The Info List - Coromandel Coast

The Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri
delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.[1] Its definition can also include the northwestern coast of the island of Sri Lanka.[citation needed]. The coast has an average elevation of 80 metres and is backed by the Eastern Ghats, a chain of low, flat-topped hills.


1 Etymology 2 Description

2.1 Economy 2.2 Geography 2.3 Climate 2.4 Flora

3 History 4 Applications of the name 5 In literature 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] Coromondel is the Dutch pronunciation of "Karimanal", a village in the Sriharikota island in the north of Pazhavercadu (Pulecat Lake).[2] Pazhavercadu (Pulecat) was an early Dutch settlement along with Masoolipatnam in present-day Andhra Pradesh. There is a Dutch Cemetery belonging to the seventeenth Century at Pulecat. It is said that the first Dutch ship stopped here for fresh drinking water, and upon asking the name of the place Karimanal was spelled as Corimondal (K replaced with C and d inserted).[3] The land of the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
was called Cholamandalam (சோழ மண்டலம்) in Tamil, literally translated as The realm of the Cholas, from which the Portuguese derived the name Coromandel.[4][5][6][7][8] The name could also be derived from Kurumandalam, meaning The realm of the Kurus.[9] Description[edit] Economy[edit] Agriculture is the mainstay of the coastal economy. Rice, pulses (legumes), sugarcane, cotton, and peanuts (groundnuts) are grown. Bananas and betel nuts are grown together with rice in the low-rainfall region of the interior. There are casuarina and coconut plantations along the coast. Large-scale industries produce fertilizers, chemicals, film projectors, amplifiers, trucks, and automobiles. There is a heavy vehicle and armoured car factory at Avadi and a nuclear power station at Kalpakkam. Roads and railways linking Chennai, Cuddalore, Chidambaram, Chengalpattu, and Puducherry run parallel to the coast. Geography[edit] The coast is generally low, and punctuated by the deltas of several large rivers, including the Kaveri, Palar, Penner, and Krishna River, which rise in the highlands of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and flow across the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
to drain into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial plains created by these rivers are fertile and favour agriculture. The rivers remain dry during most of the year. There is little forest cover, but marshes, swamps, scrub woodlands, and thorny thickets are common. The coastline forms a part of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The important ports include Chennai, Thoothukkudi, Nellore, Ennore
and Nagapattinam, which take advantage of their close proximity with regions rich in natural and mineral resources and good transport infrastructure. Climate[edit] The Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
falls in the rain shadow of the Western Ghats mountain range, and receives a good deal less rainfall during the summer southwest monsoons, which contributes heavy rainfall in the rest of India. The region averages 800 mm/year, most of which falls between October and December. The topography of the Bay of Bengal, and the staggered weather pattern prevalent during the season favours northeast monsoons, which have a tendency to cause cyclones and hurricanes rather than a steady precipitation. As a result, the coast is hit by inclement weather almost every year between October and January. The high variability of rainfall patterns is also responsible for water scarcity and famine in most areas not served by the great rivers. For example, the city of Chennai
is one of the driest cities in the country in terms of potable water availability, despite high percentage of moisture in the air, due to the unpredictable, seasonal nature of the monsoon. Flora[edit] The Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
is home to the East Deccan dry evergreen forests ecoregion, which runs in a narrow strip along the coast. Unlike most of the other tropical dry forest Biome
regions of India, where the trees lose their leaves during the dry season, the East Deccan dry evergreen forests retain their leathery leaves year round. The Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
is also home to extensive mangrove forests along the low-lying coast and river deltas, and several important wetlands, notably Kaliveli Lake and Pulicat Lake, that provide habitat to thousands of migrating and resident birds. History[edit]

Sarasa chintz from the Coromandel Coast, 17th or 18th century, made for the Japanese market. Private collection, Nara Prefecture.

