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Cosmic flux versus particle energy

Cosmic rays are high-energy protons and atomic nuclei which move through space at nearly the speed of light. They originate from the sun, from outside of the solar system,[1] and from distant galaxies.[2] They were discovered by Victor Hess in 1912 in balloon experiments. Direct measurement of cosmic rays, especially at lower energies, has become possible since the launch of the first satellites in the late 1950s. Particle detectors similar to those used in nuclear and high-energy physics are used on satellites and space probes for research into cosmic rays.[3] Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface. Data from the Fermi Space Telescope (2013)[4] have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernova explosions of stars.[5] Active galactic nuclei also appear to produce cosmic rays, based on observations of neutrinos and gamma rays from blazar TXS 0506+056 in 2018.[6][7]