CompactFlash (CF) is a flash memory mass storage device used mainly in
portable electronic devices. The format was specified and the devices
were first manufactured by
SanDisk in 1994.
CompactFlash became the most successful of the early memory card
Miniature Card and SmartMedia. Subsequent formats,
such as MMC/SD, various
Memory Stick formats, and xD-Picture Card
offered stiff competition. Most of these cards are smaller than
CompactFlash while offering comparable capacity and speed. Proprietary
memory card formats for use in professional audio and video, such as
P2 and SxS, are faster, but physically larger and more costly.
CompactFlash remains popular and is supported by many professional
devices and high-end consumer devices. As of 2017, both Canon
and Nikon use
CompactFlash for their flagship digital still
cameras. Canon also chose
CompactFlash as the recording medium for its
professional high-definition tapeless video cameras. Ikegami
professional video cameras can record digital video onto CompactFlash
cards through an adaptor.
CompactFlash cards use the
Parallel ATA interface, but in
2008, a variant of CompactFlash, CFast was announced. CFast (also
known as CompactFast) is based on the
Serial ATA interface.
In November 2010, SanDisk, Sony and Nikon presented a next generation
card format to the
CompactFlash Association. The new format has a
similar form factor to CF/CFast but is based on the PCI Express
interface instead of
Parallel ATA or Serial ATA. With
potential read and write speeds of 1 Gbit/s (125 MByte/s) and storage
capabilities beyond 2 TiB, the new format is aimed at high-definition
camcorders and high-resolution digital cameras, but the new cards are
not backward compatible with either
CompactFlash or CFast. The XQD
card format was officially announced by the
in December 2011.
2 Technical details
2.1.1 Solid state
2.1.2 Magnetic media
2.2 Capacities and compatibility
2.2.1 Solid state capacities
2.2.2 Magnetic media capacities
2.2.3 Use in place of a hard disk drive
2.3.1 Power consumption and data transfer rate
2.4 CF+ and
CompactFlash specification revisions
2.8 Type I and Type II
3 Compared to other portable storage
5 Other devices in the CF form factor
6 See also
8 External links
CompactFlash card installed in a 2.5" IDE port with adapter
There are two main subdivisions of CF cards, 3.3 mm-thick type I
and 5 mm-thick type II (CF2). The type II slot is used by
miniature hard drives and some other devices, such as the Hasselblad
CFV Digital Back for the Hasselblad series of medium format cameras.
There are four main card speeds: original CF, CF High Speed (using
CF+/CF2.0), faster CF 3.0 standard and the faster CF 4.0 standard
adopted as of 2007.
CompactFlash was originally built around Intel's NOR-based flash
memory, but has switched to NAND technology. CF is among the
oldest and most successful formats, and has held a niche in the
professional camera market especially well. It has benefited from both
a better cost to memory-size ratio and, for much of the format's life,
generally greater available capacity than other formats.
CF cards can be used directly in a
PC Card slot with a plug adapter,
used as an ATA (IDE) or
PCMCIA storage device with a passive adapter
or with a reader, or attached to other types of ports such as USB or
FireWire. As some newer card types are smaller, they can be used
directly in a CF card slot with an adapter. Formats that can be used
this way include SD/MMC,
Memory Stick Duo, xD-Picture Card in a Type I
SmartMedia in a Type II slot, as of 2005. Some multi-card
readers use CF for I/O as well.
CompactFlash interface is a 50-pin subset of the 68-pin PCMCIA
connector. "It can be easily slipped into a passive 68-pin
II to CF Type I adapter that fully meets
PCMCIA electrical and
mechanical interface specifications", according to
compactflash.org. The interface operates, depending on the state
of a mode pin on power-up, as either a 16-bit
PC Card (0x7FF address
limit) or as an IDE (PATA) interface.
1 GB CF card in a
PC Card interface, no dedicated programming voltages (Vpp1
and Vpp2) are provided on the
CompactFlash IDE mode defines an interface that is smaller than, but
electrically identical to, the ATA interface. The CF device contains
an ATA controller and appears to the host device as if it were a hard
disk. CF devices operate at 3.3 volts or 5 volts, and can be swapped
from system to system.
CompactFlash supports C-H-S and 28-bit logical
block addressing (CF 5.0 introduced support for LBA-48). CF cards with
flash memory are able to cope with extremely rapid changes in
temperature. Industrial versions of flash memory cards can operate at
a range of −45° to +85 °C.
NOR-based flash has lower density than newer NAND-based systems, and
CompactFlash is therefore the physically largest of the three memory
card formats introduced in the early 1990s, being derived from the
PCMCIA Memory Card formats. The other two are Miniature Card
SmartMedia (SSFDC). However, CF did switch to NAND type
memory later. The
Microdrive format, later made by Hitachi,
implements the CF Type II interface, but is a hard disk drive (HDD) as
opposed to solid-state memory. Seagate also made CF HDDs.
CompactFlash IDE (ATA) emulation speed is usually specified in "x"
ratings, e.g. 8x, 20x, 133x. This is the same system used for CD-ROMs
and indicates the maximum transfer rate in the form of a multiplier
based on the original audio CD data transfer rate, which is 150
displaystyle R= Kcdot 150 text kByte/s
where R = transfer rate, K = speed rating. For example, 133x rating
means transfer speed of: 133 × 150 kByte/s =
19,950 kByte/s ≈ 20 MB/s.
These are manufacturer speed ratings. Actual transfer speed may be
higher, or lower, than shown on the card depending on several
factors. The speed rating quoted is almost always the read speed,
while write speed is often slower.
For reads, the onboard controller first powers up the memory chips
from standby. Reads are usually in parallel, error correction is done
on the data, then transferred through the interface 16 bits at a time.
Error checking is required due to soft read errors. Writes require
powerup from standby, wear leveling calculation, a block erase of the
area to be written to, ECC calculation, write itself (an individual
memory cell read takes around 100 ns, a write to the chip takes 1ms+
or 10,000 times longer).
Because the USB 2.0 interface is limited to 35 MByte/s and lacks bus
mastering hardware, USB 2.0 implementation results in slower access.
CompactFlash Cards provide data rates up to 145
Mbytes/sec and require
USB 3.0 data transfer rates.
A direct motherboard connection is often limited to 33 MByte/s because
IDE to CF adapters lack high speed ATA (66 MByte/s plus) cable
support. Power on from sleep/off takes longer than power up from
Many 1-inch (25 mm) hard drives (often referred to by the
trademarked name "Microdrive") typically spin at 3600 RPM, so
rotational latency is a consideration, as is spin-up from standby or
idle. Seagate's 8 GB ST68022CF drive spins up fully within a few
revolutions but current drawn can reach up to 350 milliamps and runs
at 40-50 mA mean current. Its average seek time is 8 ms and can
sustain 9 MByte/s read and write, and has an interface speed of 33
MByte/s. Hitachi's 4 GB
Microdrive is 12 ms seek, sustained 6 MByte/s.
Capacities and compatibility
The CF 5.0 Specification supports capacities up to 128 PB using 48-bit
logical block addressing (LBA). Prior to 2006, CF drives using
magnetic media offered the highest capacities (up to 8 GB). Now there
are solid-state cards with higher capacities (up to 512 GB).
As of 2011, solid-state drives (SSDs) have supplanted both kinds of CF
drive for large capacity requirements.
Solid state capacities
SanDisk announced its 16 GB Extreme III card at the photokina trade
fair, in September, 2006. That same month,
Samsung announced 16,
32 and 64 GB CF cards. Two years later, in September, 2008, PRETEC
announced 100GB cards.
