
Cumberland and bordering
areas of Northumberland. They are less common in Westmorland, with
Lancashire and the adjoining areas of North Yorkshire. As we
approach Cheshire, late Brittonic placenames are probably better
described as being Welsh rather than Cumbric. As noted below, however,
any clear distinction between
Cumbric and Welsh is difficult to prove.
For references see Armstrong et al., Watson and Jackson.
There remain many Brittonic place-names in northern England which
should not be described as
Cumbric because they originate from a
period before Brittonic split into its daughter dialects e.g. Welsh,
Cornish, Breton and – arguably – Cumbric.
Some of the principal towns and cities of the region have names of
Cumbric origin including:
Bathgate, West Lothian. Meaning 'boar wood' (Welsh baedd "wild boar" +
coed "forest, wood").
Carlisle, Cumbria. recorded as Luguvalium in the Roman period; the
word caer "fort" was added later. The Welsh form Caerliwelydd is
derived by regular sound changes from the Romano-British name.
Glasgow, Scotland. From words equivalent to Welsh glas gau "green
hollow" (possibly that below
Lanark, Lanarkshire. From the equivalent of Welsh llannerch "glade,
Penicuik, Midlothian. From words meaning "hill of the cuckoo" (W. pen
Penrith, Cumbria. Meaning "chief ford" (Welsh pen "head; chief" + rhyd
There are several supposed
Cumbric elements which occur repeatedly in
place names of the region. The following table lists some of them
according to the modern Welsh equivalent:
end, point, summit; source of river
Blencathra, Blencogow, Blindcrake, Blencarn
fort, stronghold; wall, rampart
Carlisle, Cardew, Cardurnock, Carfrae, Cargo, Carlanrig, Carriden,
Castle Carrock, Cathcart, Caerlaverock, Cardonald, Cramond, Carleith
trees, forest, wood
Bathgate, Dalkeith, Culgaith, Tulketh, Culcheth, Pencaitland, Penketh,
Towcett, Dankeith, Culgaith, Culcheth, Cheadle, Cheetham, Cathcart,
Cheetwood, Cathpair, Kincaid, Inchkeith
deep narrow valley; hollow, bowl-shaped depression
Cumrew, Cumwhitton, Cumwhinton, Cumdivock
Drumlanrig, Dundraw, Mindrum, Drumburgh, Drem, Drumaben
?Eaglesfield, Ecclefechan, Ecclesmachan, Eccleston, Eccles, Terregles,
Egglescliffe, Eggleshope, Ecclaw, Ecclerigg, Dalreagle, Eggleston
Barlanark, Carlanrig, Drumlanrig, Lanark, Lanercost
bald; (bare) mountain/hill, summit
Mellor, Melrose, Mallerstang
head; top, summit; source of stream; headland; chief, principal
Pennygant Hill, Pen-y-Ghent, Penrith, Penruddock, Pencaitland,
Penicuik, Penpont, Penketh, Pendle, Penshaw, Pemberton, Penistone,
Penketh, Pen-bal Crag
tree; timber; cross
Traprain Law, Barnbougle, Pirn, Pirncader, Pirniehall, Pirny Braes,
town, homestead, estate, township
Longniddry, Niddrie, Ochiltree, Soutra, Terregles, Trabroun,
Trailtrow, Tranent, Traprain Law, Traquair, Treales, Triermain,
Trostrie, Troughend, ?Trafford, Tranew, ?Bawtry
Cumbric names have historically been replaced by Gaelic or
English equivalents and in some cases the different forms occur in the
Edinburgh occurs in early Welsh texts as Din Eidyn and in medieval
Scottish records as Dunedene (Gaelic Dùn Èideann), all meaning "fort
Falkirk similarly has several alternative medieval forms meaning
"speckled church": Eglesbreth etc. from
Cumbric (Welsh eglwys fraith);
Eiglesbrec etc. from Gaelic (modern Gaelic eaglais bhreac); Faukirk
etc. from Scots (
Old English fāg cirice).
