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The COUNTY OF SICILY, also known as COUNTY OF SICILY AND CALABRIA, was a Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta
and part of Calabria
Calabria
from 1071 until 1130. The county began to form during the Christian reconquest of Sicily
Sicily
(1061–91) from the Muslim Emirate , established by conquest in 965. The county is thus a transitional period in the history of Sicily
Sicily
. After the Muslims had been defeated and either forced out or incorporated into the Norman military, a further period of transition took place for the county and the Sicilians.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 List of counts * 3 References * 4 See also

HISTORY

Main article: Norman Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily

The County of Sicily
Sicily
was created by Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
in 1071 for his younger brother Roger Bosso . Guiscard himself had received the title Duke of Sicily
Sicily
(dux Siciliae) in 1059 from Pope Nicholas II as encouragement to conquer it from the Muslims. In 1061 the first permanent Norman conquest ( Messina
Messina
) was made and in 1071, after the fall of Palermo
Palermo
, the capital of the emirate and future capital of the county, Guiscard invested Roger with the title of count and gave him full jurisdiction in the island save for half the city of Palermo, Messina, and the Val Demone
Val Demone
, which he retained for himself. Roger was to hold the county which comprised conquests yet to be made under Guiscard. In February 1091 the conquest of Sicily
Sicily
was completed when Noto
Noto
fell. The conquest of Malta
Malta
was begun later that year; it was completed in 1127 when the Arab administration of the island was expelled.

Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
left Roger in an ambiguous relationship with his successors of the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
. After the death of Robert in 1085, Roger I obtained from the new duke, Roger Borsa , the whole rights over the castles in Calabria, the lordship of which he had previously shared with Robert Guiscard. In fact, the seat of Roger I's government was the Calabrian town of Mileto
Mileto
. According to the historians Agostino Inveges and Matteo Camera Roger I started to use the title "Great Count of Sicily
Sicily
and Calabria" since 1096. After the death of Roger I the major change was the transfer of the capital: Palermo
Palermo
became the capital in 1112, when Roger II was invested with the County, after the regency of the mother Adelaide del Vasto . With this change, Sicily
Sicily
come to be governed by the central government, while the Calabrian territories became a provincial administrative unit. During the reigns of Roger II of Sicily
Roger II of Sicily
and William II of Apulia conflict broke out between the two Norman principalities, first cousins through Roger and Robert respectively. Through the mediation of Pope Calistus II and in return for aid against a rebellion led by Jordan of Ariano in 1121, the childless William ceded all his Sicilian territories to Roger and named him his heir.

When William died in 1127, Roger inherited the mainland duchy; three years later, in 1130 in Palermo, he merged his holdings to form the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
with the approval of Pope Anacletus II .

LIST OF COUNTS

See also: List of monarchs of Sicily
Sicily

Sicily
Sicily
was granted, pending its Christian reconquest, to Robert Guiscard as "duke" in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II. The Guiscard granted it as a county to his brother Roger.

COUNT PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH

ROGER I 1071–1101 1031 son of Tancred of Hauteville
Tancred of Hauteville
and Fredisenda Judith of Évreux 1061 4 children

Eremburga of Mortain 1077 8 children

Adelaide del Vasto 1087 4 children 1101 Mileto
Mileto
aged 80

SIMON 1101–1105 1093 son of Roger I of Sicily
Roger I of Sicily
and Adelaide del Vasto never married 1105 Mileto
Mileto
aged 12

ROGER II 1105–1130 22 December 1095 Mileto
Mileto
son of Roger I of Sicily
Roger I of Sicily
and Adelaide del Vasto Elvira of Castile 1117 6 children

Sibyl of Burgundy 1149 2 children

Beatrix of Rethel 1151 1 child 26 February 1154 Palermo
Palermo
aged 59

REFERENCES

* ^ Fiore, Giovanni. Della Calabria
Calabria
illustrata, Vol. 3. Rubbettino, 1999. p. 551. * ^ Roger I, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
: "Roger went to Italy
Italy
in 1057 to aid his brother Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
in his conquest of Calabria from the Byzantines (1060). They began the conquest of Sicily
Sicily
from various Muslim rulers in 1061 with the capture of Messina, and they completed it in 1091. The turning point of the struggle was the capture of Palermo
Palermo
in 1072, when Robert invested Roger as his vassal with the county of Sicily
Sicily
and Calabria
Calabria
with a limited right to govern and to tax." * ^ Takayama, Hiroshi. The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
: Leiden
Leiden
, 1993. p. 47. * ^ Takayama, p. 25. * ^ Takayama, p. 25. * ^ Camera, Matteo. Annali Delle Due Sicilie, Vol. I, 1841. p. 32. * ^ Takayama, p. 48. * ^ Takayama, p. 48.

SEE ALSO

* Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
* Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture
Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta

Ancient History
Ancient History
and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento
Duchy of Benevento
* Duchy of Friuli
Duchy of Friuli
* Duchy of Ivrea
Duchy of Ivrea
* Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta
Duchy of Aosta
* Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro
Duchy of Castro
* Commune of Rome
Commune of Rome
* Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia
Republic of Cospaia
* Duchy of Ferrara
Duchy of Ferrara
* Marquisate of Finale * City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
* Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence
* March of Friuli
March of Friuli
* Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
* Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
* Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
* County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria
March of Istria
* Duchy of Ivrea
Duchy of Ivrea
* Republic of Lucca
Republic of Lucca
* Margravate of Mantua
Margravate of Mantua
* Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
* Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
* March of Montferrat
March of Montferrat
* Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
* Principality of Piedmont * Principality of Piombino
Principality of Piombino
* Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
* Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy
County of Savoy
* Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
* Republic of Siena
Republic of Siena
* Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
March of Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino
Duchy of Urbino
* March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

* Duchy of Rome (533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis
Duchy of the Pentapolis
(554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado
Dogado
* Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
* Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi
Duchy of Amalfi
* Duchy of Gaeta
Duchy of Gaeta
* Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia
Longobardia
* Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Duchy of Naples
* Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari
Emirate of Bari
* Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
* County of Aversa * County of Sicily * Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati
Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea
Giudicato of Arborea
* Giudicato of Cagliari
Giudicato of Cagliari
* Giudicato of Gallura
Giudicato of Gallura
* Giudicato of Logudoro
Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica
Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica
* Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
(1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi
State of the Presidi
* Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora
Duchy of Sora
* Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta
Malta
under the Order * Gozo * Malta
Malta
Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta
Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
(1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic