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The Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
(German: Schnurkeramik; French: céramique cordée; Dutch: touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad Indo-European archaeological horizon of Europe
Europe
between c. 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.[2] Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
encompassed a vast area, from the Rhine
Rhine
on the west to the Volga
Volga
in the east, occupying parts of Northern Europe, Central Europe
Europe
and Eastern Europe.[2] According to Haak et al. (2017), the Corded Ware was genetically strongly related to the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
(or Yamnaya), "documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe
Europe
from its eastern periphery," the Eurasiatic steppes.[3] The Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
may have disseminated the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
and Proto-Balto-Slavic Indo-European languages. The Corded Ware Culture also shows genetic affinity with the later Sintashta culture, where the proto-Indo-Iranian language may have originated.[1]

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Geography 3 Relation to Indo-European speaking groups

3.1 Origins 3.2 Genetic studies

3.2.1 Relation with Yamna culture 3.2.2 Influence on Sintashta culture

3.3 Formation of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe

3.3.1 West-European Indo-European languages 3.3.2 Language shift 3.3.3 Language continuity

4 Economy 5 Graves 6 Subgroups

6.1 Corded Ware culture 6.2 Single Grave culture 6.3 Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe
Axe
culture 6.4 Finnish Battle Axe
Axe
culture 6.5 Middle Dnieper and Fatyanovo-Balanovo cultures

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources

10.1 Web-sources

Nomenclature[edit] The term Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
(German: Schnurkeramik-Kultur, Dutch: touwbekercultuur, French: ceramique cordée) was first introduced by the German archaeologist Friedrich Klopfleisch in 1883.[4] He named it after cord-like impressions or ornamentation characteristic of its pottery.[4] The term Single Grave culture comes from its burial custom, which consisted of inhumation under tumuli in a crouched position with various artifacts. Battle Axe
Axe
culture, or Boat Axe culture, is named from its characteristic grave offering to males, a stone boat-shaped battle axe.[4] Geography[edit] Corded Ware encompassed most of continental northern Europe
Europe
from the Rhine
Rhine
on the west to the Volga
Volga
in the east, including most of modern-day Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Switzerland, northwestern Romania, northern Ukraine, and the European part of Russia, as well as coastal Norway
Norway
and the southern portions of Sweden
Sweden
and Finland.[2] In the Late Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age, it encompassed the territory of nearly the entire Balkan Peninsula, where Corded Ware mixed with other steppe elements.[5] Archaeologists note that Corded Ware was not a "unified culture," as Corded Ware groups inhabiting a vast geographical area from the Rhine to Volga
Volga
seem to have regionally specific subsistence strategies and economies.[2]:226 There are differences in the material culture and in settlements and society.[2] At the same time, they had several shared elements that are characteristic of all Corded Ware groups, such as their burial practices, pottery with "cord" decoration and unique stone-axes.[2] The contemporary Beaker culture
Beaker culture
overlapped with the western extremity of this culture, west of the Elbe, and may have contributed to the pan-European spread of that culture. Although a similar social organization and settlement pattern to the Beaker were adopted, the Corded Ware group lacked the new refinements made possible through trade and communication by sea and rivers.[6] Relation to Indo-European speaking groups[edit]

Corded Ware pottery in the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte (Berlin). Ca. 2500 BCE

Origins[edit] The origins and dispersal of Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
is one of the pivotal unresolved issues of the Indo-European Urheimat
Urheimat
problem.[7] The Corded Ware culture has long been regarded as Indo-European because of its relative lack of settlements compared to preceding cultures, which suggested a mobile, pastoral economy, similar to that of the Yamna culture, and the culture of the Indo-Europeans inferred from philology. Its wide area of distribution indicates rapid expansion at the assumed time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages. Indeed, the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
was once presumed to be the Urheimat
Urheimat
of the Proto-Indo-Europeans
Proto-Indo-Europeans
based on their possession of the horse and wheeled vehicles, apparent warlike propensities, wide area of distribution and rapid intrusive expansion at the assumed time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages[7] Today this idea has lost currency, as the Kurgan hypothesis
Kurgan hypothesis
is currently the most widely accepted proposal to explain the origins and spread of the Indo-European languages.[8] There is a stark division between archaeologists regarding the origins of Corded Ware. Some archaeologists believed it sprang from central Europe
Europe
while others saw an influence from nomadic pastoral societies of the steppes.[8] In favour of the first view was the fact that Corded Ware coincides considerably with the earlier north-central European Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
(TRB). According to Gimbutas, the Corded Ware culture was preceded by the Globular Amphora culture
Globular Amphora culture
(3400-2800 BCE), which she regarded to be an Indo-European culture. The Globular Amphora culture stretched from central Europe
Europe
to the Baltic sea, and emerged from the Funnelbeaker culture.[9] However, in other regions Corded Ware appears to herald a new culture and physical type.[7] On most of the immense, continental expanse that it covered, the culture was clearly intrusive, and therefore represents one of the most impressive and revolutionary cultural changes attested by archaeology.[6] The degree to which cultural change generally represents immigration was a matter of debate, and such debate had figured strongly in discussions of Corded Ware.

Corded Ware stone-axe in the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte (Berlin). Ca. 2800-2400 BCE.

According to controversial radiocarbon dates, Corded Ware ceramic forms in single graves develop earlier in the area that is now Poland than in western and southern Central Europe.[10] The earliest radiocarbon dates for Corded Ware indeed come from Kujawy
Kujawy
and Lesser Poland
Poland
in central and southern Poland
Poland
and point to the period around 3000 BCE. However, subsequent review has challenged this perspective, instead pointing out that the wide variation in dating of the Corded Ware, especially the dating of the culture's beginning, is based on individual outlier graves, is not particularly in line with other archaeological data and runs afoul of plateaus in the radiocarbon calibration curve; in the one case where the dating can be clarified with dendrochronology, in Switzerland, Corded Ware is found for only a short period from 2750 BCE to 2400 BCE. [11] Furthermore, because the short period in Switzerland
Switzerland
seems to represent examples of artifacts from all the major sub-periods of the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
elsewhere, some researchers conclude that Corded Ware occurred more or less simultaneously throughout North Central Europe
Europe
in the early 2900 BCE, in a number of "centers" which subsequently formed their own local networks.[2]:297 Carbon-14 dating of the remaining central European regions shows that Corded Ware appeared after 2880 BCE[12] According to this theory, it spread to the Lüneburg Heath
Lüneburg Heath
and then further to the North European Plain, Rhineland, Switzerland, Scandinavia, the Baltic region and Russia
Russia
to Moscow, where the culture met with the pastoralists considered indigenous to the steppes.[6] Recent palaeogenomic data show that samples of the Corded Ware population from ca. 2400 BCE were genetically at least 75% similar to the Yamna population of the steppes, suggesting massive migrations from the steppes as a source for the Corded Ware culture. While honouring the possibilities of genetic research, this interpretation has been questioned by archaeologists as being too simple, as it ignores the complex processes involved in archaeological explanations In the western regions the transition to Corded Ware has been proposed to be a quick, smooth and internal change that occurred at the preceding Funnelbeaker culture, having its origin in the direction of eastern Germany.[13] Whereas in the area of the present Baltic states and north-east of Poland, it is seen as an intrusive successor to the southwestern portion of the Narva culture. However, today Corded Ware is now everywhere seen as intrusive, though not necessarily aggressively so, and coexisting with earlier indigenous cultures in many cases.[14] Genetic studies[edit] Relation with Yamna culture[edit] A genetic study conducted by Haak et al. (2015) found that a large proportion of the ancestry of the Corded Ware culture's population is similar to the Yamna culture, tracing the Corded Ware culture's origins to migrations of the Yamna from the steppes 4,500 years ago.[3] About 75% of the DNA of late Neolithic
Neolithic
Corded Ware skeletons found in Germany
Germany
was a precise match to DNA from individuals of the Yamna culture.[3] The same study estimated a 40–54% ancestral contribution of the Yamna in the DNA of modern Central & Northern Europeans, and a 20–32% contribution in modern Southern Europeans, excluding Sardinians
Sardinians
(7.1% or less), and to a lesser extent Sicilians (11.6% or less).[3][15][web 1] Haak et al. also note that their results "suggest" that haplogroups R1b and R1a "spread into Europe from the East after 3,000 BCE."[3]:5 In terms of phenotypes, Wilde et al. (2014) and Haak et al. (2015) found that the intrusive Yamna population, generally inferred to be the first speakers of an Indo-European language in the Corded Ware culture zone, were overwhelmingly dark-eyed (brown), dark-haired and had a skin colour that was moderately light, though somewhat darker than that of the average modern European.[3] These studies also showed that light pigmentation traits had already existed in pre-Indo-European Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans (in both farmers and hunter-gatherers), so long-standing philological attempts to correlate them with the arrival of Indo-Europeans from the steppes were misguided.[16] Autosomal
Autosomal
DNA tests also indicate that the Yamna migration from the steppes introduced a component of ancestry referred to as "Ancient North Eurasian" admixture into Europe.[3] "Ancient North Eurasian" is the name given in genetic literature to a component that represents descent from the people of the Mal'ta-Buret' culture[3] or a population closely related to them.[3] The "Ancient North Eurasian" genetic component is visible in tests of the Yamna people[3] as well as modern-day Europeans, but not of Western or Central Europeans predating the Corded Ware culture.[17] Haak et al. (2015) also warned:[3]

We caution that the sampled Yamna individuals from Samara might not be directly ancestral to Corded Ware individuals from Germany. It is possible that a more western Yamna population, or an earlier (pre-Yamna) steppe population may have migrated into central Europe, and future work may uncover more missing links in the chain of transmission of steppe ancestry. — W. Haak et al., Nature

Goldberg et al. (2016) found that Neolithic
Neolithic
farming migration into Europe
Europe
"was driven by mass migration of both males and females in roughly equal numbers, perhaps whole families", while Bronze Age Pontic steppe "migration and cultural shift were instead driven by male migration, potentially connected to new technology and conquest." [18] Influence on Sintashta culture[edit] Furthermore, Allentoft et al. (2015) has presented surprising evidence of genetic affinity of the Corded Ware Culture with the later Sintashta culture, suggesting that the "Western" or European Neolithic component of Sintashta and its daughter cultures may have come from the Corded Ware culture.[1] Formation of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe[edit] West-European Indo-European languages[edit] The Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
may have played a central role in the spread of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe
Europe
during the Copper and Bronze Ages.[19][20] According to Mallory, the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
may have been "the common prehistoric ancestor of the later Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, and possibly some of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
of Italy."[21] Yet, Mallory also notes that the Corded Ware can not account for Greek, Illyrian, Thracian and East Italic, which may be derived from Southeast Europe.[21] According to Anthony, the Corded Ware horizon may have introduced Germanic, Baltic and Slavic into northern Europe.[22] According to Anthony, the Pre-Germanic dialects may have developed in the Usatovo culture
Usatovo culture
in south-eastern Central Europe
Europe
between the Dniestr
Dniestr
and the Vistula
Vistula
at ca. 3,100-2,800 BCE, and spread with the Corded Ware culture.[23] Between 3100-2800/2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna-culture took place into the Danube Valley,[24] which eventually reached as far as Hungary,[25] where pre-Celtic and pre-Italic may have developed.[22] Slavic and Baltic developed at the middle Dniepr
Dniepr
(present-day Ukraine).[26] Haak et al. (2015) note that German Corded Ware "trace ~75% of their ancestry to the Yamna,"[27] envisioning a west-north-west migration from the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
into Germany.[28] Allentoft et al. (2015) envision a migration from the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
towards north-western Europe
Europe
via Central Europe, and towards the Baltic area and the eastern periphery of the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
via the territory of present-day Ukraine, Belarus
Belarus
and Russia.[29] Language shift[edit] According to Gimbutas' original theory, the process of "Indo-Europeanization" of Corded Ware (and, later, the rest of Europe) was essentially a cultural transformation, not one of physical type.[14] The Yamna migration from Eastern to Central and Western Europe
Europe
is understood by Gimbutas as a military victory, resulting in the Yamna imposing a new administrative system, language and religion upon the indigenous groups.[30][note 1] [note 2] The social organization greatly facilitated the Yamna people’s effectiveness in war, their patrilineal and patriarchal structure.[31][note 3] The Old Europeans (indigenous groups) had neither a warrior class nor horses.[32] They lived in (probably) theocratic monarchies presided over by a queen-priestess or were egalitarian societies.[33][note 4] This Old European social structure contrasted with the social structure of the Yamna-derived cultures that followed them.[34] David Anthony (2007), in his "revised Steppe hypothesis"[35] proposes that the spread of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
probably did not happen through "chain-type folk migrations," but by the introduction of these languages by ritual and political elites, which were emulated by large groups of people,[36]:117 a process which he calls "elite recruitment".[36]:117-8[note 5] Yet, in supplementary information to Haak et al. (2015) Anthony, together with Lazaridis, Haak, Patterson, and Reich, notes that the mass migration of Yamna people to northern Europe
Europe
shows that "the Steppe hypothesis does not require elite dominance to have transmitted Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
into Europe. Instead, our results show that the languages could have been introduced simply by strength of numbers: via major migration in which both sexes participated."[37][note 6] Linguist Guus Kroonen points out that speakers of Indo-European languages encountered existing populations in Europe
Europe
that spoke unrelated, non- Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
when they migrated further into Europe
Europe
from the Yamna culture's steppe zone at the margin of Europe. He focuses on both the effects on Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
that resulted from this contact and investigation of the pre-existing languages. Relatively little is known about the Pre-Indo-European linguistic landscape of Europe, except for Basque, as the "Indo-Europeanization" of Europe
Europe
caused a largely unrecorded, massive linguistic extinction event, most likely through language-shift.[38] Kroonen's 2015 [38] study purports to show that Pre-Indo-European speech contains a clear Neolithic
Neolithic
signature emanating from the Aegean language family and thus patterns with the prehistoric migration of Europe’s first farming populations.[38]:10 Marija Gimbutas, as part of her theory, had already inferred that the Corded Ware culture's intrusion into Scandinavia
Scandinavia
formed a synthesis with the indigenous people of the Funnelbeaker culture, giving birth to the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
language.[14] According to Edgar Polomé, 30% of the non-Indo-European substratum found in modern German derives from non-Indo-European-speakers of Funnelbeaker culture, indigenous to southern Scandinavia.[39] When Yamna Indo-European speakers came into contact with the indigenous peoples during the 3rd millennium BCE, they came to dominate the local populations yet parts of the indigenous lexicon persisted in the formation of Proto-Germanic, thus giving Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
the status of being an "Indo-Europeanized" language.[40] Language continuity[edit] In opposition to the invasionist theories proposed by Gimbutas and others, Mario Alinei – in his Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Continuity Theory – has supported the continuity of languages in the area of the Corded Ware (as elsewhere in Europe) since the Paleolithic. Based on predecessors such as Yevgeny Yu. Krichevsky and V. Gordon Childe,[41] he stressed the universal character of the innovations generally connected to the people of the Corded Ware (such as a special mixture of farming and nomadic pastoralism, and the patrilineal and patriarchal structures connected to the latter).[42] Nevertheless, Alinei accepted a heightened influence of the migratorial element in the area between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Pannonian Basin, but emphasized the continuity – "with or without human appositions from the steppes" – of the Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
via the Globular Amphora culture
Globular Amphora culture
to the Corded Ware or Battle Axe
Axe
culture, and the Single Grave culture. He believes that speakers of Baltic languages
Baltic languages
may have played an important role in the diffusion of the Corded Ware culture.[43] The main arguments for this pivotal role of the Baltic speakers would be: a) the geographical extent of the Baltic hydronymy in a rectangle spanning from the Vistula
Vistula
to the Russian Oka and the upper Volga; b) the linguistic influence of the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in and onto a regional Sprachbund – characterized by polytony[note 7] – uniting them with most of the Scandinavian and some Low German dialects of the coastal region, as well as with certain Slavic (Northern Kashubian) and Finnic languages
Finnic languages
(Livonian and Estonian).[44] Economy[edit] There are very few discovered settlements, which led to the traditional view of this culture as exclusively nomadic pastoralists. However, this view was modified, as some evidence of sedentary farming emerged. Traces of emmer, common wheat and barley were found at a Corded Ware site at Bronocice
Bronocice
in south-east Poland. Wheeled vehicles (presumably drawn by oxen) are in evidence, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
era.[7] Cows' milk was used systematically from 3400 BCE onwards in the northern Alpine foreland. Sheep
Sheep
were kept more frequently in the western part of Switzerland
Switzerland
due to the stronger Mediterranean influence. Changes in slaughter age and animal size are possibly evidence for sheep being kept for their wool at Corded Ware sites in this region.[45] Graves[edit]

