COCOA SOLIDS are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa
butter is extracted from cacao beans . When sold as an end product, it
may also be called COCOA POWDER or COCOA.
* 1 Physical properties
* 2 Nutrition
* 2.1 Flavonoids
* 3 Safety
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Dutch process cocoa (left) compared to natural cocoa (right)
Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH of 5.3 to 5.8. The processed (alkalized) cocoa powder is darker in color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8 to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves solubility, which is important for beverage product applications. All of these pH values are considered safe for food use.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
ENERGY 954 kJ (228 kcal)
CARBOHYDRATES 57.90 g
FAT 13.70 g
PROTEIN 19.60 g
CALCIUM (13%) 128 mg
IRON (107%) 13.86 mg
MAGNESIUM (141%) 499 mg
MANGANESE (183%) 3.837 mg
PHOSPHORUS (105%) 734 mg
POTASSIUM (32%) 1524 mg
SODIUM (1%) 21 mg
ZINC (72%) 6.81 mg
WATER 3.00 g
CAFFEINE 230 mg
* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium , copper ,
magnesium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium and zinc . All of these
minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either
cocoa butter or cocoa liquor.
Main article: Health effects of chocolate
Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids , a subset of polyphenols . The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Alkalization, also known as Dutch processing , causes its content of flavonoids to be substantially reduced.
Cocoa and cacao powders may contain cadmium , a toxic heavy metal and probable carcinogen . From January 1 2019, the European Union will impose a limit for cadmium in cocoa powders of 0.6 µg per gram of cocoa powder, and 0.8 µg per gram for chocolate with >= 50% total dry cocoa solids. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing 150 pounds (68 kg) and 3 µg for a 75 lb (34 kg) individual. While the U.S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health products, the state of California has established a maximum allowable daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, and requires products containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning on the label. One investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of cadmium per serving gram; five of these products exceeded the proposed EU limit of 0.6 µg per gram.
* ^ A B C Miller, Kenneth B.; Jeffery Hurst, William; Payne, Mark
J.; Stuart, David A.; Apgar, Joan; Sweigart, Daniel S.; Ou, Boxin
(2008). "Impact of Alkalization on the