Kirkintilloch began as a
Cumbric name recorded as Caerpentaloch in the
10th century, but was partly replaced by the Gaelic words ceann "head"
+ tulach "hillock" later on.
Kinneil derives from Gaelic ceann fhàil "head of the [Antonine] Wall"
but it was recorded by
Nennius as Penguaul (Welsh pen gwawl) and by
Bede as Peanfahel, which appears to be a merger of British and
See also: Yan tan tethera
Counting systems of possible
Cumbric origin, modern Welsh included for
Among the evidence that
Cumbric served as a substratum that influenced
local English dialects are a group of counting systems, or scores,
recorded in various parts of northern England. Around 100 of these
systems have been collected since the 18th century; the scholarly
consensus is that these derive from a Brittonic language closely
related to Welsh. Though they are often referred to as
"sheep-counting numerals", most recorded scores were not used to count
sheep, but in knitting or for children's games or nursery rhymes.
These scores are often suggested to represent a survival from medieval
Cumbric, a theory first popularized in the 19th century. However,
later scholars came to reject this idea, suggesting instead that the
scores were later imports from either
Wales or Scotland, but in light
of the dearth of evidence for any of these theories, Markku Filppula,
Juhani Klemola, and Heli Paulasto note that it remains plausible that
the counting systems are indeed of
Scots and English
A number of words occurring in the Scots and Northern English variants
of English have been proposed as being of possible Brittonic
origin. Ascertaining the real derivation of these words is far
from simple, due in part to the similarities between some cognates in
the Brittonic and
Goidelic languages and the fact that borrowing took
place in both directions between these languages. Another difficulty
lies with other words which were taken into Old English, as in many
cases it is impossible to tell whether the borrowing is directly from
Brittonic or not (see Brogat, Crag). The following are possibilities:
Bach – cowpat (cf Welsh baw "dung", Gaelic buadhar)
Baivenjar – mean fellow (Welsh bawyn "scoundrel")
Brat – apron. The word is found in Welsh ("rag, cloth;
pinafore"), Scots and northern English dialects but may be
Old English borrowing from Old Irish.
Brogat – a type of mead (Welsh bragod "bragget" – also
found in Chaucer)
Coble – small, flat-bottomed boat (also in Northeast England),
akin to Welsh ceubal "a hollow" and Latin caupulus
Crag – rocks. Either from Brittonic (Welsh craig) or Goidelic
Scottish Gaelic creag).
Croot – a small boy (Welsh crwt, Gaelic cruit "someone small
Croude – type of small harp (as opposed to a clàrsach; Welsh
crwth "fiddle", Gaelic croit)
Lum – Scottish word for chimney (
Middle Welsh llumon "chimney",
Gaelic laom or laoman)
Equivalence with Old Welsh
The linguistic term
Cumbric is defined according to geographical
rather than linguistic criteria: that is, it refers to the variety of
Brittonic spoken within a particular region of North Britain and
implies nothing about that variety except that it was geographically
distinct from other varieties. This has led to a discussion about the
Cumbric and its relationship with other Brittonic languages,
in particular with Old Welsh.
Linguists appear undecided as to whether
Cumbric should be considered
a separate language, or a dialect of Old Welsh. Koch calls it a
dialect but goes on to say that some of the place names in the Cumbric
region "clearly reflect a developed medieval language, much like
Welsh, Cornish or Breton". Jackson also calls it a dialect but
points out that "to call it Pr[imitive] W[elsh] would be
inaccurate", so clearly views it as distinct in some meaningful
It has been suggested that
Cumbric was more closely aligned to the
Pictish language than to Welsh, though there is considerable
debate regarding the classification of that language. On the basis of
place name evidence it has also been proposed that all three languages
were very similar.
