CULTURAL ASSIMILATION is the process by which a person's or group's culture come to resemble those of another group. The term is used to refer to both individuals and groups; the latter case can refer to either foreign immigrants or native residents that come to be culturally dominated by another society. Cultural assimilation may involve either a quick or gradual change depending on circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when new members of a society become indistinguishable from members of the other group. Whether or not it is desirable for an immigrant group to assimilate is often disputed by both members of the group and those of the dominant society. Cultural assimilation does not guarantee social homophile though as this article states, geographical and other natural barriers between cultures even if started by the same dominant culture will be culturally different.
* 1 Cultural influence
* 2 Assimilation of Asian immigrants in
* 3 Assimilation of immigrants in the
* 3.1 Theoretical explanations
* 3.1.1 Theoretical models to immigrant assimilation * 3.1.2 Core measurements to immigrant assimilation * 3.1.3 Immigrant name changing as a form of assimilation
* 3.1.4 Modifications for assessing immigrant assimilation
* 126.96.36.199 Owning a home and immigrant assimilation * 188.8.131.52 Spousal influence and immigrant assimilation * 184.108.40.206 Naturalization and immigrant assimilation * 220.127.116.11 New immigrant gateways and immigrant assimilation
* 4 Forced assimilation of ethnic Macedonians in Greece * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links
A place (a state or an ethnicity) can spontaneously adopt a different
culture due to its political relevance, or to its perceived
superiority. The first is the case of the
Cultural assimilation can happen either spontaneously or forcibly. A culture can spontaneously adopt a different culture or older and richer cultures forcibly integrate other weak cultures. The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. A new culture and new attitudes toward the origin culture are obtained through contact and communication. Cultural changing is not simply a one-way process. Assimilation assumes that relatively tenuous culture gets to be united to one unified culture. This process happens through contact and accommodation between each culture. The current definition of assimilation is usually used to refer to immigrants, but in multiculturalism , cultural assimilation can happen all over the world, not just be limited to specific areas. For example, a shared language gives people the chance to study and work internationally, not just being limited to the same cultural group. People from different countries contribute to diversity and form the "global culture" which means the culture combined by the elements from different countries. This "global culture" can be seen as a part of assimilation that causes cultures from different areas to affect each other.
ASSIMILATION OF ASIAN IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA
This section is too long . Consider splitting it into new pages, adding subheadings , or condensing it. (March 2017)
WAVES OF EARLY CHINESE IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA
During Chinese immigrants' early settlement in Canada, Chinese
Canadians experienced different levels of assimilation due to the
encounter of Chinese and Western culture. In 1860, the influx of
Chinese immigrants started to arrive in
Chinese was the only immigrant group being legally restricted by immigration policy, in which an act was passed to prohibit Chinese immigration through head taxes from 1885 until the late 1940s. Labors with low pay and appalling working conditions were the only kinds of job opportunity available for Chinese immigrants due to the anti-Asian endemic towards them as well.
According to the Canadian encyclopedia, racial discrimination in
Begun when Europeans settled in
The discriminative Western prejudice perceived Chinese immigrants as people that could not be assimilated. Thus, Chinese immigrants were threatened to assimilate by the fear of being deported. For example, the Canadian Illustrated News depicting Amor de Cosmos forcing a Chinese immigrant to leave British Columbia as a result of the Chinese person's refusal to assimilate to Western culture.
THEORETICAL STUDIES ON ASSIMILATION
Based on Milton Gordon 's Assimilation in American Life published in 1964, where he discussed a gradual decrease in the boundary between group participants. He was describing the distinctive boundary between groups from different cultural backgrounds has been progressively merging. Its multistage assimilation process was anticipated to go through stages of acculturation (first happens extrinsically, such as language and customs, then intrinsically in norms and values), social integration, and identification. The multi-staged assimilation process is also called "melting pot" by Robert Park 's theories in Race and Culture. According to Ewa Morawska's In Defense of the Assimilation Model, "melting pot" was a term for Robert Park and his followers to implicitly refer to "Anglo-conformity", by which immigrants detach from their heritages, such as distinctive cultural, social, and psychological characteristics into hegemonic white Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) middle-class practices. Morawska argues that classical assimilation theory was too simplistic and ahistorical, and should be studied in a more complex and historicized perspective (for example, more “made time-and-place specific and embedded in multidimensional context”). Therefore, assimilation means differently depending on the specific time and demographic context.
Since 1900, Chinese immigrants who settled in
According to studies on the
One of the assimilation theories by Milton Gordon discusses linguistic changes are reflecting an assimilation within younger generations of the immigrants. Gordon stated that the first generation or foreign-born immigrants were less assimilated to American culture compared to their second generation that would be born in America. Follow by the second generation; the third generation would be more assimilated into American mainstream. The same situation is reflected in the children of Asian-Canadians as well. According to Daniel Stoffman, "children will learn a language only if they see a need for it...The sociologists ... merely confirm the obvious: fewer than 1 percent of third-generation Canadians speak an ancestral language other than English or French." The fact shows how education and officialized languages that young generations encounter in Canadian school weaken their mother tongues and cause them to assimilate and adapt to Canada's mainstream expectations. Some critical studies argue that for some younger generations to not be able to speak their family's language is a kind of detachment from their culture. For instance, Stoffman discusses language as being the basis of cultural identity that its usage is not limited to communicating but a way of thinking and perceiving the world. Semilingualism in this study is discussed as a sociolinguistic concept that has significant implications on student success. Immigrant children who are taught their native as well as the cultural dominant language do better in school performance than families who do not teach their native language.
