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The Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS; Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, tr. Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG), also called the Russian Commonwealth (to distinguish it from the English-speaking Commonwealth of Nations[4]), is a political and economic confederation of 9 member states and 2 associate members, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia
Eurasia
(primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Georgia withdrew its membership in 2008, while the Baltic states
Baltic states
(Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania), which regard their membership in the Soviet Union as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate. The CIS has few supranational powers but aims to be more than a purely symbolic organization, nominally possessing coordinating powers in the realms of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security. It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. Furthermore, eight of the nine CIS member states participate in the CIS Free Trade Area. Three organizations are under the overview of the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty
Treaty
Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union (alongside subdivisions, the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and the Eurasian Economic Space, which comprises territory inhabited by over 180 million people), and the Union State. While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a supranational union of Russia
Russia
and Belarus
Belarus
with a common government, flag, currency, etc.

Contents

1 History 2 Membership

2.1 Member states 2.2 Associate states 2.3 Former member state

3 Politics

3.1 Executive Secretaries 3.2 Interparliamentary Assembly

4 Human rights 5 Military 6 Economy

6.1 Common Economic Space 6.2 Economic data

7 Associated organisations

7.1 Organisation of Central Asian Cooperation 7.2 Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations

8 Other activities

8.1 Controversial election observation mission 8.2 Russian language
Russian language
status 8.3 Sports events

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Provisional flag of the CIS (1991–92)

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991

In March 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, proposed a federation by holding a referendum to preserve the Union as the Union of Sovereign States. The new treaty signing never happened as the Communist Party hardliners staged an attempted coup in August that year. Following the events of August, the republics[which?] had declared their independence fearing another coup. A week after the Ukrainian independence referendum was held, which kept the chances of the Soviet Union staying together low, the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
was founded on 8 December 1991 by the Byelorussia SSR, the Russian SFSR, and the Ukraine
Ukraine
SSR, when the leaders of the three republics, met in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha
Belovezhskaya Pushcha
Natural Reserve, about 50 km (31 mi) north of Brest in Belarus
Belarus
and signed the "Agreement Establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States", known as the Creation Agreement (Russian: Соглашение, Soglasheniye). The CIS announced that the new confederation would be open to all republics of the former Soviet Union, and to other nations sharing the same goals. The CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby effectively abolished the Soviet Union. On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan – signed the Alma-Ata Protocol
Alma-Ata Protocol
which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or refoundation date of the CIS,[4] thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.[5] Georgia joined two years later, in December 1993.[6] At this point, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS. The three Baltic states
Baltic states
did not, reflecting their governments' and people's view that the post-1940 Soviet occupation of their territory was illegitimate (in 2004 they joined NATO
NATO
and the European Union). The CIS and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
also legally co-existed briefly with eachother until the December 26, 1991 when Soviet President Gorbachev stepped down, officially dissolving the Soviet Union. This was followed by Ivan Korotchenya becoming Executive Secretary of the CIS on the same day.[7] Between 2003 and 2005, three CIS member states experienced a change of government in a series of colour revolutions: Eduard Shevardnadze
Eduard Shevardnadze
was overthrown in Georgia; Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yushchenko
was elected in Ukraine; and Askar Akayev
Askar Akayev
was toppled in Kyrgyzstan. In February 2006, Georgia withdrew from the Council of Defense Ministers, with the statement that "Georgia has taken a course to join NATO
NATO
and it cannot be part of two military structures simultaneously",[8][9] but it remained a full member of the CIS until August 2009, one year after officially withdrawing in the immediate aftermath of the Russo-Georgian War. In March 2007, Igor Ivanov, the secretary of the Russian Security Council, expressed his doubts concerning the usefulness of the CIS, emphasising that the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
was becoming a more competent organisation to unify the largest countries of the CIS.[10] Following the withdrawal of Georgia, the presidents of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
skipped the October 2009 meeting of the CIS, each having their own issues and disagreements with the Russian Federation.[11] In May 2009, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine
Ukraine
joined the Eastern Partnership, a project which was initiated by the European Union
European Union
(EU). Membership[edit] There are nine full member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Creation Agreement remained the main constituent document of the CIS until January 1993, when the CIS Charter (Russian: Устав, Ustav) was adopted.[12] The charter formalised the concept of membership: a member country is defined as a country that ratifies the CIS Charter (sec. 2, art. 7). Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
has not ratified the charter and changed its CIS standing to associate member as of 26 August 2005 in order to be consistent with its UN-recognised international neutrality status.[13][14] Although Ukraine
Ukraine
was one of the founding countries and ratified the Creation Agreement in December 1991, Ukraine
Ukraine
chose not to ratify the CIS Charter[15][16] as it disagrees with Russia
Russia
being the only legal successor state to the Soviet Union. Thus it does not regard itself as a member of the CIS.[6][17] In 1993, Ukraine
Ukraine
became an "Associate Member" of CIS.[18] On 14 March 2014, a bill was introduced to Ukraine's parliament to denounce their ratification of the 1991 Agreement Establishing the CIS, following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Ukraine
and annexation of Crimea, but was never approved.[19][20][21] Following the 2014 parliamentary election, a new bill to denounce the CIS agreement was introduced.[22][23] In September 2015, the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
confirmed Ukraine
Ukraine
will continue taking part in CIS "on a selective basis".[24][25] Since that month, Ukraine
Ukraine
has had no representatives in the CIS Executive Committee building.[24] In light of Russia's support for the independence of breakaway regions within Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine,[26][27][28] as well as its violation of the Istanbul Agreement (see Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty), legislative initiatives to denounce the agreement on the creation of CIS were tabled in Moldova's parliament on 25 March 2014, though they were not approved.[29][30][31] A similar bill was proposed in January 2018.[32][33] Member states[edit]