The whole question is made more complex because there is no consensus
as to whether any principled distinction can be made between languages
Below, some of the proposed differences between
Cumbric and Old Welsh
Retention of Brittonic *rk
In Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, the
Common Brittonic cluster *rk was
spirantized to /rx/ (Welsh rch, Cornish rgh, Breton rc'h) but a number
of place names appear to show
Cumbric retained the stop in this
Lanercost are thought to contain the equivalent
of Welsh llannerch 'clearing'.
There is evidence to the contrary, however, including the place names
Powmaughan and Maughanby (containing Welsh Meirchion) and the word
kelchyn (related to Welsh cylch). Jackson concludes that the change
Common Brittonic *rk > /rx/ "may have been somewhat later in
Retention of Brittonic *mb
There is evidence to suggest that the consonant cluster mb remained
Cumbric later than the time it was assimilated to mm in
Welsh, Cornish, and Breton. The cluster remains in:
Old English Cumbraland "land of Cumbrians" (from Common Brittonic
*kombrogi, from whence Welsh Cymru "Wales" also originates).
Crombocwater and Crombokwatre, two 14th-century records of
Crummock Water and Crombok an 1189 record for Crummack Dale in
Common Brittonic *Crumbāco- "curved one" (W crwm
Cam Beck, the name of a stream in north
Cumbria recorded as Camboc
(1169) and believed to be from
Common Brittonic *Cambāco- "crooked
stream" (W cam, CB kamm).
Crimple Beck, Yorkshire, which is said to derive from Common
Brittonic. *Crumbopull- "crooked pool". Here the b is assumed to
have survived late enough to cause provection.
Jackson notes that only in the north does the cluster appear in place
names borrowed after circa 600AD and concludes that it may have been a
later dialectal survival here.
Jackson notes the legal term galnys, equivalent to Welsh galanas, may
show syncope of internal syllables to be a feature of Cumbric. Further
evidence is wanting, however.
James mentions that devoicing appears to be a feature of many
Cumbric place names. Devoicing of word final consonants is a feature
of modern Breton and, to an extent, Cornish. Watson notes
initial devoicing in Tinnis Castle (in Drumelzier) (compare Welsh
dinas 'fortress, city') as an example of this, which can also be seen
in the Cornish Tintagel, din 'fort'.
There is also a significant number of place names which do not support
this theory. Devoke Water and Cumdivock (< Dyfoc, according to
Ekwall) and Derwent (<
Common Brittonic Derwentiō) all have
initial /d/. The name Calder (< Brit. *Caletodubro-) in fact
appears to show a voiced
Cumbric consonant where Welsh has Calettwr by
provection, which Jackson believes reflects an earlier stage of
pronunciation. Jackson also notes that
Old English had no internal or
final /g/, so would be borrowed with /k/ by sound substitution. This
can be seen in names with c, k, ck (e.g. Cocker < Brittonic
*kukro-,[clarification needed] Eccles < Brittonic eglēsia).
Loss of /w/
Cumbric personal names Gospatrick, Gososwald and Gosmungo meaning
'servant of St...' (Welsh, Cornish, Breton gwas 'servant, boy') and
the Galloway dialect word gossock 'short, dark haired inhabitant of
Wigtownshire' (W. gwasog 'a servant') apparently show that the
Cumbric equivalent of Welsh and Cornish gwas & B gwaz 'servant'
was *gos. Jackson suggests that it may be a survival of the
original Proto-Celtic form of the word in –o- (i.e. *uɸo-sto).
This idea is disputed by the Dictionary of the Scots Language; and
the occurrence in Gospatrick's Writ of the word wassenas
'dependants', thought to be from the same word gwas, is
evidence against Jackson's theory. Koch notes that the alternation
between gwa- and go- is common among the
Brittonic languages and does
not amount to a systematic sound change in any of them.
