The Info List - Cultural Assimilation

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Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture resembles those of a dominant group. The term is used to refer to both individuals and groups; the latter case can refer to a range of social groups, including ethnic minorities, immigrants, indigenous peoples, and other marginalized groups such as sexual minorities who adapt to being culturally dominated by another societal group. Cultural assimilation may involve either a quick or a gradual change depending on circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when members of a society become indistinguishable from those of the dominant group. Whether it is desirable for a given group to assimilate is often disputed by both members of the group and those of the dominant society. Cultural assimilation does not guarantee social homophily though as this article states, geographical and other natural barriers between cultures even if started by the same dominant culture will be culturally different.[1]


1 Overview 2 Assimilation by country

2.1 United States

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Overview[edit] A place (a state or an ethnicity) can spontaneously adopt a different culture due to its political relevance, or to its perceived cultural superiority. The first is the case of the Latin
language and culture, that were gradually adopted by most of the subjugated people. Cultural assimilation can happen either spontaneously or forcibly. A culture can spontaneously adopt a different culture or older, richer, or otherwise more dominant cultures forcibly absorb subordinate cultures. The term assimilation is often used not only with regard to indigenous groups who find themselves in the minority before another culture perceived as more sophisticated or prestigious, but also immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. A new culture and new attitudes toward the origin culture are obtained through contact and communication. Cultural changing is not simply a one-way process. Assimilation assumes that relatively tenuous culture gets to be united to one unified culture. This process happens through contact and accommodation between each culture. The current definition of assimilation is usually used to refer to immigrants, but in multiculturalism, cultural assimilation can happen all over the world and within varying social contexts, not just be limited to specific areas. For example, a shared language gives people the chance to study and work internationally, not just being limited to the same cultural group. People from different countries contribute to diversity and form the "global culture" which means the culture combined by the elements from different countries. This "global culture" can be seen as a part of assimilation that causes cultures from different areas to affect each other. Assimilation by country[edit] Immigrant assimilation is a complex process in which immigrants not only fully integrate themselves into a new country, but also lose aspects, perhaps all of their heritage too. Social scientists rely on four primary benchmarks to assess immigrant assimilation: socioeconomic status, geographic distribution, second language attainment, and intermarriage.[2] William A.V. Clark defines immigrant assimilation as "a way of understanding the social dynamics of American society and that it is the process that occurs spontaneously and often unintended in the course of interaction between majority and minority groups".[3] United States[edit] Further information: Americanization
(immigration) Between 1880 and 1920, the United States took in roughly 24 million immigrants.[2] This increase in immigration can be attributed to many historical changes. The beginning of the twenty-first century has also marked a massive era of immigration, and sociologists are once again trying to make sense of the impact that immigration has on society and the impact it has on immigrants themselves.[2] Assimilation had various meanings in American sociology, Henry Pratt Fairchild associates American assimilation with Americanization
or the melting pot theory. Some scholars also believed assimilation and acculturation were synonymous. According to a many's point of view, assimilation is a "process of interpretation and fusion" from another group or person. This may include memories, behaviors and sentiments. By sharing their experiences and histories, they blend into the common cultural life.[4] The long history of immigration in these established gateways means that the place of immigrants in terms of class, racial, and ethnic hierarchies in these traditional gateways are more structured or established on the other hand these new gateways do not have much immigration history therefore the place of immigrants in terms of class, racial, and ethnic hierarchies is less defined and immigrants may have more influence to define their position. Secondly, the size of new gateways may influence immigrant assimilation. Having a smaller gateway may influence the level of segregation among immigrants and native-born people. Thirdly, the difference in institutional arrangements may influence immigrant assimilation. Traditional gateways, unlike new gateways, have many institutions set up to help immigrants such as legal aid, bureaus, social organizations. Finally, Waters and Jimenez have only speculated that these differences may influence immigrant assimilation and the way researchers should assess immigrant assimilation.[2] See also[edit]

Acculturation Conformity Cultural imperialism Cultural genocide Cultural appropriation Diaspora politics Enculturation Ethnic
interest group Ethnic
relations Ethnocide Forced assimilation Forced conversion Globalization Hegemony Indigenization Intercultural communication Social integration Immigrant-host model Immigration and crime Intercultural competence Language shift Language death Leitkultur Nationalism Parallel society Patriotism Political correctness Integration Segregation Recuperation (politics) Religious assimilation