For a part of the younger generations from immigrated Chinese
families, growing up in
ASSIMILATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES
Immigrant assimilation is a complex process in which immigrants not only fully integrate themselves into a new country, but also lose aspects, perhaps all of their heritage too. Social scientists rely on four primary benchmarks to assess immigrant assimilation: socioeconomic status , geographic distribution, second language attainment, and intermarriage . William A.V. Clark defines immigrant assimilation as "a way of understanding the social dynamics of American society and that it is the process that occurs spontaneously and often unintended in the course of interaction between majority and minority groups ".
Between 1880 and 1920, the
Assimilation had various meanings in American sociology, Henry Pratt Fairchild associates American assimilation with Americanization or the melting pot theory. Some scholars also believed assimilation and acculturation were synonymous. According to a many's point of view, assimilation is a "process of interpretation and fusion" from another group or person. This may include memories, behaviors and sentiments. By sharing their experiences and histories, they blend into the common cultural life.
Researchers have attempted to explain the assimilation rate for post
1965 immigrants in the
Theoretical Models To Immigrant Assimilation
The first, classic and new assimilation model sees immigrants and native-born people following a "straight-line" or a convergence. This theory sees immigrants becoming more similar over time in norms, values, behaviors, and characteristics. This theory also expects those immigrants residing the longest in the host population, as well as the members of later generations , to show greater similarities with the majority group than immigrants who have spent less time in the host society. The second, racial or ethnic disadvantage model states that immigrants' chances to assimilate are "blocked". An example of this model would be discrimination and institutional barriers to employment and other opportunities. In reaction to these patterns of discrimination and other institutional barriers, some immigrant groups have formed ethnic enclaves to circumvent these challenges. The third, the segmented assimilation model theorizes that structural barriers, such as poor urban schools, cut off access to employment and other opportunities—obstacles that often are particularly severe in the case of the most disadvantaged members of immigrant groups, and such impediments can lead to stagnant or downward mobility , even as the children of other immigrants follow divergent paths toward classic straight-line assimilation.
Core Measurements To Immigrant Assimilation
Researchers have assessed that assimilation exists among immigrants
because assimilation can be measured on four primary benchmarks. These
core measurable aspects of immigrant assimilation that were formulated
to study European immigrants to the
* Socioeconomic status is defined by educational attainment , occupation , and income . By measuring socioeconomic status researchers want to find out if immigrants eventually catch up to native-born people in terms of human capital characteristics. * Spatial concentration is defined by geography or residential patterns. The spatial residential model (based on theories of Park) proposed by Massey states that increasing socioeconomic attainment, longer residence in the U.S, and higher generational status lead to decreasing residential concentration for a particular ethnic group. * Language attainment is defined as the ability to speak the national language and the loss of the individual's mother tongue . The three-generation model of language assimilation states that the first generation makes some progress in language assimilation but remains dominant in their native tongue , the second generation is bilingual , and the third-generation speaks only the national language. * Intermarriage is defined by race or ethnicity and occasionally by generation . High rates of intermarriage are considered to be an indication of social integration because it reveals intimate and profound relations between people of different groups; intermarriage reduces the ability of families to pass on to their children a consistent ethnic culture and thus is an agent of assimilation. Intermarriage came under particular scrutiny by the Jewish-American community in the early-mid 20th century as Jewish leaders more and more often turned to social scientists to explain why Judaism was a typically endogamic religion. Although intermarriage was viewed as a firm base from which to begin an argument for assimilation, it was also seen as a way to gradually ease the transition into their new culture. Julius Draschler, a graduate student at Columbia University, believed that as long as people are allowed to maintain some differences, such as the Jewish practice of marrying only another Jew, they will delay the inevitable while simultaneously enriching the nation in the process of their slow assimilation. While Draschler acknowledged that assimilation was the ultimate endpoint for all American groups, he hoped to prove through his intermarriage studies that, the more gradual the process, the better. Such need to justify (or vilify) the intermarriage practice became increasingly important after the 1950s as Jews (as well as other typically endogamic cultures, such as African-Americans) began to engage in more exogamic relationships.
Immigrant Name Changing As A Form Of Assimilation
While the changing of immigrant names is not one of the 4 measurable
benchmarks for assimilation outlined by early sociologists, it
nonetheless represents a clear abandonment of the old as new
immigrants are absorbed into the fabric of society. It is often
believed that language barriers or the lack of training and
sensitivity by government officials caused names to be often changed,
without consent, such as by inspectors on
It is suggested by the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the USA that most name blunders in the USA were likely the fault of the origin and not the destination. Donna Przecha, a published and well-known expert in genealogy, suggests a number of alternative explanations for name changing, one of which was a need for employment. A huge surplus of labor began to immigrate to the United States, many of whom were unskilled, with names that were often difficult to pronounce. Employers were not bound by the same anti-discriminatory legislation that exists now and tended to gravitate toward individuals with more American names.