Magnetic media capacities
Seagate announced a 5 GB "1-inch hard drive" in June, 2004, and an
8 GB version in June, 2005.
Use in place of a hard disk drive
SATA adapter with a card inserted
In early 2008, the CFA demonstrated
CompactFlash cards with a built in
SATA interface. Several companies make adapters that allow CF
cards to be connected to PCI, PCMCIA, IDE and
allowing a CF card to act as a solid-state drive with virtually any
operating system or BIOS, and even in a
CF cards may perform the function of the master or slave drive on the
IDE bus, but have issues sharing the bus. Moreover, late-model cards
that provide DMA (using
UDMA or MWDMA) may present problems when used
through a passive adapter that does not support DMA.
PC Card memory cards used an internal battery to maintain
data when power was removed. The rated life of the battery was the
only reliability issue.
CompactFlash cards that use flash memory, like
other flash-memory devices, are rated for a limited number of
erase/write cycles for any "block." While NOR flash has higher
endurance, ranging from 10,000 to 1,000,000, they haven't been adapted
for memory card usage. Most mass storage usage flash are NAND based.
As of 2015[update] NAND flash were being scaled down to 16 nm.
They are usually rated for 500 to 3,000 write/erase cycles per block
before hard failure. This is less reliable than magnetic
media. Car PC Hacks suggests disabling the Windows swap file
and using its
Enhanced Write Filter (EWF) to eliminate unnecessary
writes to flash memory. Additionally, when formatting a
flash-memory drive, the Quick Format method should be used, to write
as little as possible to the device.
CompactFlash flash-memory devices limit wear on blocks by varying
the physical location to which a block is written. This process is
called wear leveling. When using
CompactFlash in ATA mode to take the
place of the hard disk drive, wear leveling becomes critical because
low-numbered blocks contain tables whose contents change frequently.
CompactFlash cards spread the wear-leveling across the entire
drive. The more advanced
CompactFlash cards will move data that rarely
changes to ensure all blocks wear evenly.
NAND flash memory is prone to frequent soft read errors. The
CompactFlash card includes error checking and correcting (ECC) that
detects the error and re-reads the block. The process is transparent
to the user, although it may slow data access.
As a flash memory device is solid-state, it is less affected by shock
than a spinning disk.
The possibility for electrical damage from upside-down insertion is
prevented by asymmetrical side slots, assuming that the host device
uses a suitable connector.
Power consumption and data transfer rate
Small cards consume around 5% of the power required by small disk
drives and still have reasonable transfer rates of over
45 MByte/s for the more expensive 'high-speed' cards.
However, the manufacturer's warning on the flash memory used for
ReadyBoost indicates a current draw in excess of 500 mA.
CompactFlash cards for use in consumer devices are typically formatted
FAT12 (for media up to 16 MB),
FAT16 (for media up to 2 GB,
sometimes up to 4 GB) and
FAT32 (for media larger than 2 GB). This
lets the devices be read by personal computers but also suits the
limited processing ability of some consumer devices such as cameras.
There are varying levels of compatibility among FAT32-compatible
cameras, MP3 players, PDAs, and other devices. While any device that
claims FAT32-capability should read and write to a FAT32-formatted
card without problems, some devices are tripped up by cards larger
than 2 GB that are completely unformatted, while others may take
longer to apply a
The way many digital cameras update the file system as they write to
the card creates a
FAT32 bottleneck. Writing to a FAT32-formatted card
generally takes a little longer than writing to a FAT16-formatted card
with similar performance capabilities. For instance, the Canon EOS 10D
writes the same photo to a FAT16-formatted 2 GB
somewhat faster than to a same speed 4 GB FAT32-formatted CompactFlash
card, although the memory chips in both cards have the same write
speed specification. Although
FAT16 is more wasteful of disk space
with its larger clusters, it works better with the write strategy that
flash memory chips require.
The cards themselves can be formatted with any type of file system
such as Ext, JFS, NTFS, or by one of the dedicated flash file systems.