Late battle axe from Gotland

Burial
Burial
occurred in flat graves or below small tumuli in a flexed position; on the continent males lay on their right side, females on the left, with the faces of both oriented to the south. However, in Sweden
Sweden
and also parts of northern Poland
Poland
the graves were oriented north-south, men lay on their left side and women on the right side - both facing east. Originally, there was probably a wooden construction, since the graves are often positioned in a line. This is in contrast with practices in Denmark
Denmark
where the dead were buried below small mounds with a vertical stratigraphy: the oldest below the ground, the second above this grave, and occasionally even a third burial above those. Other types of burials are the niche-graves of Poland. Grave goods
Grave goods
for men typically included a stone battle axe. Pottery
Pottery
in the shape of beakers and other types are the most common burial gifts, generally speaking. These were often decorated with cord, sometimes with incisions and other types of impressions. The approximately contemporary Beaker culture
Beaker culture
had similar burial traditions, and together they covered most of Western and Central Europe. The Beaker culture
Beaker culture
originated around 2800 BCE in the Iberian Peninsula and subsequently extended into Central Europe, where it partly coexisted with the Corded Ware region. In April 2011, it was reported that a deviant Corded Ware burial had been discovered in a suburb of Prague.[46] The remains, believed to be male, were orientated in the same way as women's burials and were not accompanied by any gender-specific grave goods. The excavators suggested the grave may have been that of a "member of a so-called third gender, which were people either with different sexual orientation or transsexuals or just people who identified themselves differently from the rest of the society",[46] while media reports heralded the discovery of the world's first "gay caveman".[47][48] Archaeologists and biological anthropologists criticised media coverage as sensationalist. "If this burial represents a transgendered individual (as well it could), that doesn't necessarily mean the person had a 'different sexual orientation' and certainly doesn't mean that he would have considered himself (or that his culture would have considered him) 'homosexual,'" anthropologist Kristina Killgrove commented. Other items of criticism were that someone buried in the Copper Age was not a "caveman" and that identifying the sex of skeletal remains is difficult and inexact.[49] A detailed account of the burial has not yet appeared in scientific literature. Subgroups[edit] Corded Ware culture[edit] The prototypal Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur, is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany
Germany
and Poland, and refers to the characteristic pottery of the era: twisted cord was impressed into the wet clay to create various decorative patterns and motifs. It is known mostly from its burials, and both sexes received the characteristic cord-decorated pottery. Whether made of flax or hemp, they had rope. Single Grave culture[edit]

Protruding-Foot Beaker culture
Beaker culture
(PFB), subset of the Single Grave culture.

Single Grave term refers to a series of late Neolithic
Neolithic
communities of the 3rd millennium BCE living in southern Scandinavia, Northern Germany, and the Low Countries
Low Countries
that share the practice of single burial, the deceased usually being accompanied by a battle-axe, amber beads, and pottery vessels.[50] The term Single Grave culture was first introduced by the Danish archaeologist Andreas Peter Madsen in the late 1800s, he found Single Graves to be quite different from the already known dolmens, long barrows and passage graves.[51] In 1898, archaeologist Sophus Müller was first to present a migration-hypothesis stating that previously known dolmens, long barrows, passage graves and newly discovered single graves may represent two completely different groups of people, stating "Single graves are traces of new, from the south coming tribes".[52] The cultural emphasis on drinking equipment already characteristic of the early indigenous Funnelbeaker culture, synthesized with newly arrived Corded Ware traditions. Especially in the west (Scandinavia and northern Germany), the drinking vessels have a protruding foot and define the Protruding-Foot Beaker culture
Beaker culture
(PFB) as a subset of the Single Grave culture.[53] The Beaker culture
Beaker culture
has been proposed to derive from this specific branch of the Corded Ware culture. Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe
Axe
culture[edit]

Boat-shaped battle axe, characteristic of Scandinavian and coastal-German Corded Ware.

The Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe
Axe
culture, or the Boat Axe
Axe
culture, appeared ca. 2800 BCE and is known from about 3000 graves from Scania
Scania
to Uppland
Uppland
and Trøndelag. The "battle-axes" were primarily a status object. There are strong continuities in stone craft traditions, and very little evidence of any type of full-scale migration, least of all a violent one. The old ways were discontinued as the corresponding cultures on the continent changed, and the farmers living in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
took part in those changes since they belonged to the same network. Settlements on small, separate farmsteads without any defensive protection is also a strong argument against the people living there being aggressors. About 3000 battle axes have been found, in sites distributed over all of Scandinavia, but they are sparse in Norrland
Norrland
and northern Norway. Less than 100 settlements are known, and their remains are negligible as they are located on continually used farmland, and have consequently been plowed away. Einar Østmo reports sites inside the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
in the Lofoten, and as far north as the present city of Tromsø. The Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe
Axe
culture/Boat Axe
Axe
culture was based on the same agricultural practices as the previous Funnelbeaker culture, but the appearance of metal changed the social system. This is marked by the fact that the Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
had collective megalithic graves with a great deal of sacrifices to the graves, but the Battle Axe
Axe
culture has individual graves with individual sacrifices. A new aspect was given to the culture in 1993, when a death house in Turinge, in Södermanland
Södermanland
was excavated. Along the once heavily timbered walls were found the remains of about twenty clay vessels, six work axes and a battle axe, which all came from the last period of the culture. There were also the cremated remains of at least six people. This is the earliest find of cremation in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and it shows close contacts with Central Europe. In the context of the entry of Germanic into the region, Einar Østmo emphasizes that the Atlantic and North Sea coastal regions of Scandinavia, and the circum-Baltic areas were united by a vigorous maritime economy, permitting a far wider geographical spread and a closer cultural unity than interior continental cultures could attain. He points to the widely disseminated number of rock carvings assigned to this era, which display "thousands" of ships. To seafaring cultures like this one, the sea is a highway and not a divider. Finnish Battle Axe
Axe
culture[edit] The Finnish Battle Axe
Axe
culture was a mixed cattle-breeder and hunter-gatherer culture, and one of the few in this horizon to provide rich finds from settlements. Middle Dnieper and Fatyanovo-Balanovo cultures[edit] Main articles: Middle Dnieper culture, Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture, and Abashevo culture The eastern outposts of the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
are the Middle Dnieper culture and on the upper Volga, the Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture. The Middle Dnieper culture
Middle Dnieper culture
has very scant remains, but occupies the easiest route into Central and Northern Europe
Europe
from the steppe. If the association of Battle Axe
Axe
cultures with Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
is correct, then Fatyanovo would be a culture with an Indo-European superstratum over a Uralic substratum,[citation needed] and may account for some of the linguistic borrowings identified in the Indo-Uralic thesis. However, according to Häkkinen, the Uralic–Indo-European contacts only start in the Corded Ware period and the Uralic expansion into the Upper Volga
Volga
region postdates it. Häkkinen accepts Fatyanovo-Balanovo as an early Indo-European culture, but maintains that their substratum (identified with the Volosovo culture) was neither Uralic nor Indo-European.[54] Genetics seems to support Häkkinen.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Funnelbeaker culture Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture Middle Dnieper culture Beaker culture Mjölnir Ukko Ertebølle culture

Notes[edit]

^ Gimbutas uses the term Old Europe
Europe
to refer to indigenous, Pre-Indo-European Europeans during the Neolithic, Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Copper ages, representing a clearly unbroken cultural tradition of nearly 3 millennia (c. 6500-3500 B.C.). Notably, the Narva culture, the Funnelbeaker culture, the Linear Pottery
Pottery
culture, the Cardium pottery
Cardium pottery
culture, the Vinča culture, the early Helladic culture, and the Minoans, among others, are all part of her "Old Europe." ^ Marija Gimbutas: "Three millennium long traditions were truncated by two waves of semi-nomadic horse riding people from the east: the towns and villages disintegrated, the magnificent painted pottery vanished; so did the shrines, frescoes, sculptures, symbols and script. ... [This is evident in] the archaeological record not only by the abrupt absences of the magnificent painted pottery and figurines and the termination of sign use, but by the equally abrupt appearance of thrusting weapons and horses infiltrating the Danubian Valley and other major grasslands of the Balkans and Central Europe. Their arrival initiated a dramatic shift in the prehistory of Europe, a change in social structure and in residence patterns, in art and in religion and it was a decisive factor in the formation of Europe’s last 5,000 years." ^ Additionally, this "Old Europe"social structure is inferred to have contrasted with the Indo-European culture, who were mobile and non-egalitarian. This relates to the three-category hierarchy reconstructed for Indo-Europeans earlier by Georges Dumézil: warrior priest rulers, warrior nobility, and laborers/agriculturalists at the bottom. The members of the Kurgan
Kurgan
Culture were also warlike, were either mobile or lived in smaller villages, and had an ideology that centered on the virile male. Their gods were often heroic warriors of the shining and thunderous sky rather than peaceful mother goddesses of birth and regeneration. In sum, when comparing and contrasting these two groups through the eyes of Gimbutas, it can be said that, “the Old Europeans put no emphasis on dangerous weapons whereas the Kurgans glorified the sharp blade” (Gimbutas 1997g: 241). What eventually occurred was the “drastic upheaval of Old Europe”. ^ Additionally, "Old Europeans" often dwelled in “large agglomerations”, were sedentary-horticulturalist, had an ideology which “focused on the eternal aspects of birth, death, and regeneration, symbolized by the feminine principle, a mother creatrix”, buried their dead in communal megalith graves and were generally peaceful.[33] ^ David Anthony (1995): "Language shift can be understood best as a social strategy through which individuals and groups compete for positions of prestige, power, and domestic security […] What is important, then, is not just dominance, but vertical social mobility and a linkage between language and access to positions of prestige and power […] A relatively small immigrant elite population can encourage widespread language shift among numerically dominant indigenes in a non-state or pre-state context if the elite employs a specific combination of encouragements and punishments. Ethnohistorical cases […] demonstrate that small elite groups have successfully imposed their languages in non-state situations." ^ They further note:

"the main argument in favor of the Anatolian hypothesis
Anatolian hypothesis
(that major language change requires major migration) can now also be applied to the Steppe hypothesis."[37] "our results level the playing field between the two leading hypotheses [the Steppe hypotheses and the Anatalian hypothesisi] of Indo-European origins, as we now know that both the Early Neolithic and the Late Neolithic
Neolithic
were associated with major migrations."[37]

^ This linguistic feature is well-known from Chinese and the Ancient Greek phonology.

References[edit]

^ a b c Allentoft, Morten; Sikora, Martin (2015). "Population genomics of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Eurasia". Nature. 522 (7555): 167–172. doi:10.1038/nature14507.  ^ a b c d e f g Sandra Mariët Beckerman, Corded Ware Coastal Communities: Using ceramic analysis to reconstruct third millennium BCE societies in the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2015). ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Haak, W.; et al. (11 June 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe". Nature. 522 (207–211): 207–211. arXiv:1502.02783 . Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H. doi:10.1038/nature14317. PMC 5048219 . PMID 25731166.  ^ a b c Karel Sklenář, Archaeology in Central Europe: The First 500 Years (Leicester: Leicester University Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983), 120. ^ Aleksandar Bulatović; et al. (Spring–Summer 2014). "Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change?". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 42 (1–2). CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c Cunliffe, Barry (1994). The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory
Prehistory
of Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 250–254.  ^ a b c d Mallory 1997, pp. 127–128 ^ a b Asya Pereltsvaig and Martin Lewis 2015. The Indo-European Controversy: Facts and Fallacies in Historical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ Mallory 1999, p. 250. ^ Furholt, Martin (2004). "Entstehungsprozesse der Schnurkeramik und das Konzept eines Einheitshorizontes". Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt (in German). 34 (4): 479–498. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.  ^ Wlodarczak, Piotr (2009). "Radiocarbon and Dendrochronological Dates of the Corded Ware Culture". Radiocarbon. 51 (2): 737–749. doi:10.1017/s003382220005606x. Retrieved 2 July 2016.  ^ Czebreszuk, Janusz (2004). "Corded Ware from East to West". In Crabtree, Pam; Bogucki, Peter. Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World.  ^ Bloemers, JHF; van Dorp, T (1991), Pre- & protohistorie van de lage landen, onder redactie (in Dutch), De Haan/Open Universiteit, ISBN 90-269-4448-9  ^ a b c Gimbutas 1997. ^ Zimmer 2015. ^ Wilde, Sandra; Timpson, Adrian (2014). "Direct evidence for positive selection of skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in Europeans during the last 5,000 y" (PDF). PNAS. 111 (13): 4832–4837. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316513111.  ^ Lazaridis 2014. ^ Goldberg, Amy; Günther, Torsten; Rosenberg, Noah; Jakobsson, Mattias (2016). "Familial migration of the Neolithic
Neolithic
contrasts massive male migration during Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Europe
Europe
inferred from ancient X chromosomes". bioRxiv 078360 .  ^ Mallory 1999, p. 108; 244-250. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 360. ^ a b Mallory 1999, p. 108. ^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 367. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 360, 368. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 345, 361-367. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 362, 367. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 368, 380. ^ Haak 2015, p. 1. ^ Haak 2015, p. 11, figure 4c. ^ Allentoft 2015, p. 108, topright map. ^ Gimbutas 1997, p. 240. ^ Gimbutas 1997, p. 361. ^ Gimbutas 1997, p. 316. ^ a b Gimbutas 1997, p. 241. ^ Gimbutas 1997, p. 241, 316. ^ Pereltsvaig, Asya; Lewis, Martin W. (2015). The Indo-European Controversy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–45.  ^ a b Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse
Horse
The Wheel
Wheel
And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World. Princeton University Press.  ^ a b c Lazaridis & Haak 2015, p. 136. ^ a b c Kroonen, Guus (2015), Pre-Indo-European speech carrying a Neolithic
Neolithic