Country[34] Agreement/protocol ratified Charter ratified Notes

 Armenia 000000001992-02-18-000018 February 1992 000000001994-03-16-000016 March 1994 Founding state

 Azerbaijan 000000001993-09-24-000024 September 1993 000000001993-09-24-000024 September 1993

 Belarus 000000001991-12-10-000010 December 1991 000000001994-01-18-000018 January 1994 Founding state

 Kazakhstan 000000001991-12-23-000023 December 1991 000000001994-04-20-000020 April 1994 Founding state

 Kyrgyzstan 000000001992-03-06-00006 March 1992 000000001994-04-12-000012 April 1994 Founding state

 Moldova 000000001994-04-08-00008 April 1994 000000001994-04-15-000015 April 1994

 Russia 000000001991-12-12-000012 December 1991 000000001993-07-20-000020 July 1993 Founding state

 Tajikistan 000000001993-06-26-000026 June 1993 000000001993-08-04-00004 August 1993

 Uzbekistan 000000001992-01-04-00004 January 1992 000000001994-02-09-00009 February 1994 Founding state

Associate states[edit]

Country Agreement/protocol ratified Charter ratified Notes

 Turkmenistan 000000001991-12-26-000026 December 1991 Not ratified Founding state. Associate since 2005.

 Ukraine 000000001991-12-10-000010 December 1991 Not ratified Founding state. Participated since formation. Associate since 1993.

Former member state[edit]

Country Agreement/protocol ratified Charter ratified Withdrawn Effective Notes

 Georgia 3 December 1993 19 April 1994 18 August 2008 18 August 2009 Withdrew as a result of the Russo-Georgian War
Russo-Georgian War
of 2008.

Politics[edit] Executive Secretaries[edit]

Name Country Term

Ivan Korotchenya  Belarus 26 December 1991 – 29 April 1998

Boris Berezovsky  Russia 29 April 1998 – 4 March 1999

Ivan Korotchenya  Belarus 4 March – 2 April 1999

Yury Yarov  Russia 2 April 1999 – 14 June 2004

Vladimir Rushailo  Russia 14 June 2004 – 5 October 2007

Sergei Lebedev  Russia 5 October 2007 – Incumbent

Interparliamentary Assembly[edit]

Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008.