Semantics of Penn
In the Book of Aneirin, a poem entitled "Peis Dinogat" (possibly set
Lake District of Cumbria), contains a usage of the word penn
"head" (attached to the names of several animals hunted by the
protagonist), that is unique in medieval Welsh literature and may,
according to Koch, reflect
Cumbric influence ("[r]eferring to a single
animal in this way is otherwise found only in Breton, and we have no
evidence that the construction ever had any currency in the
present-day Wales"). The relevant lines are:
Pan elei dy dat ty e vynyd
Dydygei ef penn ywrch penn gwythwch penn hyd
Penn grugyar vreith o venyd
Penn pysc o rayadyr derwennyd
When your father went to [the] mountain
He brought a head of buck, head of wild pig, head of stag
Head of speckled grouse from [the] mountain
Head of fish from [the] falls of Derwent
The form derwennydd however, is at odds with the absence of the ending
-ydd noted below.
Brittonic languages have different forms of the definite
article: Welsh yr, -'r, y, Cornish an, and Breton an, ar, al. These
are all taken to derive from an unstressed form of the Common
Brittonic demonstrative *sindos, altered by assimilation (compare the
Gaelic articles). Throughout
Old Welsh the article is ir (or -r
after a vowel), but there is evidence in
Cumbric for an article in
-n alongside one in -r. Note the following:
Cumbria (Talentir 1200–25): 'brow/end of the land'
(Welsh tal y tir)
Cumbria (Trewermain, Treverman c 1200): 'homestead at the
stone' (Welsh tre(f) y maen)
Lancashire (Treueles 1086): possibly 'village of the court'
(Welsh tre(f) y llys). But note Treflys,
Powys which has no
Yorkshire (Penegent 1307): 'hill of the border country'
(Welsh pen y gaint). The final element is disputed. Ekwall says it
is identical to
Kent (< Br *Kantion), which is related to Welsh
cant 'rim, border', though Mills gives 'coastal district' or 'land
of the hosts or armies' for the county.
Traquair, Borders (Treverquyrd 1124): 'homestead on the River Quair'
(Welsh tre(f) y Quair).
Midlothian (Penicok 1250): 'hill of the cuckoo' (Welsh pen y
Wirral Peninsula (Lisenecark 1260): possibly 'court of the
rock' (Welsh llys y garreg), but also suggested is Irish lios
na carraige of identical meaning. Although Koch cites this as an
example of Cumbric, it lies outside his own definition of the Cumbric
Absence of -ydd
Of all the names of possible
Cumbric derivation, few are more certain
than Carlisle and Derwent which can be directly traced back to their
Romano-British recorded forms Luguvalium and Derventio.
The modern and medieval forms of Carlisle (Luel c1050, Cardeol 1092,
Karlioli c1100 (in the
Medieval Latin genitive case), Cærleoil 1130)
and Derwent (Deorwentan stream c890 (Old English), Derewent) suggest
derivations from Br *Luguvaljon and *Derwentjō. But the Welsh forms
Caerliwelydd and Derwennydd are derived from alternative forms
*Luguvalijon, *Derwentijō which gave the -ydd ending. This appears
to show a divergence between
Cumbric and Welsh at a relatively early
If this was an early dialectal variation, it can't be applied as a
universal sound law, as the equivalent of W mynydd 'mountain' occurs
in a number of
Cumbric names with the spirant intact: E.g. Mindrum
(Minethrum 1050) from 'mountain ridge' (Welsh mynydd trum). It
might also be noted that Medieval Welsh forms of Caerliwelydd and
Derwennydd both occur in poems of supposed Cumbrian origin whose
rhyme and metre would be disrupted if the ending were absent.
Use of the name element Gos-
One particularly distinctive element of
Cumbric is the repeated use of
the element Gos- or Cos- (W. gwas 'boy, lad; servant, attendant') in
personal names, followed by the name of a saint. The practice is
reminiscent of Gaelic names such as Maol Choluim "Malcolm" and Gille
Crìosd "Gilchrist", which have
Scottish Gaelic maol (
Old Irish máel
'bald, tonsured; servant') and gille (servant, lad', < Old Irish
gilla 'a youth').
