Coastal erosion
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Coastal erosion is the loss or displacement of land, or the long-term removal of
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. F ...

sediment
and rocks along the
coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body ...
due to the action of
waves The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES (for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), was the women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve during World War II World War II or the S ...
,
currents Currents or The Current may refer to: Science and technology * Current (fluid), the flow of a liquid or a gas ** Air current, a flow of air ** Ocean current, a current in the ocean *** Rip current, a kind of water current ** Current (stream), c ...
,
tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple gravity model of two tidal bulges; at most places however, the Moon and tides have a phase shift. Tides are the rise and fall of sea level ...

tide
s, wind-driven water, waterborne ice, or other impacts of storms.Ueberman, A.S. and O'Neill Jr, C.R., 1988. ''Vegetation use in coastal ecosystems.'' ''Cornell Cooperative Extension Information Bulletin 198'', Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 32 pp.''New York Coastal Erosion Hazard Areas Act of 1981''.Gibb, J. G., 1978. ''Rates of coastal erosion and accretion in New Zealand.'' ''New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research'', 12(4): 429–456. The landward retreat of the shoreline can be measured and described over a temporal scale of tides, seasons, and other short-term cyclic processes.Stephenson, W., 2013, ''Coastal Erosion.'' in Bobrowsky, P.T., ed., pp. 94–96. ''Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards'', Springer Dordrecht, New York, New York. 1135 pp. Coastal erosion may be caused by
hydraulic Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has ch ...

hydraulic
action, abrasion, impact and
corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide of rutile Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is the most common natural form of TiO2. Other rare ...
by wind and water, and other forces, natural or unnatural. On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which typically result in landforms such as
tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube constructio ...

tunnel
s,
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...

bridge
s,
column A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression (physical), compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is ...
s, and
pillars A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression (physical), compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is ...
. Over time the coast generally evens out. The softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, and rock formations are eroded away. Also erosion commonly happens in areas where there are strong winds, loose
sand Sand is a granular Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in granules or grains A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of th ...

sand
, and soft rocks. The blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates a
sandblasting Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics ...
effect. This effect helps to erode, smooth and polish rocks. The definition of erosion is grinding and wearing away of rock
surfaces Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension">damask.html" ;"title="Water droplet lying on a damask">Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension is high enough to prevent floating below the textile. A surface, as the term is most gener ...
through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles. According to the IPCC,
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level rose by . More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an a ...

sea level rise
caused by
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
will increase coastal erosion worldwide, significantly changing the coasts and low-lying coastal areas.


Coastal processes


Hydraulic action

Hydraulic actionHydraulic action is the erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles. This includes ...
occurs when waves striking a
cliff upEurope's highest cliff, Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping location for jumpers from around the world.">BASE_jumping.html" ;"title="Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping">Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping location f ...
face compress air in cracks on the cliff face. This exerts pressure on the surrounding rock, and can progressively splinter and remove pieces. Over time, the cracks can grow, sometimes forming a
cave A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil Soil (often stylized as SOiL) is an American rock b ...
. The splinters fall to the sea bed where they are subjected to further wave action.


Attrition

Attrition Attrition may refer to *Attrition warfare, the military strategy of wearing down the enemy by continual losses in personnel and material **War of Attrition, fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970 **War of attrition (game), a model of aggr ...
occurs when waves cause loose pieces of rock debris (
scree Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces. Landforms associated with these materials are often call ...

scree
) to collide with each other, grinding and chipping each other, progressively becoming smaller, smoother and rounder. Scree also collides with the base of the cliff face, chipping small pieces of rock from the cliff or have a
corrasion Corrasion is a geomorphology, geomorphological term for the process of mechanical erosion of the earth's surface caused when materials are transported across it by running water, waves, glaciers, wind or gravitational movement downslope. An exampl ...
(abrasion) effect, similar to sandpapering.


Solution

Solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent. In chemistry ...
is the process in which acids contained in sea water will dissolve some types of rock such as chalk or limestone.


Abrasion

Abrasion, also known as
corrasion Corrasion is a geomorphology, geomorphological term for the process of mechanical erosion of the earth's surface caused when materials are transported across it by running water, waves, glaciers, wind or gravitational movement downslope. An exampl ...
, occurs when waves break on cliff faces and slowly erode it. As the sea pounds cliff faces it also uses the scree from other wave actions to batter and break off pieces of rock from higher up the cliff face which can be used for this same wave action and attrition.


Corrosion

Corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide of rutile Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is the most common natural form of TiO2. Other rare ...
or solution/chemical weathering occurs when the sea's (anything below pH 7.0) corrodes rocks on a cliff face.
Limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphism (materials science), crystal forms of calcium carbonate (). Limestone forms ...

Limestone
cliff faces, which have a moderately high pH, are particularly affected in this way. Wave action also increases the rate of reaction by removing the reacted material.


Factors that influence erosion rates


Primary factors

The ability of
waves The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES (for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), was the women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve during World War II World War II or the S ...
to cause
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
of the
cliff upEurope's highest cliff, Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping location for jumpers from around the world.">BASE_jumping.html" ;"title="Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping">Troll Wall in Norway, a famous BASE jumping location f ...
face depends on many factors. The
hardness Hardness (antonym: softness) is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation hardness, indentation or abrasion (mechanical), abrasion. In general, different materials differ in their hardne ...
(or inversely, the
erodibilityErodability (or erodibility) is the inherent yielding or nonresistance of soils and rocks to erosion In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as Surface runoff, water flow or wind) that removes soil, Rock (geology), rock ...
) of sea-facing rocks is controlled by the
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
strength and the presence of
fissures {{Unreferenced, date=December 2009 In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισ ...
,
fractures Fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid. If a displa ...
, and beds of non-cohesive materials such as
silt Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay and composed mostly of broken grains of quartz. Silt may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension (chemistry), suspension with water. Silt usually ...
and fine
sand Sand is a granular Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in granules or grains A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of th ...

sand
. The rate at which cliff fall
debris Debris (, ) is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc. Depending on context, ''debris'' can ...
is removed from the depends on the power of the waves crossing the
beach File:YBF 2010 - Bikini Bar perjantaina.jpg, A summer tourism at the Yyteri Beach in Pori, Finland. A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles. The particles composing a beach are typically made from Ro ...

beach
. This energy must reach a critical level to remove material from the debris lobe. Debris lobes can be very persistent and can take many years to completely disappear. Beaches dissipate wave energy on the foreshore and provide a measure of protection to the adjoining land. The stability of the foreshore, or its resistance to lowering. Once stable, the foreshore should widen and become more effective at dissipating the wave energy, so that fewer and less powerful waves reach beyond it. The provision of updrift material coming onto the foreshore beneath the cliff helps to ensure a stable beach. The adjacent
bathymetry Bathymetry (pronounced ) is the study of underwater depth of ocean floors or lake floors. In other words, bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to hypsometry or topography. The name comes from Greek language, Greek βαθύς (''bathus''), "de ...

bathymetry
, or configuration of the seafloor, controls the wave energy arriving at the coast, and can have an important influence on the rate of cliff erosion. Shoals and bars offer protection from wave erosion by causing storm waves to break and dissipate their energy before reaching the shore. Given the dynamic nature of the seafloor, changes in the location of shoals and bars may cause the locus of beach or cliff erosion to change position along the shore. Coastal erosion has been greatly affected by the rising sea levels globally. There has been great measures of increased coastal erosion on the Eastern seaboard of the United States. Locations such as Florida have noticed increased coastal erosion. In reaction to these increases Florida and its individual counties have increased budgets to replenish the eroded sands that attract visitors to Florida and help support its multibillion-dollar tourism industries. File:Erodedcliffpacifica.jpg,
Pacifica, California Pacifica (; es, Pacífica; "Peaceful"), is a city in San Mateo County, California, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north t ...

Pacifica, California
coast after major storms in 1997 (resulting from the strongest
El Niño El Niño (; ) is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the Tropics, tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affectin ...
on record) destroyed the houses shown above. File:BeachErosionCabrillo.jpg, Beach erosion at
Cabrillo National Monument Cabrillo National Monument ( es, Monumento nacional Cabrillo) is at the southern tip of the Point Loma Peninsula in San Diego, California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents acr ...
, California. File:BeachErosionTP.jpg, Large-scale coastal erosion at
Torrey Pines State Reserve Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve is 2,000 acres of coastal state park located in the community of La Jolla, California, La Jolla, in San Diego, California, off North Torrey Pines Road. Although it is located within San Diego city limits, it remai ...

Torrey Pines State Reserve
, California. File:Coastal-erosion-inland.jpg, Coastal erosion at
Torrey Pines State Reserve Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve is 2,000 acres of coastal state park located in the community of La Jolla, California, La Jolla, in San Diego, California, off North Torrey Pines Road. Although it is located within San Diego city limits, it remai ...

Torrey Pines State Reserve
, California, resulted in the necessary relocation of a scenic overlook. File:Daniabeach-coastal erosion 10-04-2017.jpg, Coastal erosion during a
king tide A king tide is an especially high spring tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple gravity model of two tidal bulges; at most places however, the Moon and tides have a phase ...
, Dania Beach, Florida File:Cromer Coastal Erosion.jpg, Erosion of cliffs on the
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Norfolk
coast.


Secondary factors

* Weathering and transport slope processes * Slope hydrology * Vegetation * Cliff foot erosion * Cliff foot sediment accumulation * Resistance of cliff foot sediment to attrition and transport * Human Activities


Tertiary factors

* Resource extraction * Coastal management


Control methods

There are three common forms of coastal erosion control methods. These three include: soft-erosion controls, hard-erosion controls, and relocation.