It can be divided into partitions as long as the host device can read
CompactFlash cards are often used instead of hard drives in
embedded systems, dumb terminals and various small form-factor PCs
that are built for low noise output or power consumption. CompactFlash
cards are often more readily available and smaller than purpose-built
solid-state drives and often have faster seek times than hard drives.
CompactFlash specification revisions
CompactFlash was first being standardized, even full-sized hard
disks were rarely larger than 4 GB in size, and so the limitations of
the ATA standard were considered acceptable. However, CF cards
manufactured after the original Revision 1.0 specification are
available in capacities up to 512 GB. While the current revision 6.0
works in [P]ATA mode, future revisions are expected to implement SATA
CompactFlash Revision 1.0 (1995), 8.3 MByte/s (PIO mode 2), support
for up to 128 GB storage space.
CompactFlash I/O (1997)
CompactFlash Revision 2.0 (2003) added an increase in speed to
16.6 MByte/s data-transfer (PIO mode 4). At the end of 2003, DMA 33
transfers were added as well, available since mid-2004.
CompactFlash Revision 3.0 (2004) added support for up to a 66
MByte/s data transfer rate (
UDMA 66), 25 MByte/s in
PC Card mode,
added password protection, along with a number of other features. CFA
recommends usage of the
FAT32 filesystem for storage cards larger than
CompactFlash Revision 4.0 (2006) added support for IDE Ultra
DMA Mode 6 for a maximum data transfer rate of 133 MByte/s (
CompactFlash Revision 4.1 (2007) added support for Power
Enhanced CF Storage Cards.
CompactFlash Revision 5.0 (2010) added a number of features, including
48-bit addressing (supporting 128
Petabyte of storage), larger block
transfers of up to 32 Megabytes, quality-of-service and video
performance guarantees, and other enhancements 
CompactFlash Revision 6.0 (November 2010) added UltraDMA Mode 7 (167
MByte/s), ATA-8/ACS-2 sanitize command,
TRIM and an optional card
capability to report the operating temperature range of the card.
Main article: CE-ATA
CE-ATA is a
Serial ATA interface based on the MultiMediaCard
Pins of a CFast card
A variant of
CompactFlash known as CFast is based on the Serial ATA
bus, rather than the Parallel ATA/
IDE bus for which all previous
CompactFlash are designed. CFast is also known as
CFast 1.0/1.1 supports a higher maximum transfer rate than current
CompactFlash cards, using
SATA 2.0 (300 MByte/s) interface, while
PATA is limited to 167 MByte/s using
CFast cards are not physically or electrically compatible with
CompactFlash cards. However, since
SATA can emulate the PATA command
CompactFlash software drivers can be used, although
writing new drivers to use AHCI instead of PATA emulation will almost
always result in significant performance gains. CFast cards use a
SATA data connector, and a female 17-pin power
connector, so an adaptor is required to connect CFast cards in
place of standard
SATA hard drives which use male connectors.
The first CFast cards reached the market in late 2009. At CES
2009, Pretec showed a 32 GB CFast card and announced that they
should reach the market within a few months. Delock began
distributing CFast cards in 2010, offering several card readers with
USB 3.0 and eSATAp (power over eSATA) ports to support CFast cards.
Seeking higher performance and still keeping a compact storage format,
some of the earliest adaptors of CFast cards were in the gaming
industry (used in slot machines), as a natural evolution from the by
then well-established CF cards. Current gaming industry supporters of
the format include both specialist gaming companies (e.g. Aristocrat
Leisure) and OEMs such as Innocore (now part of Advantech Co., Ltd.).
The CFast 2.0 specification was released in the second quarter of
2012, updating the electrical interface to
(600 MByte/s). As of 2014, the only product employing CFast 2.0
cards was the
Arri Amira digital production camera, allowing frame
rates of up to 200 fps; a CFast 2.0 adapter for the
camera was also released.
