HOME
The Info List - Connecticut River


--- Advertisement ---



The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
is the longest river in the New England
New England
region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada
Canada
and discharges at Long Island Sound.[3] Its watershed encompasses five U.S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2) via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers.[4] It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at 19,600 cubic feet (560 m3) per second.[4][5] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of approximately two million people surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Hartford, Connecticut.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-1614–1637: American Indian populations 1.2 1614–1636: Dutch and Puritan
Puritan
settlement 1.3 Border disputes 1.4 The Treaty of Paris and the 19th century 1.5 Log drives and the early 20th century 1.6 The flood of 1936 1.7 1936–present: Water supply

2 Course

2.1 The Upper Connecticut
Connecticut
River: New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont 2.2 The Middle Connecticut
Connecticut
River: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
through central Connecticut 2.3 The Lower Connecticut
Connecticut
River: Southern Connecticut
Connecticut
to Long Island Sound

2.3.1 Mouth and tidelands

2.4 Dams 2.5 Tributaries 2.6 Fish

3 Economy

3.1 Boating 3.2 Pollution and cleanup

4 Lists

4.1 Populated places 4.2 Tributaries 4.3 Crossings

5 Sites of interest 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] The word "Connecticut" is a French corruption of the Mohegan
Mohegan
word quinetucket which means "beside the long, tidal river".[7] The word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, which was also called simply "The Great River".[8]

View of Springfield on the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
by Alvan Fisher
Alvan Fisher
(Brooklyn Museum)

View of the City of Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
by William Havell

Pre-1614–1637: American Indian populations[edit] Prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614, numerous indigenous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
valley. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems mostly from English accounts written during the 1630s.[9] The Pequots
Pequots
dominated a territory in the southernmost region of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
valley, stretching roughly from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut
Connecticut
northward to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans.[10] The Mattabesset (Tunxis) tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut
Connecticut
River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots
Pequots
to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans
Mohegans
to the north.[11] The Mohegans
Mohegans
dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit, particularly after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots
Pequots
during the Pequot War
Pequot War
of 1637.[12] Their culture was similar to that of the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area.[12] The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
north of the Enfield Falls
Enfield Falls
on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts. The Pocomtuc village of Agawam[13] eventually became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut
Connecticut
River meets the western Westfield River
Westfield River
and eastern Chicopee River.[14] The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan
Puritan
explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut
Connecticut
River.[15][16] The region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. Occasionally, these villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk, Mahican, and Iroquois
Iroquois
tribes.[15][16] The Pennacook
Pennacook
tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching roughly from the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
border with Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire.[17] The Western Abenaki
Abenaki
(Sokoki) tribe lived in the Green Mountains
Green Mountains
region of Vermont
Vermont
but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts area. They later merged with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by wars and famines.[18] 1614–1636: Dutch and Puritan
Puritan
settlement[edit] In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block
Adriaen Block
became the first European to chart the Connecticut
Connecticut
River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids.[19] He called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands
Netherlands
as the northeastern border of the New Netherland
New Netherland
colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
called the Fort Huys de Hoop ("Fort House of Hope").[20] Four separate Puritan-led groups also settled the fertile Connecticut River
River
Valley, and they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley today: Hartford (est. 1635) and Springfield (est. 1636). The first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in 1632 and ultimately founded the village of Matianuck (which became Windsor, Connecticut) several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut
Connecticut
in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.

View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm— The Oxbow
The Oxbow
(1836) by Thomas Cole

In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker
led settlers from Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut
Connecticut
of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne.[20] Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631. The patent, however, had been physically lost, and the annexation was almost certainly illegal.[21] The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon
William Pynchon
to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there. His scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River
Chicopee River
to the east and Westfield River
Westfield River
to the west—and located just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage.[22] It was initially named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed Springfield in honor of Pynchon's native town in England.[22] Of these settlements, Hartford and Springfield quickly emerged as powers. In 1641, Springfield splintered off from the Hartford-based Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony, allying itself with the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony. For decades, Springfield remained the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony's westernmost settlement, on the northern border of the Connecticut Colony. By 1654, however, the success of these English settlements rendered the Dutch position untenable on the Connecticut
Connecticut
River. A treaty moved the boundary westward between the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony and New Netherland
New Netherland
Colony to a point near Greenwich, Connecticut. The treaty allowed the Dutch to maintain their trading post at Foot Huys de Hoop, which they did until the 1664 British takeover of New Netherland. Border disputes[edit] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley's central location, fertile soil, and abundant natural resources made it the target of centuries of border disputes, beginning with Springfield's defection from the Connecticut Colony in 1641, which brought the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony to the river. Conflicting royal treaties of 1764 sparked the river's east-siders to unite with Ethan Allen
Ethan Allen
and the west-siders against New York and the British. The 1783 Treaty of Paris
1783 Treaty of Paris
created a disputed border with Canada
Canada
from the Connecticut's "northernmost headwaters". A 1933 U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
decision settled a contentious boundary dispute[23] between Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire. The Connecticut
Connecticut
River's history is characterized by both political intrigue and technological innovation.[24] During 1640 and 1641, two controversies took place that altered the political boundaries of the Lower Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
region, preventing it from administration by a single political body. The Connecticut Colony administered Springfield during the 1630s, in addition to Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor; however, by 1640, Springfield's advantageous geography enabled it to become the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony's most commercially prosperous settlement. The Colony endured a crippling grain shortage during the spring of 1640 which caused many cattle to die of starvation. The grain shortage became a matter of survival for the Colony but not for Springfield, due to its prosperity.[22]

The Memorial Bridge across the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
at Springfield, Massachusetts, the river's largest city

In response to the shortage, leading citizens of Wethersfield and Hartford gave power to Pynchon, Springfield's founder, to purchase corn for all of the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony's settlements from the Pocumtuc. Colony leaders authorized him to offer large sums of money to the Indians, far above market prices; however, the Indians refused to sell at even "reasonable" prices, and thus he refused to buy the corn altogether. Pynchon argued that it was best not to broadcast the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colonists' weaknesses to the Indians, who he believed might capitalize on it; likewise, he aimed to keep market values and trade with the Indians steady in the future.[22] Hartford's leading citizens were furious with Pynchon's willingness to further imperil the starving settlements. With Windsor's and Wethersfield's consent, they commissioned Captain John Mason who had fought in the Pequot War
Pequot War
to travel to Springfield with "money in one hand and a sword in the other" to make a deal with the Indians, and also to rebuke Pynchon.[22] On reaching Springfield, Mason threatened the Indians with war if they did not sell their corn at reasonable prices. The Indians capitulated and ultimately sold the corn to the Colonists. However, Mason's violent approach aroused distrust among the Pocumtuc tribe. Mason also upbraided Pynchon in public.[22] This incident arose partly from differences of opinion regarding how to interact with the Indian tribes. Pynchon had achieved mutual benefits by trading with the Pocumtucs, whereas Mason had used force. Nevertheless, it caused Springfield's settlers to rally around the humiliated Pynchon, and led to the settlement severing ties with the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony.[22] As this controversy was heating up, the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony saw an opportunity to gain a foothold along the fertile Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley. In 1640, Boston asserted a claim to jurisdiction over lands surrounding the river; however, Springfield remained politically independent until tensions with the Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony were exacerbated by a final confrontation later that year.[22] Hartford kept a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
at Old Saybrook for protection against the Pequots, Wampanoags, Mohegans, and the New Netherland
New Netherland
Colony. After Springfield broke ties with the Colony, the remaining Connecticut
Connecticut
settlements demanded that Springfield's ships pay tolls when passing the mouth of the river. The ships refused to pay this tax without representation at Connecticut's fort, but Hartford refused to grant it. In response, the Massachusetts Bay Colony solidified its friendship with Springfield by levying a toll on Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony ships entering Boston Harbor. Connecticut was largely dependent on sea trade with Boston and therefore permanently dropped its tax on Springfield, but Springfield allied with Boston nonetheless, drawing the first state border across the Connecticut
Connecticut
River.[22] The Fort at Number 4 in Charlestown, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
was the northernmost English settlement on the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
until the end of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
in 1763. Abenaki
Abenaki
Indians resisted British attempts at colonization, but Colonists began settling north of Brattleboro, Vermont
Vermont
following the war.[25] Settlement of the Upper Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley increased quickly, with population assessments of 36,000 by 1790.[25] The area that is now Vermont
Vermont
was claimed by both New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and New York, and was settled primarily through the issuance of land grants by New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Governor Benning Wentworth
Benning Wentworth
beginning in the 1740s.[26] New York protested these grants, and King George III decided in 1764 that the border between the provinces should be the western bank of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River.[27] Ethan Allen, the Green Mountain Boys, and other residents of the disputed area resisted attempts by New York to exercise authority over the area, which resulted in the establishment of the independent Vermont
Vermont
Republic in 1777[28] and its eventual accession to the United States
United States
in 1791 as the fourteenth state.[29] Boundary disputes between Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
lasted for nearly 150 years and were finally settled in 1933, when the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed King George's boundary as the ordinary low-water mark on the Vermont
Vermont
shore. In some places, the state line is now inundated by the impoundments of dams built after this time.[30] The Treaty of Paris and the 19th century[edit] The Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
that ended the American Revolutionary War created a new international border between New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and the Province of Canada
Canada
at "northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut". Several streams fit this description, and thus a boundary dispute led to the short-lived Indian Stream Republic, which existed from 1832 to 1835.

The Windsor Locks Canal
Canal
Company at Enfield Falls, the Connecticut River's first major barrier to navigation

The broad, fertile Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley attracted agricultural settlers and colonial traders to Hartford, Springfield, and the surrounding region. The high volume and numerous falls of the river led to the rise of industry along its banks during the Industrial Revolution. The cities of Springfield and Hartford in particular became centers of innovation and "intense and concentrated prosperity."[31] The Enfield Falls Canal
Enfield Falls Canal
was opened in 1829 to circumvent shallows around Enfield Falls, and the locks built for this canal gave their name to the town of Windsor Locks, Connecticut.[32] The Connecticut River
River
Valley functioned as America's hub of technical innovation into the 20th century, particularly the cities of Springfield and Hartford, and thus attracted numerous railroad lines. The proliferation of the railroads in Springfield and Hartford greatly decreased the economic importance of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River. From the late 1800s until today, it has functioned largely as a center of wildlife and recreation.[33] Log drives and the early 20th century[edit]

The Oxbow, Connecticut
Connecticut
River, circa 1910

Starting about 1865,[34] the river was used for massive logging drives from Third Connecticut
Connecticut
Lake
Lake
to initially water powered sawmills near Enfield Falls. Trees cut adjacent to tributary streams including Perry Stream and Indian Stream in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, Halls Stream
Halls Stream
on the Quebec– New Hampshire
New Hampshire
border, Simms Stream, the Mohawk River, and the Nulhegan River basin in Essex County, Vermont, would be flushed into the main river by the release of water impounded behind splash dams. Several log drivers died trying to move logs through Perry Falls in Pittsburg. Teams of men would wait at Canaan, Vermont, to protect the bridges from log jams. Men guided logs through a 400-foot (120 m) drop along the length of Fifteen-Mile Falls[34] (now submerged under Moore and Comerford reservoirs), and through Logan's Rips at Fitzdale, Mulligan's Lower Pitch, and Seven Islands. The White River
River
from Vermont
Vermont
and Ammonoosuc River
Ammonoosuc River
from New Hampshire
New Hampshire
brought more logs into the Connecticut. A log boom was built between Wells River, Vermont, and Woodsville, New Hampshire, to hold the logs briefly and release them gradually to avoid jams in the Ox Bow. Men detailed to this work utilized Woodsville's saloons and red-light district.[35] Some of the logs were destined for mills in Wilder and Bellows Falls, Vermont, while others were sluiced over the Bellows Falls dam. North Walpole, New Hampshire, contained twelve to eighteen saloons, patronized by the log drivers.[36] Mount Tom was the landmark the log drivers used to gauge the distance to the final mills near Holyoke, Massachusetts.[37] These spring drives were stopped after 1915, when pleasure boat owners complained about the hazards to navigation.[38] The final drive included 500 workers controlling 65 million feet of logs.[34] A final pulp drive consisted of 100,000 cords of four-foot logs in 1918. This was to take advantage of the wartime demand.[34] The flood of 1936[edit] In March 1936, due to a winter with heavy snowfall, an early spring thaw and torrential rains, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
flooded, overflowing its banks, destroying numerous bridges and isolating hundreds of people who had to be rescued by boat. The dam at Vernon, Vermont, was topped by 19 feet (5.8 m). Sandbagging by the National Guard and local volunteers helped prevent the dam's powerhouse from being overwhelmed, despite blocks of ice breaking through the upstream walls.[39] In Northampton, Massachusetts, looting during the flood became a problem, causing the mayor of the city to deputize citizen patrols to protect flooded areas. Over 3,000 refugees from the area were housed in Amherst College
Amherst College
and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Agricultural College (now UMass Amherst). Unprecedented accumulated ice jams compounded the problems created by the flood, diverting water into unusual channels and damming the river, raising water levels even further. When the jam at Hadley, Massachusetts, gave way, the water crest overflowed the dam at Holyoke, overwhelming the sandbagging there. The village of South Hadley Falls was essentially destroyed, and the southern parts of Holyoke were severely damaged, with 500 refugees.