The most well-known example of this
Cumbric naming practice is
Gospatric, which occurs as the name of several notable Anglo-Scottish
noblemen in the 11th and 12th centuries. Other examples, standardised
from original sources, include Gosmungo (Saint Mungo), Gososwald
(Oswald of Northumbria) and Goscuthbert (Cuthbert).
Date of extinction
It is impossible to give an exact date of the extinction of Cumbric.
However, there are some pointers which may give a reasonably accurate
estimate. In the mid-11th century, some landowners still bore what
appear to be
Cumbric names. Examples of such landowners are Dunegal
(Dyfnwal), lord of Strathnith or Nithsdale; Moryn (Morien), lord
of Cardew and Cumdivock near Carlisle; and Eilifr (Eliffer), lord of
There is a village near Carlisle called
Cumquinton). This appears to contain the Norman name Quinton. There
were no Normans in this area until 1069 at the earliest.
Battle of the Standard
Battle of the Standard in 1138, the Cumbrians are noted as a
separate ethnic group. Given that their material culture was very
similar to their Gaelic and Anglian neighbours, it is arguable that
what set them apart was still their language. Also the castle at
Castle Carrock – Castell Caerog – dates from around
1160–1170. Barmulloch, earlier Badermonoc (
dwelling"), was given to the church by Malcolm IV of Scotland
between 1153 and 1165.
A more controversial point is the surname Wallace. It means
"Welshman". It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area
were medieval immigrants from Wales, but given that the term was also
used for local
Cumbric speaking Strathclyde Welsh it seems equally if
not more likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as
being "Welsh" due to their
Cumbric language. Surnames in
not inherited before 1200 and not regularly until 1400. William
Wallace (known in Gaelic as Uilleam Breatnach – namely William
the Briton or Welshman) came from the Renfrew area – itself a
Cumbric name. Wallace slew the sheriff of
Lanark (also a
in 1297. Even if he had inherited the surname from his father, it is
possible that the family spoke
Cumbric within memory in order to be
There are also some historical pointers to a continuing separate
ethnic identity. Prior to being crowned king of
Scotland in 1124,
David I was invested with the title Prince of the Cumbrians. William
the Lion between 1173–1180 made an address to his subjects,
identifying the Cumbrians as a separate group. This does not prove
that any of them still spoke
Cumbric at this time.
The legal documents in the
Lanercost Cartulary, dating from the late
12th century, show witnesses with Norman French or English names, and
Cumbric names. Though these people represent the upper
classes, it seems significant that by the late 12th century in the
Cumbric is not obvious in these personal names. In
1262 in Peebles, jurymen in a legal dispute over peat cutting also
have names which mostly appear Norman French or English, but
possible exceptions are Gauri Pluchan, Cokin Smith and Robert Gladhoc,
where Gladhoc has the look of an adjective similar to Welsh "gwladog"
= "countryman". In the charters of
Wetherall Priory near Carlisle
there is a monk called Robert Minnoc who appears as a witness to 8
charters dating from around 1260. His name is variously spelled
Minnoc/Minot/Mynoc and it is tempting to see an equivalent of the
Welsh "mynach" – "Robert the Monk" here.
Given that the Anglicisation of the upper classes in general has
happened before the Anglicisation of the peasantry in other areas
which have given up speaking
Celtic languages it is not implausible
that the peasantry continued to speak
Cumbric for at least a little
while after. Around 1200 there is a list of the names of men living in
the area of Peebles. Amongst them are
Cumbric names such as
Gospatrick: servant or follower of Saint Patrick, Gosmungo: servant of
Saint Mungo, Guososwald: servant of
Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald of Northumbria and
Goscubrycht: servant of Cuthbert. Two of the saints – Oswald
and Cuthbert — are from Northumbria showing influence on
Cumbric not found in Welsh.