(of Native Americans) Anglicisation Christianization Islamification "More Irish than the Irish themselves" Russification Stolen Generations
Stolen Generations
(Assimilation of Australian Aborigines)


^ Parisi, Domenico, Federico Cecconi, and Francesco Natale. "Cultural change in spatial environments: the role of cultural assimilation and internal changes in cultures." Journal of Conflict Resolution 47.2 (2003): 163–179. ^ a b c d Waters, Mary C.; Jiménez, Tomás R. (2005). "Assessing Immigrant Assimilation: New Empirical and Theoretical Challenges". Annual Review of Sociology. 31 (1): 105–125. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100026.  ^ Clark, W. (2003). Immigrants and the American Dream: Remaking the Middle Class. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-880-X.  ^ "Assimilation facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com articles about Assimilation". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-11-11. 


Alba, Richard D.; Nee, Victor (2003). Remaking the American Mainstream. Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01813-3.  Armitage, Andrew (1995). Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0459-9.  Crispino, James A. (1980). The Assimilation of Ethnic
Groups: The Italian Case. Center for Migration Studies. ISBN 0-913256-39-0.  Drachsler, Julius (1920). Democracy and Assimilation: The Blending of Immigrant Heritages in America. Macmillan.  Gordon, Milton M. Daedalus Yetman, ed. "Assimilation in America: Theory and Reality". Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston, Mass. 90 (2): 245–258.  Gordon, Milton M. (1964). Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press.  Grauman, Robert A. (1951). Methods of studying the cultural assimilation of immigrants. University of London.  Kazal, R. A. (April 1995). "Revisiting Assimilation". American Historical Society. 100.  Murguía, Edward (1975). Assimilation, Colonialism, and the Mexican American People. Center for Mexican American Studies. University of Texas at Austin. ISBN 0-292-77520-2.  Zhou, Min (Winter 1997). "Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on the New Second Generation". International Migration Review. 31 (4, Special
Issue: Immigrant Adaptation and Native–Born Responses in the Making of Americans).  Zhou, Min; Carl L. Bankston (1998). Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States. vol. III. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-87154-995-2. 

External links[edit]

Asian-Nation: Asian American Assimilation & Ethnic
Identity From Paris to Cairo: Resistance of the Unacculturated Unity and Diversity in Multicultural Societies

portal Sociology portal

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Cultural assimilation

Africanization Albanisation Americanization

Native Americans names

Anglicisation Arabization

Armenians Berbers Blacks Jews

Araucanization Batavianization Belarusization Bosniakization Bulgarization Castilianization Celticisation Chilenization Christianization Creolization Croatisation Cyrillization Czechization Estonianization Europeanisation Finnicization Francization


Gaelicisation Germanisation Globalization Hawaiianize Hellenization Hispanicization Indianisation


Indigenization Indo-Aryanisation Indonesation Islamization Israelization


Italianization Japanization Javanisation Judaization Kurdification Lithuanization Magyarization
or hungarization Malayisation Montenegrization Norwegianization Pakistanisation Pashtunization Persianization


Polonization Romanianization Romanization or latinization


Russification Saffronisation Sanskritisation Serbianisation Sinhalization Sinicization Slavicisation Slovakization Sovietization Swahilization Swedification Taiwanization Tamilisation Thaification Turkification


Turkmenization Ukrainisation Uzbekization Westernization

Opposite trends

Dehellenization De-Russification De-Sinicization Korenizatsiya

Related concepts

Cultural globalization Cultural imperialism Dominant culture Forced assimilation Identity politics Internal colonialism Jewish assimilation Language shift Melting pot Monoculturalism

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Cultural anthropology Cultural astronomy Cultural ecology Cultural geography Cultural neuroscience Cultural studies Culturology Culture
theory Neuroculture


Bioculture Cross-cultural studies

Cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural leadership Cross-cultural psychiatry Cross-cultural psychology

Cultural analytics Cultural economics Cultural entomology Cultural health Cultural history Cultural mapping Cultural mediation Cultural psychology Culturomics Intercultural learning Intercultural relations Philosophy of culture Popular culture studies Semiotics of culture Sociology of culture Sound culture Theology of culture Transcultural nursing


Constructed culture Dominant culture Folk culture High culture Individualistic culture Legal culture Low culture Microculture Official culture Political culture