Downtown Hartford, Connecticut, during the 1936 flood

In Springfield, Massachusetts, 5 sq mi (13 km2), and 18 miles (29 km) of streets, were flooded, and 20,000 people lost their homes. The city lost power, and nighttime looting caused the police to issue a "shoot on sight" edict; 800 National Guard troops were brought in to help maintain order. Rescue efforts using a flotilla of boats saved people trapped in upper stories of buildings, bringing them to local fraternal lodges, schools, churches and monasteries for lodging, medical care, and food. The American Red Cross and local, state and Federal agencies, including the WPA and the CCC, contributed aid and manpower to the effort. Flooding of roads isolated the city for a time. When the water receded, it left behind silt-caused mud which in places was 3 feet (1 m) thick; the recovery effort in Springfield, at the height of the American Great Depression, took approximately a decade. Overall, the flood caused 171 deaths and US$500 million (US$8,800,000,000 with inflation[40]) in damages. Across the northeast, over 430,000 people were made homeless or destitute by flooding that year.[41] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Flood Control Compact between the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Vermont
was established in 1953 to help prevent serious flooding.[42] 1936–present: Water supply[edit] The creation of the Quabbin Reservoir
Quabbin Reservoir
in the 1930s diverted the Swift River, which feeds the Chicopee River, a tributary of the Connecticut. This resulted in an unsuccessful lawsuit by the state of Connecticut against the diversion of its riparian waters.[43] Demand for drinking water in eastern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
passed the sustainable supply from the existing system in 1969. Diverting water from the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
was considered several times,[44] but in 1986 the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Water Resources Authority instead undertook a campaign of water conservation. Demand was reduced to sustainable levels by 1989, reaching approximately a 25% margin of safety by 2009.[45] Course[edit] By far the largest river ecosystem in New England, the Connecticut River
River
watershed spans five of the six New England
New England
states – New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, as well as small portions of Maine
Maine
and the Canadian province of Quebec.[4][30][46] The Upper Connecticut
Connecticut
River: New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont[edit]

The Connecticut
Connecticut
Lakes, the source of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River, near the border of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Quebec

Great Falls (Bellows Falls) at high flow under the Vilas Bridge, taken from the end of Bridge St on the Vermont
Vermont
side, looking upriver.

The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
rises from the Fourth Connecticut
Connecticut
Lake, a small pond that sits 300 yards (270 m) south of the U.S. national border with Chartierville, Quebec, Canada, in the town of Pittsburg, New Hampshire, United States. Beginning at an elevation of 2,670 feet (810 m) above sea level, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
flows through the remaining Connecticut
Connecticut
Lakes and Lake
Lake
Francis – for 14-mile (23 km), all within the town of Pittsburg – and then widens as it delineates 255-mile (410 km) of the border between New Hampshire and Vermont.[46] The Connecticut
Connecticut
drops more than 2,480 feet (760 m) in elevation as it winds south to the border of Massachusetts, at which point it sits 190 feet (58 m) above sea level.[30][47] The region along the river upstream and downstream from Lebanon, New Hampshire and White River
River
Junction, Vermont, is known locally as the "Upper Valley". The exact definition of the region varies, but it generally is considered to extend south to Windsor, Vermont, and Cornish, New Hampshire, and north to Bradford, Vermont, and Piermont, New Hampshire.[48] The Middle Connecticut
Connecticut
River: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
through central Connecticut[edit] Following the most recent ice age, the Middle Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley sat at the bottom of Lake
Lake
Hitchcock. Its lush greenery and rich, almost rockless soil comes from the ancient lake's sedimentary deposits.[49] In the Middle Connecticut
Connecticut
region, the river reaches its maximum depth – 130 feet (40 m) – at Gill, Massachusetts, around the French King Bridge, and its maximum width – 2,100 feet (640 m) – at Longmeadow, directly across from the Six Flags New England amusement park.[30][50] The Connecticut's largest falls – South Hadley
South Hadley
Falls – features a vertical drop of 58 feet (18 m).[4] Lush green forests and agricultural hamlets dot this middle portion of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River; however, the region is best known for its numerous college towns, such as Northampton, South Hadley, and Amherst, as well as the river's most populous city, Springfield. The city sits atop bluffs beside the Connecticut's confluence with two major tributaries, the Chicopee River
Chicopee River
to the east and Westfield River
Westfield River
to the west.[51] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
is influenced by the tides as far north as Enfield Rapids in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, approximately 58 miles (93 km) north of the river's mouth. Two million residents live in the densely populated Hartford-Springfield region, which stretches roughly between the college towns of Amherst, Massachusetts, and Middletown, Connecticut. Hartford, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River's second largest city and only state capital, is located at the southern end of this region on an ancient floodplain that stretches to Middletown. The Lower Connecticut
Connecticut
River: Southern Connecticut
Connecticut
to Long Island Sound[edit] 15 miles (24 km) south of Hartford, at Middletown, the Lower Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
section begins with a narrowing of the river, and then a sharp turn southeast. Throughout southern Connecticut, the Connecticut
Connecticut
passes through a thinly populated, hilly, wooded region before again widening and discharging into Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
between Old Saybrook and Old Lyme. Due to the presence of large, shifting sandbars at its mouth, the Connecticut
Connecticut
is the only major river in the Northeastern United States
United States
without a port at its mouth.[52] Mouth and tidelands[edit] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
carries a heavy amount of silt, especially during the spring snow melt, from as far north as Quebec. This heavy silt concentration manifests in a large sandbar near the Connecticut's mouth, which has, historically, provided a formidable obstacle to navigation. Due to the difficulty it presents to ships, the Connecticut
Connecticut
is one of the few major rivers in the United States without a major city at its mouth. The Connecticut's major cities – Hartford and Springfield – lie 45 and 69 miles (70 and 110 km) upriver, respectively.