On 7 April 2014,
Blackmagic Design announced the URSA cinema camera,
which records to CFast media.
On 8 April 2015,
Canon Inc. announced the XC10 video camera, which
also makes use of CFast cards.
Blackmagic Design also announced
that its URSA Mini will use CFast 2.0.
As of October 2016, there are a growing number of medium to high-end
professional devices making use of the faster data rates offered by
CFast media. Examples include the
Arri Amira and
Arri Alexa Mini; the
Hasselblad H6D-100C; the Canon C700, C300 Mark II, EOS 1D X II, and
XC10; and the Blackmagic Ursa, Ursa Mini 4.6K and Ursa Mini 4K.
Additional recording devices for video include Atomos Ninja Star and
Atomos Shogun Studio 4K.
As of 2017, in the wider embedded electronics industry, transition
from CF to CFast is still relatively slow, probably due to hardware
cost considerations and some inertia (familiarity with CF) and because
a significant part of the industry is satisfied with the lower
performance provided by CF cards, thus having no reason to change. A
strong incentive to change to CFast for embedded electronics companies
using designs based on
Intel PC architecture is the fact that Intel
has removed native support for the (P)ATA interface a few design
platforms ago and the older CPU/PCH generations now have end-of-life
Main article: CFexpress
In September 2016 the
CompactFlash Association announced a new
standard based on PCIe 3.0 and NVMe, CFexpress.  In April 2017,
the version 1.0 of the
CFexpress specification was published, with
support for two PCIe 3.0 lanes in a XQD form-factor for up to 2
Type I and Type II
The only physical difference between the two types is that Type I
devices are 3.3 mm thick while Type II devices are 5 mm
thick. Electrically, the two interfaces are the same except that
Type I devices are permitted to draw up to 70 mA supply current from
the interface, while type II devices may draw up to 500 mA.
Most Type II devices are
Microdrive devices (see below), other
miniature hard drives, and adapters, such as a popular adapter that
Secure Digital cards. A few flash-based Type II devices
were manufactured, but Type I cards are now available in capacities
that exceed CF HDDs. Manufacturers of
CompactFlash cards such as
Sandisk, Toshiba, Alcotek and Hynix offer devices with Type I slots
only. Some of the latest
DSLR cameras, like the Nikon D800, have also
dropped Type II support.
Main article: Microdrive
IBM 1 GB Microdrive
Microdrive was a brand of tiny hard disks—about 25 mm
(1 inch) wide—in a
CompactFlash Type II package. The first was
developed and released in 1999 by IBM, with a capacity of 170 MByte.
IBM sold its disk drive division, including the
Hitachi in 2002. Comparable hard disks were also made by other
vendors, such as Seagate and Sony. They were available in capacities
of up to 8 GB but have been superseded by flash memory in cost,
capacity, and reliability, and are no longer manufactured.
As mechanical devices, CF HDDs drew more current than flash memory's
100 mA maximum. Early versions drew up to 500 mA, but more recent ones
drew under 200 mA for reads and under 300 mA for writes. (Some devices
used for high speed—such as Readyboost, which had no low-power
standby mode—exceeded the 500 mA maximum of the Type II standard.)
CF HDDs were also susceptible to damage from physical shock or
temperature changes. However, CF HDDs had a longer lifespan of write
cycles than early flash memories.
The iPod mini, Nokia N91, iriver H10 (5 or 6 GB model), PalmOne
Rio Carbon used a
Microdrive to store data.
Compared to other portable storage
CompactFlash cards that use flash memory are more rugged than some
hard drive solutions because they are solid-state. (See also
Reliability above.) Separately,
CompactFlash cards are thicker than
other card formats, which may render them less susceptible to breakage
from harsh treatment.
CompactFlash cards support the IDE/ATA command protocol with the
host device, a passive adapter lets them function as the hard disk
drive of a personal computer, as described above.