Hard-erosion controls

Hard-erosion control methods provide a more permanent solution than soft-erosion control methods.
Seawall A seawall (or sea wall) is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approx ...

Seawall
s and
groynes A groyne (in the U.S. groin), built perpendicular to the shore, is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore (in coastal engineering Coastal engineering is a branch of civil engineering concerned with the specific demands posed by ...

groynes
serve as semi-permanent infrastructure. These structures are not immune from normal wear-and-tear and will have to be refurbished or rebuilt. It is estimated the average life span of a seawall is 50–100 years and the average for a groyne is 30–40 years. Because of their relative permanence, it is assumed that these structures can be a final solution to erosion. Seawalls can also deprive public access to the beach and drastically alter the natural state of the beach. Groynes also drastically alter the natural state of the beach. Some claim that groynes could reduce the interval between beach nourishment projects though they are not seen as a solution to beach nourishment. Other criticisms of seawalls are that they can be expensive, difficult to maintain, and can sometimes cause further damage to the beach if built improperly. As we learn more about hard erosion controls it can be said for certain that these structural solutions cause more problems than they solve. They interfere with the natural water currents and prevent sand from shifting along coasts, along with the high costs to install and maintain them, their tendency to cause erosion in adjacent beaches and dunes, and the unintended diversion of stormwater and into other properties. Natural forms of hard-erosion control include planting or maintaining native vegetation, such as
mangrove A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics The tropics are the region of E ...

mangrove
forests and
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a vert ...

coral
reefs.


Soft-erosion controls

Soft erosion strategies refer to temporary options of slowing the effects of erosion. These options, including
Sandbag A sandbag or dirtbag is a bag or sack made of hessian (burlap), polypropylene or other sturdy materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification A fortification is a militar ...
and
beach nourishment upright=1.2, Beach nourishment device Beach nourishment (also referred to as beach renourishment, beach replenishment, or sand replenishment) describes a process by which sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down ...
, are not intended to be long-term solutions or permanent solutions. Another method, beach scraping or beach bulldozing allows for the creation of an artificial dune in front of a building or as means of preserving a building foundation. However, there is a U.S. federal moratorium on beach bulldozing during turtle nesting season, 1 May – 15 November. One of the most common methods of soft erosion control is beach nourishment projects. These projects involve dredging sand and moving it to the beaches as a means of reestablishing the sand lost due to erosion. In some situations, beach nourishment is not a suitable measure to take for erosion control, such as in areas with sand sinks or frequent and large storms.
Dynamic revetment Dynamic revetment, also known as a "cobble berm", uses gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-W ...
, which uses loose cobble to mimic the function of a natural storm beach, may be a soft-erosion control alternative in high energy environments such as open coastlines. Over the years beach nourishment has become a very controversial shore protection measure: It has the potential to negatively impact several of the natural resources. Some large issues with these beach nourishment projects are that they must follow a wide range of complex laws and regulations, as well as the high expenses it takes to complete these projects. Just because sand is added to a beach doesn't mean it will stay there. Some communities will bring in large volumes of sand repeatedly only for it to be washed away with the next big storm. Despite these factors, beach nourishment is still used often in many communities. Lately, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers emphasized the need to consider a whole new range of solutions to coastal erosion, not just structural solutions. Solutions that have potential include native vegetation, wetland protection and restoration, and relocation or removal of structures and debris.


Living Shorelines

The solutions to coastal erosion that include vegetation are called “living shorelines.” Living shorelines use plants and other natural elements. Living shorelines are found to be more resilient against storms, improve water quality, increase biodiversity, and provide fishery habitats. Marshes and oyster reefs are examples of vegetation that can be used for living shorelines; they act as natural barriers to waves. Fifteen feet of marsh can absorb fifty percent of the energy of incoming waves.


Relocation

Relocation of infrastructure any housing farther away from the coast is also an option. The natural processes of both absolute and relative
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level rose by . More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an a ...

sea level rise
and erosion are considered in rebuilding. Depending on factors such as the severity of the erosion, as well as the natural landscape of the property, relocation could simply mean moving inland by a short distance or relocation can be to completely remove improvements from an area. Typically, there has been low public support for "retreating." However, if a community does decide to relocate their buildings along the coast it is common that they will then turn the land into public open space or transfer it into land trusts in order to protect it. These relocation practices are very cost-efficient, can buffer storm surges, safeguard coastal homes and businesses, lower carbon and other pollutants, create nursery habitats for important fish species, restore open space and wildlife, and bring back the culture of these coastal communities.


Tracking

Storms can cause erosion hundreds of times faster than normal weather. Before-and-after comparisons can be made using data gathered by manual surveying, laser altimeter, or a GPS unit mounted on an ATV. Remote sensing data such as Landsat scenes can be used for large scale and multi year assessments of coastal erosion.