Satellite image of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
depositing silt into Long Island Sound

The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy
named the Connecticut
Connecticut
River's tidelands one of the Western Hemisphere's "40 Last Great Places", while the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
Wetlands
listed its estuary and tidal wetlands complex as one of 1,759 wetlands of international importance.[53] In 1997, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
was designated one of only 14 American Heritage Rivers, which recognized its "distinctive natural, economic, agricultural, scenic, historic, cultural and recreational qualities." In May 2012, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
was designated America's first National Blueway, in recognition of the restoration and preservation efforts on the river.[6] Dams[edit] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River's flow is slowed by main stem dams, which create a series of slow-flowing basins from Lake
Lake
Francis Dam
Dam
in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, to the Holyoke Dam
Dam
at South Hadley
South Hadley
Falls in Massachusetts.[4] Among the most extensively dammed rivers in the United States, the Connecticut
Connecticut
may soon flow at a more natural pace, according to scientists at the University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
at Amherst, who have devised a computer that – "in an effort to balance human and natural needs" – coordinates the holding and releasing of water between the river's 54 largest dams.[54] Tributaries[edit] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), connecting 148 tributaries, including 38 major rivers and numerous lakes and ponds.[6] Major tributaries include (from north to south) the Passumpsic, Ammonoosuc, White, Black, West, Ashuelot, Millers, Deerfield, Chicopee, Westfield, and Farmington rivers. The Swift River, a tributary of the Chicopee, has been dammed and largely replaced by the Quabbin Reservoir
Quabbin Reservoir
which provides water to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Water Resources Authority district in eastern Massachusetts, including Boston and its metropolitan area. Fish[edit]

Drift boat fishing guide working the river near Colebrook, New Hampshire

There are several species of anadromous and catadromous fish, including brook trout, winter flounder, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, large brown trout, American shad
American shad
(Alosa sapidissima), hickory shad, smallmouth bass, Atlantic sturgeon, striped bass (Morone saxatilis), carp, catfish, American eel, sea lamprey, and endangered shortnose sturgeon and dwarf wedgemussels.[55] Additionally, the United States
United States
Fish and Wildlife Service has repopulated the river with another species of migratory fish, the Atlantic salmon, which for more than 200 years had been extinct from the river due to damming.[55] Several fish ladders and fish elevators have been built to allow fish to resume their natural migration upriver each spring. Much of the beginning of the river's course in the town of Pittsburg is occupied by the Connecticut
Connecticut
Lakes, which contain lake trout and landlocked salmon. Landlocked salmon
Landlocked salmon
make their way into the river during spring spawning runs of bait fish and during their fall spawn. The river has fly-fishing-only regulations on 5 miles (8 km) of river. Most of the river from Lake
Lake
Francis south is open to lure and bait as well. Two tail-water dams provide cold river water for miles downstream, making for bountiful summer fishing on the Connecticut. After the first major dam was built near Turners Falls, Massachusetts, thirteen additional dams have ended the Connecticut
Connecticut
River's great anadromous fish runs. Fish ladders constructed since the first fish passage in 1980 at Turners Falls, have enabled migrating fish to return to some of their former spawning grounds. In addition to dams, warm water discharges between 1978 and 1992 from Vermont
Vermont
Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in Vernon, Vermont
Vermont
released water up to 105 °F (41 °C) degrees and the thermal plume reached 55 miles (89 km) downstream to Holyoke. This thermal pollution appears to be associated with an 80% decline in American shad
American shad
fish numbers from 1992 to 2005 at Holyoke dam. This decline may have been exacerbated by over-fishing in the mid-Atlantic and predation from resurging striped bass populations. The nuclear plant was closed at the end of 2014 but the 2015 shad run at Vernon numbered only 42,000 shad.[1] There are 12 species of freshwater mussels.[56] Of those, 11 occur in the mainstem of the Connecticut, all but the brook floater, which is found only in small streams and rivers. Species diversity is higher in the southern part of the watershed ( Connecticut
Connecticut
and Massachusetts) than in the northern part ( Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire), largely due to differences in stream gradient and substrate. Eight of the 12 species in the watershed are listed as endangered, threatened, or of Special Concern in one or more of the states in the watershed.[56] Economy[edit] Boating[edit] The mouth of the river up to Essex is thought to be one of the busiest stretches of waterway in Connecticut. Some local police departments and the state Environmental Conservation Police patrol the area a few times a week. Some towns keep boats available if needed.[57] In Massachusetts, the most active stretch of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
is centered on the Oxbow, 14 miles (23 km) north of Springfield in the college town of Northampton.[58] Primitive camping is available along much of the river, for non-motorized boats, via the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Paddlers' Trail. The Paddlers' Trail currently includes campsites on over 300 miles (480 km) of the river.[59] Pollution and cleanup[edit]

Riverbank restoration project in Fairlee, Vermont

The Water Quality Act
Water Quality Act
of 1965 had a major impact on controlling water pollution in the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
and its tributaries. Since then, the river has been restored from Class D to Class B (fishable and swimmable).[60][61] Many towns along the Lower Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
have enacted a cap on further development along the banks, so that no buildings may be constructed except on existing foundations. Currently, a website provides water quality reports twice a week, indicating whether various portions of the river are safe for swimming, boating and fishing.[62][63] Lists[edit] Populated places[edit] Main article: List of populated places on the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Tributaries[edit]

Near First Connecticut
Connecticut
Lake

Near Colebrook, New Hampshire

The river near its mouth

Founders Bridge
Founders Bridge
in Hartford, with a view of the Bulkeley Bridge upstream

Mist upstream of the Bissell Bridge between Windsor and South Windsor, CT

Listed from south to north by location of mouth:

Black Hall River (Old Lyme, CT) Falls River
River
(Essex, CT) Eightmile River (Hamburg, CT) Deep River
River
(Deep River, CT) Salmon River
River
(Moodus, CT) Mattabesset River
River
(Middletown, CT) Hockanum River
Hockanum River
(East Hartford and Hartford, CT) Park River
River
(Hartford, CT) Farmington River
Farmington River
(Windsor, CT) Scantic River
Scantic River
(South Windsor, CT) Westfield River
Westfield River
(West Springfield and Springfield, MA) Mill River
River
(Springfield, MA)            Chicopee River
Chicopee River
(Chicopee and Springfield, MA) Manhan River
Manhan River
( The Oxbow
The Oxbow
of Northampton, MA) Mill River
River
(Northampton, MA) Fort River
River
(Hadley, MA) Mill River
River
(Hatfield, MA) Mill River
River
(Amherst, MA) Sawmill
Sawmill
River
River
(Montague, MA) Deerfield River
Deerfield River
(Deerfield and Greenfield, MA) Fall River
River
(Greenfield and Gill, MA) Millers River
Millers River
(Millers Falls, MA) Ashuelot River
Ashuelot River
(Hinsdale, NH) Whetstone Brook
Whetstone Brook
(Brattleboro, VT) West River
River
(Brattleboro, VT) Partridge Brook (Westmoreland, NH) Cold River
River
(Walpole, NH) Saxtons River
Saxtons River
(Westminster, VT) Williams River
River
(Rockingham, VT) Black River
River
(Springfield, VT) Little Sugar River
River
(Charlestown, NH) Sugar River
River
(Claremont, NH) Blow-me-down Brook (Cornish, NH)            Ottauquechee River
Ottauquechee River
(Hartland, VT) Mascoma River
Mascoma River
(West Lebanon, NH) White River
River
(White River
River
Junction, VT) Mink Brook
Mink Brook
(Hanover, NH) Ompompanoosuc River
Ompompanoosuc River
(Norwich, VT) Waits River
Waits River
(Bradford, VT) Oliverian Brook
Oliverian Brook
(Haverhill, NH) Wells River
River
(Wells River, VT) Ammonoosuc River
Ammonoosuc River
(Woodsville, NH) Stevens River
River
(Barnet, VT) Passumpsic River
Passumpsic River
(Barnet, VT) Johns River
River
(Dalton, NH) Israel River
Israel River
(Lancaster, NH) Upper Ammonoosuc River
Upper Ammonoosuc River
(Northumberland, NH) Paul Stream (Brunswick, VT) Nulhegan River (Bloomfield, VT) Simms Stream (Columbia, NH) Mohawk River
River
(Colebrook, NH) Halls Stream
Halls Stream
(Beecher Falls, VT) Indian Stream (Pittsburg, NH) Perry Stream (Pittsburg, NH)

Crossings[edit] Main article: List of crossings of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
is a barrier to travel between western and eastern New England. Several major transportation corridors cross the river including Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Interstate 95 ( Connecticut
Connecticut
Turnpike), Interstate 90
Interstate 90
( Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Turnpike), Interstate 89, Interstate 93, and Interstate 84. In addition, Interstate 91, whose route largely follows the river north-south, crosses it twice – once in Connecticut
Connecticut
and once in Massachusetts. Sites of interest[edit]

Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Museum in Essex, Connecticut Lyman and Merrie Wood Museum of Springfield History
Lyman and Merrie Wood Museum of Springfield History
in Springfield, Massachusetts

See also[edit]

Equivalent Lands The Great Attack, the burning of American ships on the Connecticut River
River
at Essex in 1814 History of Connecticut Lake
Lake
Connecticut, post-glacial predecessor to Lake
Lake
Hitchcock Lake
Lake
Hitchcock, post-glacial predecessor to the Connecticut
Connecticut
River List of rivers of Connecticut List of rivers of Massachusetts List of rivers of New Hampshire List of rivers of Vermont

Notes[edit]

^ a b Michael J. Caduto (November 30, 2015). "With Cooler Water, Better Prospects for Shad Migration?". Northern Woodlands Magazine. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Connecticut
Connecticut
River ^ Linda Brughelli (October 28, 2014). "Essex - Connecticut". BBC Local: Essex. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Watershed Facts". Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed Council. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Event: Source To Sea Cleanup To Benefit 410 Miles of Connecticut River
River
— Courant.com – CT Environmental Headlines". Environmentalheadlines.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b c "About the River". Connecticutriver.us. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ " Connecticut
Connecticut
State Name Origin". Statesymbolsusa.org. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ Alberta Eiseman (August 30, 1998). "THEATER; The Industrialization of the Great River, New England's Longest". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Pequot History". Dickshovel.com. July 15, 1997. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "1637 – The Pequot War". The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Mattabesic History". Dickshovel.com. November 15, 1997. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b " Mohegan
Mohegan
History". Dickshovel.com. July 14, 1997. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Meaning "landing place" or "place for unloading canoes." ^ "Full text of "Indian place names of New England"". Archive.org. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b "We Have A New Lodge!!!!!". Pocumtuc Lodge – Western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Council, Boy Scouts of America. October 9, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b " Pocumtuc History". Dickshovel.com. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ " Pennacook
Pennacook
History". Dickshovel.com. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Abenaki". Dickshovel.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ Al Braden (March 1, 2010). The Connecticut
Connecticut
River: A Photographic Journey Into the Heart of New England. Wesleyan University Press. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b "House of Hope". A Tour of New England: Connecticut. New Netherland Institute. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "The Warwick Patent". Colonial Records & Topics. CT State Library. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Barrows, Charles Henry (1911). The history of Springfield in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for the young: being also in some part the history of other towns and cities in the county of Hampden. The Connecticut
Connecticut
Valley Historical Society. pp. 46–48. US 13459.5.7.  ^ State of Vermont
Vermont
v. State of New Hampshire https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/289/593 ^ "No border dispute here: Vt., NH reaffirm boundary". The Big Story. March 14, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Why did settlers come to New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont, and where did they come from?". Teaching Early Settlement. Flowofhistory.org (Southeast Vermont
Vermont
Community Learning Collaborative). Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Wardner, p. 13. ^ Wardner, p. 41 ^ Wardner, p. 443 ^ Van de Water, Frederic. The Reluctant Republic, New York: John Day, 1941. p. 337 ^ a b c d "Fast Facts". Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Joint Commissions. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ [1] Archived December 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived September 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Environment & Geography: Written in the Rocks and Sand". Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Byway Council. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b c d Pike, Helen (April 2013). "Spring Log Drives Through Fifteen-Mile Falls". Vermont's Northland Journal. 12 (1): 20–21.  ^ Holbrook p.68 ^ Holbrook p.70 ^ Holbrook, Stewart H. (1961). Yankee Loggers. International Paper Company. pp. 63–70.  ^ Wheeler, Scott (September 2002). The History of Logging in Vermont's Northeast Kingdom. The Kingdom Historical.  ^ Klekowski, Ed; ilda, Elizabeth; Klekowski, Libby (2003). The Great Flood of 1936: The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Story (DVD). Springfield, Massachusetts: WGBY. Event occurs at 02:10. OCLC 58055715. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 16 November 2011.  ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.  ^ Klelowski, Ed. The Great Flood of 1936: The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley Story WGBY
WGBY
(2003) ^ " Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Flood Control Compact" (PDF). US Government Printing Office. June 6, 1953. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ U.S. Supreme Court, Connecticut
Connecticut
v. Massachusetts, 282 U.S. 660 (1931) ^ "CRWC History". Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed Council. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "MWRA Water System Demand, 1985–2009". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Water Resources Authority. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Designated Rivers: The Connecticut
Connecticut
River". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "State officials to perambulate the border between N.H. and Vermont (symbolically, that is)". The Telegraph. May 10, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Upper Valley Bi-State Regional Chamber of Commerce". Upper Valley Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 15, 2014.  ^ Richard D. Little. "Geological History of the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley". Earth View LLC. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Klekowski, Ed (June 2–4, 2000). "Stop 1-7B: Abyssal Depths in Turner's Falls Area, French King Bridge" (PDF). North Eastern Friends of the Pleistocene Field Conference. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Susan McGowan. "The Landscape in the Colonial Period". Americancenturies.mass.edu. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Type 6 Conservation Site – Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Estuary" (PDF). Oldsaybrookct.org. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ " Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Tidelands". Yankee Magazine. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ Sam Wotipka (October 10, 2013). " Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
May Soon Flow Freely Again". Scope. MIT Graduate Program in Science Writing. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ a b Northeast Region Web Development Group. "Fisheries Program - Northeast Region – U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service". Fws.gov. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b Nedeau, Ethan Jay (2008). "Freshwater Mussels and the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed" (PDF). Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed Council, Greenfield, MA. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Kaplan, Thomas (August 30, 2007). " River
River
Watchers, Tackling Speeders and Thin Budgets". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ "Welcome". Oxbow Marina. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ " Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Paddlers' Trail". connecticutriverpaddlerstrail.org. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ (PDF) https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/tmdl/documents/appx-i-upper-connecticut.pdf. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ (PDF) https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/rl/documents/rl-14.pdf. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "News and Information from Northampton, MA
Northampton, MA
by the Daily Hampshire Gazette – GazetteNet.com". Gazettenet.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Water Quality Monitoring". Tri-State Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Targeted Watershed Initiative. Center for Educational Software Development – University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Amherst. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Bacon, Edwin M. (1906). The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
and the Valley of the Connecticut: Three Hundred and Fifty Miles from Mountain to Sea. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. LCC F12.C7 B2.  Braden, Al (2009). The Connecticut
Connecticut
River: A Photographic Journey into the Heart of New England. Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6895-3.  Delany, Edmund Thomas (1983). The Connecticut
Connecticut
River: New England's Historic Waterway. The Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-87106-980-1.  Hard, Walter R. (1947). The Connecticut
Connecticut
(Rivers of America). New York, Toronto: Rinehart & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-932691-27-7. LCC F12.C7 H3.  Roth, Randolph A. (2003). The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850. Cambridge Mass.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31773-3.  Wardner, Henry Steele (1927). The Birthplace of Vermont: A history of Windsor to 1781. New York: Scribner's. ASIN B00086X8BY. LCCN 27014536. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Connecticut
Connecticut
River.

 " Connecticut
Connecticut
River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911.  Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed Council Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Valley Flood Control Commission Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Museum Connecticut
Connecticut
Riverfest Upper Valley Trails Alliance Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Joint Commissions Tri-state Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed Initiative  "Connecticut, a river of the United States". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

American Heritage Rivers

Rivers

Blackstone & Woonasquatucket Connecticut Cuyahoga Detroit Hanalei Hudson Lower Mississippi Potomac New Rio Grande St. Johns Upper Mississippi Upper Susquehanna & Lackawanna Willamette

v t e

Ramsar sites in the United States

Ramsar Sites

Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Bitter Lake
Lake
National Wildlife Refuge Bolinas Lagoon Cache River
River
National Wildlife Refuge Caddo Lake Cape May National Wildlife Refuge Catahoula Lake Chesapeake Bay Cheyenne Bottoms Congaree National Park Connecticut
Connecticut
River Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary Delaware Bay Dixon Waterfowl Refuge Emiquon National Wildlife Refuge Everglades National Park Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge Francis Beidler Forest Grasslands Wildlife Management Area Heron Pond
Pond
– Little Black Slough Nature Preserve Horicon Marsh Humbug Marsh Izembek National Wildlife Refuge Kakagon Sloughs Kawai Nui Marsh Laguna de Santa Rosa Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Olentangy River
River
Wetland Research Park Palmyra Atoll Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge Quivira National Wildlife Refuge San Francisco Bay Sand Lake
Lake
National Wildlife Refuge Tijuana River
River
National Estuarine Research Reserve Tomales Bay Upper Mississippi River
Mississippi River
National Wildlife and Fish Refuge White River
River
National Wildlife Refuge

v t e

Rivers of Connecticut

Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed

Blackledge River Coginchaug River Connecticut
Connecticut
River Duck River Eightmile River Falls River Farmington River Hockanum River Hubbard River Jeremy River Lieutenant River Mattabesset River Nepaug River Pameacha Creek Park River Pequabuck River Salmon River Scantic River

Housatonic River
Housatonic River
Watershed

East Aspetuck River Housatonic River Konkapot River Naugatuck River Pomperaug River Rocky River Schenob Brook Shepaug River Still River Ten Mile River

Hudson River
Hudson River
Watershed

Titicus River

Long Island Sound

Ash Creek Aspetuck River Black Hall River Byram River Farm River Hammonasset River Mad River Mianus River Mill River Mill River
River
(Fairfield) Mystic River Niantic River Noroton River Norwalk River Oyster River Pequonnock River Quinnipiac River Rippowam River Rooster River Saugatuck River Silvermine River West River