The royal seal of Alexander III of
Scotland (who reigned 4 September
1241 – 19 March 1286) bore the title "Rex Scotorum et
Britanniarum", or "King of Scots and Britons".
Edward I of England
Edward I of England prohibited the Leges inter Brettos et
Scottos. The term Brets or Britons refers to the native,
Cumbric speaking people of southern Scotland.
It seems that
Cumbric could well have survived into the middle of the
12th century as a community language and even lasted into the 13th on
the tongues of the last remaining speakers. Certain areas seem to be
particularly dense in
Cumbric place-names even down to very minor
features. The two most striking of these are around
Lanercost east of
Carlisle and around Torquhan south of Edinburgh. If the 1262 names
Peebles do contain traces of
Cumbric personal names then we can
Cumbric dying out between 1250 and 1300 at the very latest.
In the 2000s, a group of enthusiasts proposed a revival of the Cumbric
language and launched a social networking site and a "revived Cumbric"
guidebook to promote it, but with little success. Writing in
Carn magazine, Colin Lewis noted that there was disagreement in the
group about whether to base "revived Cumbric" on the surviving sources
for the language or try to reconstruct the form Late
Cumbric may have
taken after the attested period, but his own suggestion was simply to
use Modern Welsh, with its rich literature, culture and history.
Kenneth H. Jackson
Kingdom of Strathclyde
^ a b Nicolaisen, W. F. H. Scottish Place Names p. 131
^ a b c d e f Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: a historical
encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 515–516.
^ a b Broun, Dauvit (2004): 'The Welsh identity of the kingdom of
Strathclyde, ca 900-ca 1200', Innes Review 55, pp 111–80.
^ Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1983. Online
^ a b c d Armstrong, A. M., Mawer, A., Stenton, F. M. and Dickens, B.
(1952) The Place-Names of Cumberland. Cambridge: Cambridge University
^ a b Forbes, A. P. (1874) Lives of St. Ninian and St. Kentigern:
compiled in the twelfth century
^ Innes, Cosmo Nelson, (ed). (1843), Registrum Episcopatus
Glasguensis; Munimenta Ecclesie Metropolitane Glasguensis a Sede
Restaurata Seculo Incunte Xii Ad Reformatam Religionem, i, Edinburgh:
The Bannatyne Club
^ (1989) Two Celtic Saints: the lives of Ninian and Kentigern
Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, p. 91
^ a b c d e f g h i j Jackson, K. H. (1956): Language and History in
Early Britain, Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press
^ Koch, John (ed), Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia,
ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 516
^ Martin J. Ball, James Fife (eds.), The Celtic Languages, Taylor
& Francis, 2002, p. 6
^ Kenneth H. Jackson, Language and history in early Britain, Edinburgh
University press, 1953, p. 10.
^ Davies (2005), p. 232.
^ Jackson (1953), pp 3–11; 690.
^ Elliott (2005), p. 583.
^ Jackson (1969), pp. 86, 90.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Watson, W. J. (1926): History of the Celtic
Place-Names of Scotland, Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ekwall, E. (1960) 'The Concise Oxford
Dictionary of English Place-names' 4th edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press
^ a b c d e Mills, A.D. (2003): Oxford Dictionary of British Place
Names, Oxford: OUP
^ a b c Filppula, Klemola, and Paulasto, pp. 102–105.
^ Dictionary of the Scots Language
^ Convery (ed.), Anne (1993). Collins Spurrell Pocket Welsh
Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language". Retrieved 13 March 2011.
^ Rollinson, William (1997). The Cumbrian Dictionary. Otley, UK: Smith
Settle. ISBN 1-85825-067-6.
^ MacBain, Alexander (1911). An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic
^ a b James, A. G. (2008): 'A
Cumbric Diaspora?' in Padel and Parsons
(eds.) A Commodity of Good Names: essays in honour of Margaret
Gelling, Shaun Tyas: Stamford, pp 187–203
^ Taylor, S. and Markus, G. (2006) The Place-names of Fife: West Fife
between Leven and Forth: v.1
^ Hemon, R. & Everson, M. (trans.) (2007): Breton Grammar, Cathair
na Mart, Éire: Evertype: p79
^ Cornish Language Partnership (2007): 'A Proposed Standard Written
Form of Cornish' available at http://kernowek.net/
^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language".