Comfort and fitting in was also a heavy motivator behind the changing
of names. Many, if not most, US immigrants in the mid-1900s planned to
Modifications For Assessing Immigrant Assimilation
American studies on immigrant assimilation in the 19th century and 20th century conclude that immigrants had a hard time catching up to the same human capital characteristics as native-born people in the 19th century United States, but studies in the 20th century suggest that immigrants eventually catch up to native born people. Timothy J. Hatton explains this puzzle on immigrant assimilation in the 19th century and in the 20th century. He explores how recent studies have been producing misleading results between the two. Hatton focuses his research on the specification of the earnings function. Hatton argues that that specification of the earnings function should be improved in two ways. First, immigrants who arrived as children should be treated separately from those who arrived as adults. Second, specification of the earnings function should be better approximate to the true shape of age-earnings profiles. Hatton points out that with these modifications, the patterns of immigrant earnings, which have emerged make more sense with those of the 20th century and with traditional views on immigrant assimilation in the 19th century.
Owning A Home And Immigrant Assimilation
Owning a home can be seen as a step into assimilation. William A.V.
Clarke explores this link in his book "
Spousal Influence And Immigrant Assimilation
Moving to America can be a culture shock in many ways. One large way immigrants are thrown into American culture is the river of American consumerism. In a study focusing on spousal influence in decision making process for buying goods among Indians living in India, Immigrants, and American nationals over 16 different product categories. The findings gives evidence as immigrants move from India and culturally assimilate into American consumerism spousal influence increases in decision making processes.
Other than marriage, citizenship is one of the most significant
factors in assimilation. The immigration debate focuses not only on
the number of immigrants but on who should be admitted, and who should
be allowed to be admitted but also on the processes of incorporation
and, most importantly, how citizenship should be extended and to whom.
For example, should it be extended to those who arrive illegally?
Allowing for naturalization of immigrants can create tension in
assimilation. On one hand, those in the
Although it is changing, the overwhelming majority of immigrants
still settle in traditional gateway states such as
Waters and Jimenez have argued that this new change in geography could possibly change the way researchers assess immigrant assimilation. They argue that these new gateways are unique and they propose that immigrant assimilation may be different from the experiences of immigrants in more traditional gateways in at least three ways.
Firstly, the long history of immigration in these established
gateways means that the place of immigrants in terms of class , racial
, and ethnic hierarchies in these traditional gateways are more
structured or established on the other hand these new gateways do not
have much immigration history therefore the place of immigrants in
terms of class, racial, and ethnic hierarchies is less defined and
immigrants may have more influence to define their position. Secondly,
the size of new gateways may influence immigrant assimilation. Having
a smaller gateway may influence the level of segregation among
immigrants and native-born people. Thirdly, the difference in
institutional arrangements may influence immigrant assimilation.
FORCED ASSIMILATION OF ETHNIC MACEDONIANS IN GREECE
According to a 1994 report by the
Human Rights Watch , based on a
fact-finding mission in 1993 in the
Florina Prefecture and
Greece oppresses the ethnic Macedonians and implements a program to
forcefully Hellenize them. According to its findings, the ethnic
Macedonian minority is denied acknowledgment of its existence by the
Greek government, which refuses the teaching of their language and
other expressions of ethnic Macedonian culture; members of the
minority "were discriminated against in employment in the public
sector in the past, and may suffer from such discrimination at
present"; minority activists "have been prosecuted and convicted for
the peaceful expression of their views" and are generally "harassed by
the government, followed and threatened by security forces, and
subjected to economic and social pressures resulting from government
harassment", leading to a climate of fear. The Greek government
further discriminates against ethnic Macedonian refugees who fled into
The Greek state requires radio stations to broadcast in the Greek language , therefore excluding ethnic minorities and thus also the Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia (who are considered ethnic Macedonians by the Rainbow political party ) from operating radio stations in minority languages spoken in Greece such as the Macedonian language .
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Americanization (of Native Americans)
* ^ Parisi, Domenico, Federico Cecconi, and Francesco Natale.
"Cultural change in spatial environments: the role of cultural
assimilation and internal changes in cultures." Journal of Conflict
Resolution 47.2 (2003): 163-179.
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* ^ A B C D E F G H I Palmer, Howard. "
Prejudice and Discrimination
in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
* ^ Dirks, Gerald E. "Immigration Policy". The Canadian
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* ^ A B Horsman, Reginald (1981). Race and manifest destiny: the
origins of American racial anglo-saxonism. Cambridge, MA : Harvard
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* ^ A B Morawska, Ewa (1994). "In Defense of the Assimilation
Model". Journal of American
* Alba, Richard D.; Nee, Victor (2003). Remaking the American
Mainstream. Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0-674-01813-3 .
* Armitage, Andrew (1995). Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal
Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. UBC Press. ISBN
* Crispino, James A. (1980). The Assimilation of
* Asian-Nation: Asian