The Interparliamentary Assembly was established in 27 March 1992 in Kazakhstan. On 26 May 1995 CIS leaders signed the Convention on the Interparliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States eventually ratified by nine parliaments. Under the terms of the Convention, the IPA was invested with international legitimacy and is housed in the Tauride Palace
Tauride Palace
in St Petersburg
St Petersburg
and acts as the consultative parliamentary wing of the CIS created to discuss problems of parliamentary cooperation and reviews draft documents of common interest and passes model laws to the national legislatures in the CIS (as well as recommendations) for their use in the preparation of new laws and amendments to existing legislation too which have been adopted by more than 130 documents that ensure the convergence of laws in the CIS to the national legislation. The Assembly is actively involved in the development of integration processes in the CIS and also sends observers to the national elections.[35] The Assembly held its 32nd Plenary meeting in Saint Petersburg on 14 May 2009. Ukraine
Ukraine
participates, but Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
does not.[36][37] Human rights[edit] Since its inception, one of the primary goals of the CIS has been to provide a forum for discussing issues related to the social and economic development of the newly independent states. To achieve this goal member states have agreed to promote and protect human rights. Initially, efforts to achieve this goal consisted merely of statements of good will, but on 26 May 1995, the CIS adopted a Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.[38] Even before the 1995 human rights treaty, the Charter of the CIS that was adopted in 1991 created, in article 33, a Human Rights Commission sitting in Minsk, Belarus. This was confirmed by decision of the Council of Heads of States of the CIS in 1993. In 1995, the CIS adopted a human rights treaty that includes civil and political as well as social and economic human rights. This treaty entered into force in 1998. The CIS treaty is modeled on the European Convention on Human Rights, but lacking the strong implementation mechanisms of the latter. In the CIS treaty, the Human Rights Commission has very vaguely defined authority. The Statute of the Human Rights Commission, however, also adopted by the CIS Member States as a decision, gives the Commission the right to receive inter-state as well as individual communications. CIS members, especially in Central Asia, continue to have among the world's poorest human rights records. Many activists point to the 2005 Andijan massacre
Andijan massacre
in Uzbekistan, or the cult of personality around President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(though not a CIS member), to show that there has been almost no improvement in human rights since the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Central Asia. The consolidation of power by President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
has resulted in a steady decline in the modest progress of previous years in Russia. The Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
continues to face serious challenges in meeting even basic international standards.[39] Military[edit] Main articles: Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS
Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS
and Joint CIS Air Defense System