CompactFlash does not have any built in DRM or cryptographic features
found on some USB flash drives and other card formats. The absence of
such features contributes to the openness of the standard, as card
standards with such features may be subject to restrictive licensing
CompactFlash specification envisaged a higher maximum
capacity than other card formats. For this reason, many early
CompactFlash host devices are usable with modern multi-gigabyte
memories, where users of other families such as
Secure Digital have
had to migrate to SDHC and SDXC.
CompactFlash lacks the mechanical write protection switch that some
other devices have, as seen in a comparison of memory cards.
CompactFlash is physically larger than other card formats. This limits
its use, especially in miniature consumer devices where internal space
is limited, such as point-and-shoot digital cameras. (An offsetting
benefit of larger size is that the card is easier to insert and
remove, and harder to misplace.)
The marketplace for
CompactFlash is extensive and includes
counterfeits. Off-brand or counterfeit cards may be mislabeled, might
not contain the actual amount of memory their controllers report to
the host device, and may use types of memory that are not rated for
the number of erase/rewrite cycles that the purchaser expects.
Other devices in the CF form factor
Various CF I/O network interface cards
CompactFlash interface is electrically identical to the 16-bit
PC Card, the
CompactFlash form factor is also used for a variety of
Input/Output and interface devices. Many standard PC cards have CF
counterparts, some examples include:
GSM Modem, including GPRS and EDGE
Magnetic stripe reader
Super VGA display adapter
Serial port and
USB 1.1 host adapters
Readers for various other Flash media
Comparison of memory cards
^ Frank, Bill (March 2, 2003). "
CompactFlash Specification Allows for
the Addressing of up to 137 GB" (PDF) (Press release). CompactFlash
Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-05-12.
^ Admin, MemberClicks. "Home". www.compactflash.org. Retrieved 18
^ Reagan, Eric (January 6, 2012). "Lexar Introduces 256GB CF Card in
Pro Line Refresh" (Press release). Lexar. The card referenced is
described as supporting
UDMA 7, which indicates conformance to the
^ "Account Suspended". www.digiprintuk.com. Retrieved 18 March
^ "Canon U.S.A. Introduces The New Canon EOS-1D X Digital SLR Camera,
Re-Designed From The Inside Out" (Press release). Canon. 18 October
^ "Canon U.S.A. Introduces EOS-1D C Digital SLR Camera Featuring 4K
High-Resolution Video Capture" (Press release). Canon. 12 April
^ "Digital SLR Camera Nikon D4". Nikon Corporation. January 6, 2012.
Retrieved January 7, 2012.
^ "Canon DLC: Article: File-Based Video Recording onto CF Cards:
Features & Benefits". www.learn.usa.canon.com. Retrieved 18 March
^ "Ikegami at Government Video EXPO 2010, press-release by Ikegami
Ltd". ikegami.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Sandisk, Sony, and Nikon propose 500MBps memory card with more than
2TB capacity". engadget.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
CompactFlash allies rally against dominant SD". cnet.com. 14
December 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
CompactFlash Association readies next-gen XQD format, promises
write speeds of 125 MB/s and up". engadget.com. Retrieved 18 March
^ http://www.karlfoster.com/text/DP_flashmemory.doc[permanent dead
^ "pcmcia.org". www.pcmcia.org. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved
CompactFlash · AllPinouts". www.allpinouts.org. Retrieved 18 March
^ CF+ and
CompactFlash Specification Revision 1.4, Section 4
Electrical Interface, Table 4
^ "Photofocus - Long-Term Test –
UDMA Flash Memory – Lexar Won".
photofocus.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "UDMA-7/UHS-1 Media Card Study". pietrzyk.us. 16 August 2013.
Retrieved 18 March 2018.
USB 3.0 CF Card Reader Study". pietrzyk.us. 14 August 2013.
Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "COMPACTFLASH ASSOCIATION ANNOUNCES AVAILABILITY OF THE NEW CF5.0
CompactFlash Association. Retrieved
SanDisk Introduces the World's Highest Capacity Card for
Samsung Announces First 40-nanometer Device 32 Gb NAND Flash with
Revolutionary Charge Trap Technology". samsung.com. Retrieved 18 March
^ Administrator. "Pretec - Small size, Big impact". www.pretec.com.
Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ Seagate Expands Consumer Electronics Leadership with First 5GB
1-Inch Hard Drive, First 5GB Compact Flash Hard Drive, and New 400GB
DVR Hard Drive Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Seagate Does it Again: Drives Innovation with 10 New, Groundbreaking
Hard Disc Drives Archived 2009-12-07 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Submerged camera holds functional memory card two years after
accident". engadget.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Compact Flash and
Secure Digital Adapters". Addonics. Retrieved
CompactFlash cards and DMA/
UDMA support in True IDE (tm) mode".
www.fccps.cz. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Application Note for NAND Flash Memory (Revision 2.0)" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2011. Retrieved April 8,
^ The comparison is not in the same terms as for magnetic media, for
which hours of operation and reads also impose wear.
^ a b Car PC hacks, Damien Stolarz, 2005, Farnham:O’Reilly Media,
Sebastopol, CA, USA, ISBN 0-596-00871-6
^ EWF is available only in XP Embedded, not the XP Professional, Home,
or Media Editions versions of Windows.
^ LetsGoDigital. "
SanDisk Extreme IV review". www.photokina-show.com.
Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ Rob Galbraith
CompactFlash Performance Database Archived 2013-05-18
at the Wayback Machine.
^ CFA Announces Availability of the New CF5.0 Specification Archived
2010-11-22 at the Wayback Machine.
CompactFlash 6.0 Archived 2010-11-21 at the Wayback Machine.
Archived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine.
^ http://www.mmca.org/tech/MMCA_System_summaryV41.pdf[permanent dead
^ "CFast – Evolution of the
CompactFlash Interface" (PDF).
CompactFlash Association. 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
^ Donald Melanson (2008-02-25). "CFast
CompactFlash cards now said to
be coming in "18 to 24 months"". Engadget.
^ "Pretec release CFast card with
SATA interface". DPReview.
^ "ARRI Group: AMIRA". ARRI Group. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "ARRI Group: News". ARRI Group. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ Design, Blackmagic. "Blackmagic URSA Mini Pro - Blackmagic Design".
www.blackmagicdesign.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
Canon XC10 - Professional camcorder". Canon Europe.
^ "CFA 5.1 Press Release" (PDF).
CFexpress 1.0 Press Release" (PDF).
^ Admin, MemberClicks. "Home". www.compactflash.org. Retrieved 18
^ "Delkin Devices ship 224MB CF type II". dpreview.com. Retrieved 18
^ LetsGoDigital. "Lexar Media announces 8GB
CompactFlash type II -
LetsGoDigital". www.letsgodigital.org. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ "Nikon D700 - see Tech Specs". nikonusa.com. Retrieved 18 March
^ Rob, Galbraith. "Robgalbraith CF info". Rob Galbraith. Retrieved 6
^ eBay.ie Guides - FAKE
SanDisk Extreme Compact Flash Cards Exposed
^ July 2007 - Counterfeit
SanDisk Cards Archived 8 December 2008 at
the Wayback Machine.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to CompactFlash.
Rob Galbraith DPI: CF Performance Database
CompactFlash connector description and pin layout
CompactFlash Connector Schematic and complete Pinout
Memory card reader
Comparison of memory cards
SD Card and
MultiMediaCard family comparison
CompactFlash (CF, CFast)
Memory Stick (MS, MS-PRO, MS-PRO HG, MS-XC)
PC Card (PCMCIA, CardBus, CardBay)
Secure Digital (SDSC, SDHC, SDXC)
Universal Flash Storage
Universal Flash Storage (UFS)