Pawcatuck River
Pawcatuck River
Watershed

Ashaway River Green Fall River Pawcatuck River Shunock River Wood River

Thames River
River
Watershed

Basset Brook Beaver Brook Bigelow Brook Fenton River Fishers Brook Five Mile River French River Hop River Little River Merrick Brook Moosup River Mount Hope River Natchaug River Oxoboxo River Pachaug River Quinebaug River Shetucket River Thames River Willimantic River Yantic River

v t e

Rivers of Massachusetts

Atlantic Ocean

Tiasquam River

Buzzards Bay

Acushnet River Agawam River Back River Copicut River Crooked River Mattapoisett River Nasketucket River Paskamanset River Pocasset River Sippican River Slocums River Wankinco River Westport River Weweantic River

Cape Cod Bay

Eel River Herring River Jones River Little Pamet River Pamet River Town Brook

Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed

Burnshirt River Chapel Brook Chicopee River Connecticut
Connecticut
River Cranberry River Deerfield River East Brookfield River Farmington River Fall River Five Mile River Green River Hubbard River Manhan River Mill River
River
(Northampton) Mill River
River
(Springfield) Millers River Mirey Brook North Branch Millers River North Branch Westfield River North River Otter River Quaboag River Scantic River Seven Mile River Tarbell Brook Ware River Westfield River

Gulf of Maine

Annisquam River Blackwater River Eagle Hill River Egypt River Ipswich River Roger Island River Rowley River Skug River

Housatonic River
Housatonic River
Watershed

Housatonic River Konkapot River Schenob Brook Umpachene River

Hudson River
Hudson River
Watershed

Hoosic River Kinderhook Creek

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Aberjona River Alewife
Alewife
Brook Canton River Charles River Chelsea Creek Cochato River Fore River Fresh River Indian Head River Malden River Millers River Monatiquot River Mother Brook Muddy River Mystic River Neponset River North River Saugus River Stony Brook (Boston) Stony Brook (Waltham) Stop River Weir River Weymouth Back River

Merrimack River
Merrimack River
Watershed

Artichoke River Assabet River Back River Beaver Brook Cochichewick River Concord River Little River Merrimack River Nashua River Nissitissit River North Nashua River Phillips Brook Powwow River Quinapoxet River Salmon Brook Shawsheen River South Branch Souhegan River South Nashua River Spicket River Squannacook River Stillwater River Sudbury River Trout Brook Vine Brook Whitman River

Nantucket Sound

Bass River Bumps River Childs River Coonamesset River Mashpee River Mitchell River Oyster Pond
Pond
River Popponesset Creek Quashnet River Santuit River

Narragansett Bay

Barrington River Cole River Coles Brook Kickamuit River Lees River Palmer River Runnins River

Providence River
Providence River
Watershed

Abbott Run Blackstone River Bungay River Chockalog River Mill River Mumford River Peters River Quinsigamond River Sevenmile River Tannery River Ten Mile River Thacher River West River Wilde River

Taunton River
Taunton River
Watershed

Assonet River Canoe River Cedar Swamp River Cocasset River Cotley River Forge River Hockomock River Matfield River Mill River Nemasket River Poor Meadow Brook Quequechan River Rumford River Salisbury Plain River Satucket River Segreganset River Shumatuscacant River Snake River Taunton River Three Mile River Town River Wading River Winnetuxet River

Thames River
River
Watershed

French River Quinebaug River

v t e

Rivers of New Hampshire

Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
Watershed

Androscoggin River Chickwolnepy Stream Clear Stream Dead Diamond River Dead River East Branch Dead Diamond River Little Dead Diamond River Little Magalloway River Magalloway River Middle Branch Dead Diamond River Middle Branch Little Magalloway River Mollidgewock Brook Moose Brook Moose River Peabody River Rattle River South Branch Little Dead Diamond River Swift Diamond River West Branch Dead Diamond River West Branch Little Dead Diamond River West Branch Little Magalloway River West Branch Magalloway River West Branch Peabody River Wild River

Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
Watershed

Ammonoosuc River Ashuelot River Blow-me-down Brook The Branch Cold River Connecticut
Connecticut
River East Branch Mohawk River Gale River Great Brook Halls Stream Ham Branch Indian River Indian Stream Israel River Johns River Knox River Little River Little Sugar River Mascoma River Millers River Mink Brook Mirey Brook Mohawk River Nash Stream North Branch Gale River North Branch Millers River North Branch Sugar River North Branch Upper Ammonoosuc River Oliverian Brook Otter Brook Partridge Brook Perry Stream Phillips Brook Simms Stream South Branch Ashuelot River South Branch Gale River South Branch Israel River South Branch Sugar River Stocker Brook Sugar River Tarbell Brook Upper Ammonoosuc River West Branch Mohawk River West Branch Upper Ammonoosuc River Wild Ammonoosuc River Zealand River

Merrimack River
Merrimack River
Watershed

Baboosic Brook Back River Baker River Bear Brook Beards Brook Beaver Brook Beebe River Big River Black Brook Blackwater River Cockermouth River Cohas Brook Contoocook River East Branch Baker River East Branch Pemigewasset River Fowler River Frazier Brook Gridley River Gunstock River Lane River Little Massabesic Brook-Sucker Brook Little River
River
(Big River) Little River
River
(Merrimack River) Little Suncook River Lost River Mad River Melvin River Merrimack River Merrymeeting River Middle Branch Piscataquog River Nashua River Newfound River Nissitissit River North Branch Contoocook River North Fork East Branch Pemigewasset River Nubanusit Brook Pemigewasset River Pennichuck Brook Piscataquog River Powwow River Purgatory Brook Red Hill River Salmon Brook Shedd Brook Smith River Soucook River Souhegan River South Branch Baker River South Branch Piscataquog River South Branch Souhegan River Spicket River Squam River Stony Brook Suncook River Tioga River Turkey River Warner River West Branch Mad River West Branch Souhegan River West Branch Warner River Winnipesaukee River

Piscataqua River/NH Atlantic Coast Watershed

Bean River Bellamy River Berrys River Blackwater River Branch River Browns River Bunker Creek Cochecho River Drakes River Ela River Exeter River Fresh River Hampton Falls River Hampton River Isinglass River Jones Brook Lamprey River Little River
River
( New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Atlantic coast) Little River
River
(Brentwood) Little River
River
(Exeter) Little River
River
(Lamprey River) Mad River North Branch River North River Old River Oyster River Pawtuckaway River Piscassic River Piscataqua River Rattlesnake River Salmon Falls River Squamscott River Taylor River Winnicut River