The members of the council meeting in Moscow
Moscow
in 2017

The CIS Charter establishes the Council of Ministers of Defense, which is vested with the task of coordinating military cooperation of the CIS member states. To this end, the Council develops conceptual approaches to the questions of military and defense policy of the CIS member states; develops proposals aimed to prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member states or with their participation; gives expert opinions on draft treaties and agreements related to the questions of defense and military developments; issues related suggestions and proposals to the attention of the CIS Council of the Heads of State. Also important is the Council's work on approximation of the legal acts in the area of defense and military development.[citation needed] An important manifestation of integration processes in the area of military and defense collaboration of the CIS member states is the creation, in 1995, of the joint CIS Air Defense System. Over the years, the military personnel of the joint CIS Air Defense System grew twofold along the western, European border of the CIS, and by 1.5 times on its southern borders.[40] When Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
became Russian Defence Minister on 7 May 1992, Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of the CIS Armed Forces, and his staff were ejected from the MOD and General Staff buildings and given offices in the former Warsaw Pact Headquarters at 41 Leningradsky Prospekt[41] on the northern outskirts of Moscow.[42] Shaposhnikov resigned in June 1993. In December 1993, the CIS Armed Forces Headquarters was abolished.[43] Instead, "the CIS Council of Defence Ministers created a CIS Military Cooperation Coordination Headquarters (MCCH) in Moscow, with 50 per cent of the funding provided by Russia."[44] General Viktor Samsonov was appointed as Chief of Staff. The headquarters has now moved to 101000, Москва, Сверчков переулок, 3/2, and 41 Leningradsky Prospekt
Leningradsky Prospekt
has now been taken over by another Russian MOD agency. The chiefs of the CIS general staffs have spoken in favor of integrating their national armed forces.[45] Economy[edit] Main article: Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
Free Trade Area In 1994, the CIS countries "agreed" to create a free trade area (FTA), but the agreements were never signed. The 1994 agreement would have covered all twelve then CIS members except Turkmenistan.[46] In 2009, a new agreement was begun to create a FTA, the CISFTA.[47] In October 2011, the new free trade agreement was signed by eight of the eleven CIS prime ministers; Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine
Ukraine
at a meeting in St. Petersburg. As of 2013, it has been ratified by Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Armenia, and is in force only between those states.[48] The free trade agreement eliminates export and import duties on a number of goods but also contains a number of exemptions that will ultimately be phased out.[49] An agreement was also signed on the basic principles of currency regulation and currency controls in the CIS at the same October 2011 meeting.[50] Corruption and bureaucracy are serious problems for trade in CIS countries.[51] Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
proposed that CIS members take up a digitization agenda to modernize CIS economies.[52] Common Economic Space[edit] After discussion about the creation of a common economic space between the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) countries of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, agreement in principle about the creation of this space was announced after a meeting in the Moscow suburb of Novo-Ogarevo
Novo-Ogarevo
on 23 February 2003. The Common Economic Space would involve a supranational commission on trade and tariffs that would be based in Kiev, would initially be headed by a representative of Kazakhstan, and would not be subordinate to the governments of the four nations. The ultimate goal would be a regional organisation that would be open for other countries to join as well, and could eventually lead even to a single currency. On 22 May 2003, the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
(the Ukrainian Parliament) voted 266 votes in favour and 51 against the joint economic space. However, most believe that Viktor Yushchenko's victory in the Ukrainian presidential election of 2004 was a significant blow against the project: Yushchenko has shown renewed interest in Ukrainian membership in the European Union
European Union
and such membership would be incompatible with the envisioned common economic space. Yushchenko's successor Viktor Yanukovych stated on 27 April 2010 "Ukraine's entry into the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus
Belarus
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is not possible today, since the economic principles and the laws of the WTO
WTO
do not allow it, we develop our policy in accordance with WTO
WTO
principles".[53] Ukraine
Ukraine
is a WTO
WTO
member.[53] A Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
was thus created in 2010,[54] with a single market envisioned for 2012.[55] Economic data[edit] The data is taken from the United Nations statistics division and the United States Central Intelligence Agency.[57]

Country Population[56] (2016) GDP 2007 (USD) GDP 2012 (USD) GDP growth (2012) GDP per capita (2007) GDP per capita (2012)

Belarus 9,480,042 45,275,738,770 58,215,000,000 4.3% 4,656 6,710

Kazakhstan 17,987,736 104,849,915,344 196,642,000,000 5.2% 6,805 11,700

Kyrgyzstan 5,955,734 3,802,570,572 6,197,000,000 0.8% 711 1,100

Russia 143,964,513 1,294,381,844,081 2,022,000,000,000 3.4% 9,119 14,240

Tajikistan 8,734,951 2,265,340,888 7,263,000,000 2.1% 337 900

Uzbekistan 31,446,795 22,355,214,805 51,622,000,000 4.1% 831 1,800

Azerbaijan 9,725,376 33,049,426,816 71,043,000,000 3.8% 3,829 7,500

Moldova 4,059,608 4,401,137,824 7,589,000,000 4.4% 1,200 2,100

Armenia 2,924,816 9,204,496,419 10,551,000,000 2.1% 2,996 3,500

Associated organisations[edit]

Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships among various supranational organisations in the territory of the former Soviet Unionv • d • e

Organisation of Central Asian Cooperation[edit] Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
formed the OCAC in 1991 as Central Asian Commonwealth
Central Asian Commonwealth
(CAC). The organisation continued in 1994 as the Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU), in which Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
did not participate. In 1998 it became the Central Asian Economic Cooperation (CAEC), which marked the return of Tajikistan. On 28 February 2002 it was renamed to its current name. Russia
Russia
joined on 28 May 2004.[58] On 7 October 2005 it was decided between the member states that Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
will join[59] the Eurasian Economic Community and that the organisations will merge.[60] The organisations joined on 25 January 2006. It is not clear what will happen to the status of current CACO observers that are not observers to EurAsEC (Georgia and Turkey). Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations[edit] Main article: Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia, Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria
Transnistria
are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration among the members. Other activities[edit] Controversial election observation mission[edit] The CIS Election Monitoring Organisation (Russian: Миссия наблюдателей от СНГ на выборах) is an election monitoring body that was formed in October 2002, following a Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
heads of states meeting which adopted the Convention on the Standards of Democratic Elections, Electoral Rights, and Freedoms in the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The CIS-EMO has been sending election observers to member countries of the CIS since this time; they approved many elections which have been heavily criticised by independent observers.[61]