signature emanating from the Aegean (PDF)  ^ Karlene 1996. ^ Jones-Bley, Karlene (1996). The Indo-Europeanization of northern Europe: papers presented at the international conference held at the University of Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania, September 1-7, 1994. Institute for the Study of Man. p. 171. ISBN 9780941694568.  ^ Cfr. V. Gordon Childe: The Dawn of European Civilization. Sixth, revised edition. Routledge & Kegan, London 1957. ^ Mario Alinei: Origini delle lingue d'Europa. II. Continuità dal Mesolitico all'età del Ferro nelle principali aree etnolinguistiche. Società editrice il Mulino, Bologna 2000, pp. 279–288, especially p. 282 ff. ^ Alinei: Origini delle lingue d'Europa, vol. II, p. 285 f. ^ Alinei: Origini delle lingue d'Europa, vol. II, pp. 287, 294 ff. ^ Schibler, J (2006). "The economy and environment of the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE in the northern Alpine foreland based on studies of animal bones". Environmental Archaeology. 11 (1): 49–64. doi:10.1179/174963106x97052.  ^ a b "Ancient burial site unearthed in Prague". PressTV. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ "First homosexual caveman found". The Telegraph. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ "The oldest gay in the village: 5,000-year-old is 'outed' by the way he was buried". Daily Mail. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ Pappas, Stephanie (7 April 2011). "'Gay Caveman' Story Overblown, Archaeologists Say". Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ Karsten Davidsen (1978) "The Final TRB Culture in Denmark: A Settlement Study, Volume 5", p.10 ^ Gyldendalske Boghandel(1984) "Kuml", p.199 ^ Bruce G. Trigger(1989) "A History of Archaeological Thought", p.155-156 ^ Fagan, Brian M.; Beck, Charlotte (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. , pp. 89, 217 ^ Häkkinen, Jaakko (2012). "Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir" (PDF). Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia − Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsinki: Finno-Ugric Society (264): 96. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corded Ware culture.

Allentoft, Morten E. (11 June 2015), "Population genomics of bronze Age Eurasia", Nature, 522  Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse
Horse
The Wheel
Wheel
And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press  Gimbutas, Marija (1997). The Kurgan
Kurgan
culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: selected articles from 1952 to 1993, eds. Miriam Robbins Dexter & Karlene Jones-Bley. Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1997. Haak, Wolfgang (2015), "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe", Nature, 522 (7555): 207–211, arXiv:1502.02783 , Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H, doi:10.1038/nature14317, PMC 5048219 , PMID 25731166  Lazaridis, Iosif; Haak, Wolfgang; Patterson, Nick; Anthony, David; Reich, David (2015), "Supplementary Information 11. Relevance of ancient DNA to the problem of Indo-European language dispersals", Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe  Lindquist, H (1993). Historien om Sverige (in Swedish).  Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved February 18, 2015.  Mallory, J.P. (1999), In Search of the Indo-Europeans (freprint ed.), Thames and Hudson  Østmo, Einar (1996). " The Indo-European Question: a Norwegian perspective ". In Huld, Martin E; Jones-Bley, Karlene. The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man. pp. 23–41. 

Web-sources[edit]

^ Ann Gibbons (10 June 2015), Nomadic herders left a strong genetic mark on Europeans and Asians, Science (AAAS)

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↑ Mesolithic Europe
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prismatic

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Chopper

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side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

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Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

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Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

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fulacht fiadh

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Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

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Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

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Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

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Other cultural

Astronomy

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trepanning

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Prehistoric music

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Paleolithic
Paleolithic
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Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

Authority control

.