Saco River
Saco River
Watershed

Bearcamp River Beech River Chocorua River Cold River
River
(Bearcamp River) Cold River Cutler River Dan Hole River Deer River Dry River East Branch Saco River East Branch Whiteface River East Fork East Branch Saco River Ellis River Little Cold River Lovell River Mad River Middle Branch Mad River Mill Brook New River Ossipee River Pequawket Brook Pine River Rocky Branch Saco River Sawyer River Shepards River South Branch Mad River South River Swift River
River
(Bearcamp River) Swift River
River
(Saco River) West Branch Whiteface River Wildcat Brook Wonalancet River

v t e

Waterbodies of Connecticut

Canals, Coves, Estuaries, Harbors, and Rivers

Ash Creek Connecticut
Connecticut
River Enfield Falls
Enfield Falls
Canal Farm River Farmington Canal Hammonasset River Housatonic River Kidd Harbor Little Narragansett Bay Long Island Sound Mystic River New Haven Harbor Niantic River Oxoboxo River Oyster River Pawcatuck River Quinnipiac River Smith Cove Thames River Wequetequock Cove Wethersfield Cove Ziegler's Cove more

Lakes and Ponds

Ashford Lake Bantam Lake Burr Pond Converse Lake Crystal Lake Deer Lake Great Hollow Lake Highland Lake Lake
Lake
Chaffee Lake
Lake
Hayward Lake
Lake
Pocotopaug Lake
Lake
Quassapaug Lake
Lake
Saltonstall Lake
Lake
Waramaug Lake
Lake
Whitney Mashapaug Lake Millers Pond Pinewood Lake Round Pond Squantz Pond Tuxis Pond Twin Lakes Wetherell Pond

Reservoirs

Aspetuck Reservoir Candlewood Lake Hop Brook Lake Kohanza Reservoir Lake
Lake
Beseck Lake
Lake
Gaillard Lake
Lake
Lillinonah Lake
Lake
Zoar Mansfield Hollow Lake Quaddick Reservoir Saugatuck Reservoir Shenipsit Lake Success Lake West Hartford Reservoir West Thompson Lake

v t e

Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
watershed

Tributaries

Ammonoosuc River Ashuelot River Black River Black Hall River Blow-me-down Brook Burnshirt River Chapel Brook Chicopee River Cold River Cranberry River Deerfield River East Brookfield River Eightmile River Fall River Farmington River Five Mile River Green River Halls Stream Hockanum River Hubbard River Indian Stream Israel River Johns River Little Sugar River Manhan River Mascoma River Mattabesset River Mill River
River
(Northampton) Mill River
River
(Springfield) Millers River Mink Brook Mirey Brook Mohawk River North Branch Millers River North Branch Westfield River North River Nulhegan River Oliverian Brook Ompompanoosuc River Ottauquechee River Otter River Park River Partridge Brook Passumpsic River Perry Stream Quaboag River Salmon River Saxtons River Scantic River Seven Mile River Simms Stream Sugar River Tarbell Brook Upper Ammonoosuc River Waits River Ware River Wells River West River Westfield River Whetstone Brook White River Williams River

Lakes

Ashuelot Pond Back Lake Ball Mountain Lake Barkhamsted Reservoir Lake
Lake
Beseck Brooks Pond Canaan Street Lake Cedar Pond Christine Lake Comerford Reservoir Connecticut
Connecticut
Lakes Crystal Lake Dublin Pond Eastman Pond Echo Lake Lake
Lake
Francis (Murphy Dam) Goose Pond Grafton Pond Granite Lake Harriman Reservoir Harvey Lake Lake
Lake
Hayward Lakes of the Clouds Little Sunapee Lake Mascoma Lake McIndoes Reservoir Lake
Lake
Monomonac Moore Reservoir North Hartland Lake Pearly Lake Pocotopaug Lake Quabbin Reservoir Lake
Lake
Rescue Silver Lake Spofford Lake Lake
Lake
Sunapee Surry Mountain Lake Lake
Lake
Tarleton Townshend Lake Lake
Lake
Wyola

Major cities (>100k)

Hartford, Connecticut Springfield, Massachusetts

Smaller cities and towns (<100k)

Agawam Ascutney Barnet Bath Beecher Falls Bellows Falls Bloomfield Bradford Brattleboro Brunswick Canaan Charlestown Chester Chesterfield Chicopee Claremont Clarksville Colebrook Columbia Concord Cornish Cromwell Dalton Deep River Deerfield Dummerston East Haddam East Hampton East Hartford East Hereford East Windsor Easthampton Enfield Essex Fairlee Gill Gilman Glastonbury Greenfield Groveton Guildhall Haddam Hadley Hanover Hartford VT Hartland Hatfield Haverhill Higganum Hinsdale Holyoke Lancaster Lebanon Lemington Littleton Longmeadow Lunenburg Lyme CT Lyme NH Maidstone Middletown Millers Falls Monroe Montague Moodus Newbury Northampton Northfield Northumberland Norwich Old Lyme Old Saybrook Orford Piermont Pittsburg Plainfield Portland Putney Rockingham Rocky Hill Ryegate South Hadley South Windsor Springfield VT Stewartstown Stratford Suffield Sunderland Thetford Thompsonville Turners Falls Vernon Walpole Waterford Weathersfield Wells River West Lebanon West Springfield Westminster Westmoreland Wethersfield Whately White River
River
Junction Wilder Windsor CT Windsor VT Windsor Locks Woodsville

Crossings

Amtrak
Amtrak
Old Saybrook – Old Lyme Bridge Arch Bridge Bulkeley Bridge Calvin Coolidge Bridge Canalside Rail Trail Bridge Cheshire Bridge Columbia Bridge Cornish–Windsor Covered Bridge Dexter Coffin Bridge French King Bridge Gill–Montague Bridge Janice Peaslee Bridge Ledyard Bridge Morey Memorial Bridge Mount Orne Covered Bridge Norwottuck Rail Trail Bridge Piermont Bridge Pittsburg–Clarksville Covered Bridge Ranger Bridge Raymond E. Baldwin Bridge Sunderland Bridge

.