The democratic nature of the final round of the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 which followed the Orange Revolution
Orange Revolution
and brought into power the former opposition, was questioned by the CIS while the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE) found no significant problems. This was the first time ever that the CIS observation teams challenged the validity of an election, saying that it should be considered illegitimate. On 15 March 2005, the Ukrainian Independent Information Agency quoted Dmytro Svystkov (a spokesman of the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry) that Ukraine
Ukraine
has suspended its participation in the CIS election monitoring organisation. The CIS praised the Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
parliamentary elections, 2005 as "legitimate, free and transparent" while the OSCE had referred to the Uzbek elections as having fallen "significantly short of OSCE commitments and other international standards for democratic elections".[62][63] Moldovan authorities refused to invite CIS observers in the Moldovan parliamentary elections, 2005, an action Russia
Russia
criticised. Many dozens such observers from Belarus
Belarus
and Russia
Russia
were stopped from reaching Moldova.[64] CIS observers monitored the Tajikistan
Tajikistan
parliamentary elections, 2005 and in the end declared them "legal, free and transparent." The same elections were pronounced by the OSCE to have failed international standards for democratic elections. Soon after CIS observers hailed the Kyrgyz parliamentary elections of 2005 as "well-organised, free, and fair", as large-scale and often violent demonstrations broke out throughout the country protesting what the opposition called a rigged parliamentary election. In contrast the OSCE reported that the elections fell short of international standards in many areas.[65] International observers of the Interparliamentary Assembly stated the 2010 local elections in Ukraine
Ukraine
were organised well.[66] While the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
uncovered a number of problems in relation to a new electorate law approved just prior to the elections[66] and the Obama administration criticised the conduct of the elections, saying they "did not meet standards for openness and fairness".[67][68]

Russian language
Russian language
status[edit] Russia
Russia
has been urging that the Russian language
Russian language
receive official status in all of the CIS member states. So far Russian is an official language in only four of these states: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Russian is also considered an official language in the region of Transnistria, and the autonomous region of Gagauzia
Gagauzia
in Moldova. Viktor Yanukovych, the Moscow-supported presidential candidate in the controversial 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, declared his intention to make Russian an official second language of Ukraine. However, the Western-supported candidate Viktor Yushchenko, the winner, did not do so. After his early 2010 election as President Yanukovych stated (on 9 March 2010) that " Ukraine
Ukraine
will continue to promote the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
as its only state language".[69] Sports events[edit] At the time of the Soviet Union's dissolution in December 1991, its sports teams had been invited to or qualified for various 1992 sports events. A joint CIS team took its place in some of these. The "Unified Team" competed in the 1992 Winter Olympics
1992 Winter Olympics
and 1992 Summer Olympics, and a CIS association football team competed in UEFA Euro 1992. A CIS bandy team played some friendlies in January 1992 and made its last appearance at the 1992 Russian Government Cup, where it also played against the new Russia
Russia
national bandy team. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
bandy championship for 1991–1992 was rebranded as a CIS championship. Since then, CIS members have each competed separately in international sport. In 2017 a festival for national sports and games, Фестиваль национальных видов спорта и игр государств — участников Содружества Независимых Государств, was held in Ulyanovsk. The main sports were sambo, tug of war, mas-wrestling, gorodki, belt wrestling, lapta, bandy (rink), kettlebell lifting, chess and archery. A few demonstration sports were also a part of the programme.[70] See also[edit]

Regional organisations in post-Soviet states Visegrad Group Comecon Eastern Bloc

Notes[edit]

1. ^ The Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
and the Commonwealth of Nations are also called the "Russian Commonwealth" and the "British Commonwealth" respectively to differentiate between them.[71][self-published source]