By late 1530 the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
was home to three Portuguese settlements at Nagapattinam, São Tomé de Meliapore, and Pulicat. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade. The British established themselves at Fort St George
Fort St George
(Madras) and Masulipatnam, the Dutch at Pulicat, Sadras
and Covelong, the French at Pondicherry, Karaikal
and Nizampatnam, the Danish in Dansborg at Tharangambadi. The Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
supplied Indian Muslim
Indian Muslim
eunuchs to the Thai palace and court of Siam (modern Thailand).[10][11] The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China
to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard.[12][13] Eventually the British won out, although France retained the tiny enclaves of Pondichéry and Karaikal
until 1954. Chinese lacquer goods, including boxes, screens, and chests, became known as "Coromandel" goods in the 18th century, because many Chinese exports were consolidated at the Coromandel ports. Two of the famous books on the economic history of the Coromandel Coast are Merchants, companies, and commerce on the Coromandel Coast, 1650–1740 (Arasaratnam, Oxford University Press, 1986) and The World of the Weaver in Northern Coromandel, c.1750-c.1850 (P. Swarnalatha, Orient Longman, 2005). On 26 December 2004, one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
earthquake, struck off the western coast of Sumatra
(Indonesia). The earthquake and subsequent tsunami reportedly killed over 220,000 people around the rim of the Indian Ocean. The tsunami devastated the Coromandel Coast, killing many and sweeping away many coastal communities. Applications of the name[edit] Four ships of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
have borne the name HMS Coromandel after the Indian coast. The Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula
in New Zealand was named after one of these ships, and the town of Coromandel, New Zealand was named after the peninsula. Coromandel Valley, South Australia, and its neighbouring suburb, Coromandel East, gain their name from the ship Coromandel, which arrived in Holdfast Bay from London in 1837 with 156 English settlers. After the ship reached the shore, some of its sailors deserted, intending to remain behind in South Australia, and took refuge in the hills in the Coromandel Valley region. A red nail varnish made by Chanel
is named coromandel due to its suggestions of exoticism.[citation needed] One of the earliest superfast trains of Indian Railways that runs between Howrah and Chennai
is named Coromandel Express. In Slovene the idiom Indija Koromandija (India Coromandel) means a land of plenty,[14] a promised land, a utopia where "Houses are bleached with cheese and covered with cake".[15] In literature[edit] The 1955 historical novel Coromandel! by John Masters describes a young English adventurer arriving in the 17th century at the Coromandel Coast. He is the founder of the Savage family, whose descendants live during British rule in India and appear in other books of Masters' series. There is a well-known poem by the Indian poet and freedom fighter Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu
titled 'Coromandel Fishers'. The little-known early 20th-century poet Walter J. Turner
Walter J. Turner
wrote a poem titled 'Coromandel'. "The Courtship of the Yonghy-bonghy-bo" by Edward Lear
Edward Lear
is set on the Coast of Coromandel. Coromandel wood is referred to by Dame Edith Sitwell
Dame Edith Sitwell
in her poem "Black Mrs. Behemoth", part of "Façade". She likens the wood's grain to the rolling, curling smoke of a blown out candle. Sir Osbert Sitwell (Dame Edith's brother) composed a poem titled "On the coast of Coromandel". Coromandel Sea Change is a 1991 novel by Rumer Godden
Rumer Godden
about a diverse group of guests staying at a hotel on the Coromandel coast during an election campaign. The coast is noted in M.M. Kaye's novel The Far Pavilions. A work of fiction, the lead character, Ashton Hilary Akbar Pelham-Martyn, retires to the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
early in the tale. See also[edit]

Malabar Coast Presidency of Coromandel and Bengal Settlements


^ Encyclopædia Britannica entry on Coromandel Coast ^ Topographic Map of India "66C/7 & 66C/11" by Survey of India ^ "http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/mag/2003/10/19/stories/2003101900280700.htm" ^ The Land of the Tamulians and Its Missions, by Eduard Raimund Baierlein, James Dunning Baker ^ South Indian Coins – Page 61 by T. Desikachari – Coins, Indic – 1984 ^ Indian History – Page 112 ^ Annals of Oriental Research – Page 1 by University of Madras – 1960 ^ The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea by Wilfred Harvey Schoff ^ Edgar Thurston (2011). The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and the Associated States. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-107-60068-3.  ^ Peletz (2009), p. 73 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 73, at Google Books ^ Peletz (2009), p. 73 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 73, at Google Books ^ Peletz (2009), p. 75 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 75, at Google Books ^ Peletz (2009), p. 75 Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, p. 75, at Google Books ^ Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika "Indija Koromandija" ^ "Razvezani jezik" From: [http://razvezanijezik.org

WorldStatesmen.org: India

External links[edit]

Media related to Coromandel at Wikimedia Commons Encyclopædia Britannica: Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
(region, India)

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Geography of South Asia

Mountains and plateaus


Mount Everest

Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Aravalli Range Nilgiris Vindhya Range Satpura Range Garo Hills Shivalik Hills Mahabharat Range Khasi Hills Anaimalai Hills Cardamom Hills Sulaiman Mountains Toba Kakar Range Karakoram Hindu Kush Chittagong Hill Tracts Deccan Plateau Thar Desert Makran Chota Nagpur Naga Hills Mysore Plateau Ladakh
Plateau Gandhamardan Hills Malwa

Lowlands and islands

Indo-Gangetic plain Doab Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Terai Atolls of the Maldives Coromandel Coast Konkan Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sundarbans Reserve Forest Greater Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

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See also: Danish East India Company Danish West India Company

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Until 1825

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Until 1853


Until 1872

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Until 1954

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Until 1962

New Guinea

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Anjouan Grande Comore Mohéli


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Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

Coordinates: 13°22′00″N 80°20′00″E / 13.3667°N 80.3333°E / 13.3