^ a b Phythian-Adams, Charles (1996): Land of the Cumbrians,
Aldershot: Scolar Press
^ Morris-Jones, J. (1913): A Welsh Grammar Historical and Comparative,
Oxford: OUP, p192
^ a b Mackay, George (2002): Scottish Place Names, New Lanark: Lomond
^ Morris-Jones, J. (1918): Taliesin, London: Society of Cymmrodorion
p209 – Chaer Liwelyd in Marwnad Rhun (Book of Taliesin)
^ see extract from Peis Dinogat above
^ Koch, J. T. (1983) 'The Loss of Final Syllables and Loss of
Declension in Brittonic' in [Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies
^ Oram, R.(2000): The Lordship of Galloway, Edinburgh: John Donald
^ Oram, Richard (2004), David: The King Who Made Scotland
^ Taylor, Simon. "The
Glasgow Story – Early Times to 1560".
Taylor, Simon. "The
Glasgow Story: Beginnings: Early Times to 1560".
Glasgow Story. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
^ Todd, J. M. (ed.) (1991) The
Lanercost Cartulary, Carlisle: CWAAS
^ Chambers, W. (1864) A History of Peebleshire, Edinburgh: W & M
^ Prifysgol Cymru. (2002) Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: Caerdydd: Gwasg
^ Prescott, J. E. (ed.) (1897) Register of Wetheral Priory, Carlisle:
^ Barrow, G. W. S. (2005) Robert Bruce & the Community of the
Realm of Scotland, Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press
^ Meg Jorsh (16 June 2009). "New website launched for people who want
to talk in Cumbric". News and Star. Archived from the original on 22
March 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
^ "Cumbraek: A modern reinvention of the lost Celtic language of
Cumbric". Cumbraek. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
^ Lewis, Colin (2009). "Cumbrian Welsh – an update" (PDF). Carn.
144: 10. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
Davies, Wendy (2005). "The Celtic Kingdoms". In Fouracre, Paul;
McKitterick, Rosamond. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 500–c.
700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, Elizabeth (2005). "Scottish Writing". In Fouracre, Paul;
McKitterick, Rosamond. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 500–c.
700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Filppula, Markku; Juhani Klemola; Heli Paulasto (2008). English and
Celtic in Contact. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-26602-5.
Retrieved 2 December 2010.
Jackson, Kenneth H. (1953). Language and History in Early Britain.
Edinburgh University Press.
Jackson, Kenneth H. (1969). The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish poem.
Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-049-X.
James, Alan G. (2008). "A
Cumbric Diaspora?". In
O. J. Padel and D.
Parsons (eds.). A Commodity of Good Names:essays in honour of Margaret
Gelling. Stamford: Shaun Tyas. pp. 187–203.
ISBN 978-1-900289-90-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list
Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia.
Oram, Richard (2000). The Lordship of Galloway. Edinburgh: John
Donald. ISBN 0-85976-541-5.
Phythian-Adams, Charles (1996). Land of the Cumbrians. Aldershot:
Scolar Press. ISBN 1-85928-327-6.
Russell, Paul (1995). An Introduction to the Celtic Languages. London:
Longman. ISBN 0-582-10082-8.
Schmidt, Karl Horst (1993). "Insular Celtic: P and Q Celtic". In M. J.
Ball and J. Fife (ed.). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge.
pp. 64–98. ISBN 0-415-01035-7. CS1 maint: Extra text:
editors list (link)
Y Fro Gymraeg
Cape Breton Island
Irish medium education
Gaelic medium education
Manx medium education
Welsh medium education
Breton medium education
Cornish medium nursery
Italics indicate extinct or