Examples

A place where erosion of a cliffed coast has occurred is at Wamberal, New South Wales, Wamberal in the Central Coast region of New South Wales where houses built on top of the cliffs began to collapse into the sea. This is due to waves causing erosion of the primarily sedimentary material on which the buildings foundations sit. Dunwich, the capital of the England, English medieval wool trade, disappeared over the period of a few centuries due to redistribution of sediment by waves. Human interference can also increase coastal erosion: Hallsands in Devon, England, was a coastal village washed away over the course of a year, 1917, directly due to earlier dredging of slate, shingle in the bay in front of it. The California coast, which has soft cliffs of sedimentary rock and is heavily populated, regularly has incidents of house damage as cliffs erodes. Devil's Slide (California), Devil's Slide, Santa Barbara, California, Santa Barbara, the coast just north of Ensenada, Baja California, Ensenada, and Malibu, California, Malibu are regularly affected. The Holderness coastline on the east coast of England, just north of the Humber Estuary, is one of the fastest eroding coastlines in Europe due to its soft clay cliffs and powerful waves. Groynes and other artificial measures to keep it under control has only accelerated the process further down the coast, because longshore drift starves the beaches of sand, leaving them more exposed. The white cliffs of Dover have also been affected. The coastline of North Cove, Washington has been eroding at a rate of over 100 feet per year, earning the area the nickname "Washaway Beach." Much of the original town has collapsed into the ocean. The area is said to be the fastest-eroding shore of the United States' West Coast. Measures were finally taken to slow the erosion, with substantial slowing of the process noted in 2018. Fort Ricasoli, a historic 17th century fortress in Malta is being threatened by coastal erosion, as it was built on a fault in the headland which is prone to erosion. A small part of one of the bastion walls has already collapsed since the land under it has eroded, and there are cracks in other walls as well. In El Campello, Spain, the erosion and failure of a Roman fish farm excavated from rock during the first century B.C. was exacerbated by the construction of a close sport harbour. Hampton-On-Sea is suffering from this problem as well. Hampton-On-Sea is located in Kent, England. It was at one time very popular for its oyster fishing and was very reliant on the sea. Hampton-On-Sea has undergone the effects of coastal erosion since before the 1800s. Hampton-On-Sea's coastal erosion worsened with the increase in global warming and climate change. Global warming is causing a rise in sea level, more intense and frequent storms, and an increase in ocean temperature and precipitation levels. Another reason Hampton-On-Sea had such a horrific case of coastal erosion is due to an increase in the frequency and the intensity of storms it experienced. These natural events had destroyed the Hampton Pier, Hernecliffe Gardens, a set of villas, several roads, and many other structures that once lay on Hampton-On-Sea. After this destruction, in 1899 they started building a sea wall to protect the rest of the remaining land and buildings. However, the sea wall didn’t offer much help: buildings continued to be affected by the erosion. Then a storm came and broke the sea wall, it then flooded the land behind it. These events cause many land investors to back out. Eventually, Hampton-On-Sea had to be abandoned because the erosion overtook so much of the land. By 1916 Hampton-On-Sea had been completely abandoned. By the 1920s only a couple of structures still stood. It was at that point that Hampton-On-Sea was said to have been finally drowned. Today only three landmarks have survived the tragedy that Hampton-On-Sea had faced. These landmarks include The Hampton Inn, The Hampton Pier, and a few roads. Although The Hampton Pier is not the same size as the original it is still working as a great place for people to fish. Today The Hampton inn is now a popular little pub known for its delicious food and its beautiful sunset view. To this day they are sharing the history of Hampton-On-Sea with others.


See also

* Beach#Erosion and accretion, Beach erosion and accretion ** Beach evolution ** Beach morphodynamics ** Beach nourishment ** Raised beach ** Modern recession of beaches **Paleoshoreline * Integrated coastal zone management ** Coastal management, to prevent coastal erosion and creation of beach ** Landforms#Coastal and oceanic landforms, Coastal and oceanic landforms ** Coastal development hazards ** Coastal geography ** Coastal engineering ** Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) * Erosion ** Bioerosion ** Blowhole (geology), Blowhole ** Natural arch ** Wave-cut platform * Longshore drift ** Deposition (sediment) ** Coastal sediment supply ** Sand dune stabilization ** Submersion (coastal management), Submersion


References


External links


Sustainable coastal erosion management in Europe
*
Environment Agency guide to coastal erosion


*
Examine an example of wave erosion

Erosion & Flooding in the Parish of Easington

Some interesting teaching resources



US Economic Costs of Coastal Erosion & Inundation
NOAA Economics

*


Images



{{authority control Coastal erosion, Coastal construction Coastal engineering Coastal geography Geomorphology