References[edit]

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Ukraine
Volodymyr Ohryzko, “ Ukraine
Ukraine
does not recognise the legal personality of this organisation, we are not members of the CIS Economic Court, we did not ratify the CIS Statute, thus, we cannot be considered a member of this organisation from international legal point of view. Ukraine
Ukraine
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Ukraine
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Ukraine
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Abkhazia
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Russia
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Moscow
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Moldova
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Says It Would Leave CIS Only After Becoming EU Candidate". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2018-01-25. Retrieved 2018-01-29.  ^ "Сведения о ратификации документов, принятых в рамках СНГ в 1991 – 2014 годах". Commonwealth of Independent States. Retrieved 10 October 2014.  ^ Information and Publish. Department. "CIS Inter-Parliamentary Assembly". Cisstat.com. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "Member Nations of the CIS". CIS Interparliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ http://m.ebrary.net/1043/economics/interparliamentary_assembly ^ " Commonwealth of Independent States
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List #2142 Archived 6 March 2001 at the Wayback Machine., 9 April 1998 ^ Odom, The Collapse of the Soviet Military, p.385-86 ^ Interfax, 22 December 1993, via Zbigniew Brzezinski, Paige Sullivan, ' Russia
Russia
and the Commonwealth of Independent States' CSIS, 1997, p.464 via Google Books ^ SIPRI 1998 Annual, p.18 ^ "CIS chiefs of staff want military integration." RIA Novosti, 3 December 2010. ^ "Free Trade Agreement Between Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, The Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
And The Kyrgyz Republic" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ Russia
Russia
expects the CIS countries to create a free trade zone by yearend, 17 June 2010 ^ CIS Free Trade Agreement comes into force; Baker & McKenzi, Kyiv, Ukraine, Thursday, 18 October 2012, 18 October 2011 ^ CIS leaders sign free trade deal, 19 October 2011 ^ Most CIS states sign free trade zone agreement, 19 October 2011 ^ "Petro Jacyk Program – Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Toronto" (PDF). Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Nazarbayev proposes CIS modernisation, meets EUAU counterparts in Sochi". Astana Calling.  ^ a b Yanukovych: Ukraine
Ukraine
won't join Customs Union, Kyiv Post (27 April 2010) ^ "Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
plan on common economic space". Rbcnews.com. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ " Russia
Russia
expects CIS countries to create free trade area". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook".  ^ "Central Asian Cooperation Organisation". Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "Working group discusses Uzbekistan's accession to EurAsEC". En.rian.ru. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "Collective Security: A Timeline". Centralasia.foreignpolicyblogs.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "Election fraud: How to steal an election". The Economist. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Foreign observers differ in their evaluation of the election in Uzbekistan". Enews.ferghana.ru. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ Alexander Yakovenko, the Spokesman of Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Answers a Russian Media Question Regarding International Observers' Conclusions on Election Results in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Uzbekistan Archived 23 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ CIS Observers Outraged by Deportation of Colleagues ^ Kupchinsky, Roman. "CIS: Monitoring The Election Monitors". Rferl.org. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ a b EU will not condemn the local elections in Ukraine, Razumkov Centre (3 November 2010) ^ Interview: Top U.S. Diplomat Discusses Regional Developments, Abuses, Stalemates, And Cooperation, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (5 November 2010) ^ Ukraine's Ballot Flawed, U.S. Says, The Wall Street Journal
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(4 November 2010) ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine
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External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Commonwealth of Independent States.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commonwealth of Independent States.

CIS Executive Committee Interparliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the CIS Economic Court of the CIS Interstate Statistical Committee of the CIS Charter of the CIS PINR – C.I.S. Struggles for Cohesion RZB Outlook For Commonwealth Of Independent States Food Security in Caucasus and Republic of Moldova
Moldova
(FAO) Kembayev, Zhenis. Legal Aspects of the Regional Integration Processes in the Post-Soviet Area. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2009 (summary and sample pages). Belarus
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131775197 LCCN: n92019874 ISNI: 0000 0001 2159 2250 GND: 2128486-6 SELIBR: 125638 SUDOC: 032278780 BNF: cb12333917h (data) NLA: 3516

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