COCOA SOLIDS are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa
butter is extracted from cacao beans . When sold as an end product, it
may also be called COCOA POWDER or COCOA.
Cocoa solids are a key
ingredient of chocolate , chocolate syrup , and chocolate confections
. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate is cocoa butter. Cocoa
butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate
its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa liquor or cocoa mass is a
paste of roasted cocoa beans with cocoa butter and solids in their
natural proportions. Recipes for chocolate require the addition of
extra cocoa butter to cocoa liquor, leading to a cocoa solids surplus
and thus a relatively cheap supply of cocoa powder. This contrasts
with the earliest European usage of cocoa where, before milk and dark
chocolate was popularized, cocoa powder was the primary product and
cocoa butter was little more than a waste product.
Cocoa solids contain flavanol antioxidants , amounts of which are
reduced if the cocoa is subjected to acid-reducing alkalization.
Health benefits have been attributed to cocoa flavonoids.
* 1 Physical properties
* 2 Nutrition
* 2.1 Flavonoids
* 3 Safety
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
A bowl of cocoa powder
Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH of
5.3 to 5.8. The processed (alkalized) cocoa powder is darker in
color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8
to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves
solubility, which is important for beverage product applications. All
of these pH values are considered safe for food use.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
954 kJ (228 kcal)
(13%) 128 mg
(107%) 13.86 mg
(141%) 499 mg
(183%) 3.837 mg
(105%) 734 mg
(32%) 1524 mg
(1%) 21 mg
(72%) 6.81 mg
* μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
* IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium , copper ,
magnesium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium and zinc . All of these
minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either
cocoa butter or cocoa liquor.
Cocoa solids also contain 230 mg of
caffeine and 2057 mg of theobromine per 100g, which are mostly absent
from the other components of the cocoa bean.
Cocoa solids also
contain clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA).
Health effects of chocolate
Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids , a subset of polyphenols . The
amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and
manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Alkalization, also known as
Dutch processing , causes its content of flavonoids to be
Cocoa and cacao powders may contain cadmium , a toxic heavy metal and
probable carcinogen . From January 1 2019, the European Union will
impose a limit for cadmium in cocoa powders of 0.6 µg per gram of
cocoa powder, and 0.8 µg per gram for chocolate with >= 50% total dry
cocoa solids. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product
must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing
150 pounds (68 kg) and 3 µg for a 75 lb (34 kg) individual. While
the U.S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health
products, the state of California has established a maximum allowable
daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, and requires products
containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning
on the label. One investigation by an independent consumer testing
laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa
powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of
cadmium per serving gram; five of these products exceeded the proposed
EU limit of 0.6 µg per gram.
* ^ A B C Miller, Kenneth B.; Jeffery Hurst, William; Payne, Mark
J.; Stuart, David A.; Apgar, Joan; Sweigart, Daniel S.; Ou, Boxin
(2008). "Impact of Alkalization on the
Antioxidant and Flavanol
Content of Commercial Cocoa Powders". Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry. 56 (18): 8527–8533. PMID 18710243 . doi
* ^ A B C Steinberg, F. M.; Bearden, M. N.; Keen, C. L. (2003).
"Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular
health". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (2):
215–223. PMID 12589329 . doi :10.1053/jada.2003.50028 . Retrieved
November 9, 2011.
* ^ Materials Handled Cocoa Powder: Overview. Retrieved: 2 April
* ^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference,
Release 24, (2011)".
* ^ Sanbongi, Chiaki; Osakabe, Naomi; Natsume, Midori; Takizawa,
Toshio; Gomi, Shuichi; Osawa, Toshihiko (1998). "Antioxidative
Polyphenols Isolated from
Theobroma cacao". Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry. 46 (2): 454–457. PMID 10554262 . doi
* ^ Arlorio, Marco; Locatelli, Monica; Travaglia, Fabiano;
Coïsson, Jean-Daniel; Del Grosso, Erika; Minassi, Alberto (2008).
"Roasting impact on the contents of clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA) and
the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans (
Theobroma cacao L.)". Food
Chemistry. 106 (3): 967–975. doi :10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.009 .
* ^ A B "Product Review: Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolate, Extracts,
Nibs, & Supplements". ConsumerLab.com. ConsumerLab.com LLC. 17 May
2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ "
Chocolate Terms". Thenibble.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
* ^ "Amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum
levels of cadmium in foodstuff". 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
* ^ "Quality of natural health products guide". Retrieved 22 August
* ^ "Proposition 65 Maximum Allowable Daily Level (MADL) for
Reproductive Toxicity for
Cadmium (Oral Route)" (PDF). Retrieved 22
* ^ Schardt, David (1 July 2014). "What to Eat: Are Cocoa and
Chocolate a Reliable Source of Flavanols?". NutritionAction.com.
Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ Heid, Markham (August 2014). "Cocoa Powders Found To Contain A
Toxic Metal". Retrieved 8 August 2016.