Popular culture


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Alternative culture list

Super culture Vernacular culture Culture
by location


Acculturation Cultural appropriation Cultural area Cultural artifact Cultural baggage Cultural behavior Cultural bias Cultural capital


Cultural communication Cultural conflict Cultural cringe Cultural dissonance Cultural emphasis Cultural framework Cultural heritage Cultural icon Cultural identity Cultural industry Cultural invention Cultural landscape Cultural learning Cultural leveling Cultural memory Cultural pluralism Cultural practice Cultural property Cultural reproduction Cultural system Cultural technology Cultural universal Cultureme Enculturation High- and low-context cultures Interculturality Manuscript culture Material culture Non-material culture Organizational culture Print culture Protoculture Safety culture Technoculture Trans-cultural diffusion Transculturation Visual culture


Colonial mentality Consumer capitalism Cross cultural sensitivity Cultural assimilation Cultural attaché Cultural backwardness Cultural Bolshevism Cultural conservatism Cultural contracts Cultural deprivation Cultural diplomacy Cultural environmentalism Cultural exception Cultural feminism Cultural genocide Cultural globalization Cultural hegemony Cultural imperialism Cultural intelligence Cultural liberalism Cultural nationalism Cultural pessimism Cultural policy Cultural racism Cultural radicalism Cultural retention Cultural Revolution Cultural rights Cultural safety Cultural silence Cultural subsidy Cultural Zionism Culture
change Culture
minister Culture
of fear Culture
war Deculturalization Dominator culture Interculturalism Intraculturalism Monoculturalism Multiculturalism


Pluriculturalism Security culture Transculturism


Animal culture Archaeological culture Bennett scale Bullying culture Cannabis culture Circuit of culture Coffee culture Cross-cultural Cultural center Cultural Christian

Cultural Mormon

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Cultural translation Cultural turn Cultural sensibility Culture
and positive psychology Culture
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gap Culture
hero Culture
industry Culture
shock Culturgen Children's culture Culturalism Cyberculture Death and culture Disability

Deaf culture

Emotions and culture Intercultural communication Intercultural competence Languaculture Living things in culture Media culture Oppositional culture Participatory culture Permission culture Rape culture Remix culture Tea culture Transformation of culture Urban culture Welfare culture

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Related concepts

Clan Ethnic

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

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Anthropology Ethnic
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Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region


Arab League


Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America


Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia



Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic
flag Ethnic
option Ethnic
origin Ethnic
religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic
democracy Ethnic
enclave Ethnic
interest group Ethnic
majority Ethnic
media Ethnic
pornography Ethnic
theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

bioweapon Ethnic
cleansing Ethnic
hatred Ethnic
joke Ethnic
nationalism Ethnic
nepotism Ethnic
penalty Ethnic
slur Ethnic
stereotype Ethnic
violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia

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General forms

Age Caste Class Color Disability Gender Genotype Hair Height Language Looks Mental condition Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Religion Sex Sexuality Size Species


AIDS stigma Adultism Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism Audism Binarism Biphobia Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Ethnopluralism Fatism Genderism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism Homophobia Islamophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Mentalism Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Shadism Supremacism

Arab Black White

Transmisogyny Transphobia Vegaphobia Xenophobia


Animal cruelty Animal testing Blood libel Blood sport Carnism Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Democide Disability
hate crime Educational Economic Eliminationism Employment Enemy of the people Ethnic
cleansing Ethnic
hatred Ethnic
joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital mutilation Genocide


Glass ceiling Group libel Hate crime Hate group Hate speech Homeless dumping Housing Indian rolling LGBT hate crime Lavender scare Lynching Meat eating Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Race war Red Scare Religious persecution Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt

Discriminatory policies


age racial religious sex

Age of candidacy Blood quantum Cleanliness of blood Crime of apartheid Disabilities

Jewish Catholic

Ethnocracy Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donor controversy Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
(laws and issues prohibiting) Sodomy law Ugly law Voter suppression


Affirmative action Animal rights Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Desegregation Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Human rights Intersex rights Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Self-determination Social integration Toleration Vegetarianism Veganism

Related topics

Allophilia Anthropocentrism Anti-cultural sentiment Assimilation Bias Christian privilege Data discrimination Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic
penalty Eugenics Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Multiculturalism Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Power distance Prejudice Racial bias in criminal news Racism
by country Regressive left Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social stigma Stereotype


White privilege