Coal is mined in every state of in Australia, but mainly in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.[citation needed] About 75% of coal mined in Australia is exported, mostly to eastern Asia,[citation needed] and of the balance most is used in electricity generation. Coal production in Australia increased 13.6% between 2005 and 2010 and 5.3% between 2009 and 2010.[1] In 2015, Australia was the biggest net exporter of coal, with 33% of global exports (392 Mt out of 1,193 Mt total), and was the fourth-highest anthracite producer with 6.6% of global production (509 Mt out of 7,709 Mt total). 77% of production was exported (392 Mt out of 509 Mt total).[2][3]

Coal mining in Australia has been criticized by members of the environmental movement,[4][5] due to carbon dioxide emissions during combustion. This criticism is primarily directed at thermal coal, for its connection to coal-fired power stations as a major source of carbon dioxide emissions, and the link to climate change and the effects of global warming on Australia.[6] The burning of coal for electricity produces 29% of Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions, based on 2013-2014 Clean Energy Regulator data.[7]

The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, which followed the draft report of the Garnaut Climate Change Review, has placed a price on carbon emissions through a reducing cap and trade emissions trading scheme and this would be likely to impact most heavily on brown coal usage within Australia (particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria) for power generation.[citation needed]

Forms of coal

Australian coal is either high-quality bituminous coal (black coal) or lower-quality lignite (brown coal).[citation needed]

Bituminous coal is mined in Queensland and New South Wales, and is used for both domestic power generation and for export. It is mined underground or open-cut before being transported by rail to power stations or export shipping terminals.[citation needed] Bituminous coal was also once transported to other Australian states for power generation and industrial boilers.[citation needed]

Lignite is mined in Victoria and South Australia[citation needed], and is of lower quality due to a lower thermal value largely caused by a high water content.[citation needed] Ash content varies significantly but some Australian lignite have very low ash content.[citation needed] As a result, Victoria adopted German power station and briquette technology in the 1920s[citation needed] to utilise the lignite reserves of the Latrobe Valley.[citation needed] Today[when?] coal from three open cut lignite coal mines in Victoria is used for baseload power generation.[citation needed]

Production, exports and reserves

Australian coal and coke quarterly exports ($Millions) since 1988

In 2008/09, 487 million tonnes of coal was mined, and 261 million tonnes was exported.[8]

In 2009, Australia was the fourth-highest coal producer in the world, producing 335 megatonnes (Mt) of anthracite and 64 Mt of lignite.[9] Australia was the biggest anthracite exporter, with 31% of global exports (262 Mt out of 836 Mt total). 78% of 2009 anthracite production was exported (262 Mt out of 335 Mt total). Australia's global anthracite export share was 14% of all production (836 Mt out of 5,990 Mt total).[10]

In 2011, coal exports were Australia’s second-largest source of export income, after iron ore exports.[11] In 2011, coal exports were worth A$47 billion Australian dollars, or US$47.8 billion, with US$15.6 billion coming from exports of thermal coal for power stations.[11] Coking coal generated A$22.4 billion of export revenue in 2012/13 financial year with thermal coal bringing in A$16.1 billion during the same period.[12]

According to the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences in 2011[13][not in citation given] the economically demonstrated reserves to production ratios for bituminous coal and lignite in Australia are 111 years and 539 years respectively.[citation needed] However, these figures do not account for growth in production.[citation needed] Bituminous coal exports from Australia have been growing at a rate of 5% (on average during the last 20 years).[citation needed] If this rate of growth would-be maintained to extinction all current economically demonstrated black coal in the country would be depleted in under 40 years.[citation needed] However, continued growth at that rate is unlikely to occur for such a long period[citation needed], and this estimate does not reflect growth in the demonstrated resource.[citation needed] Explorations in the last decade has resulted in a significant increase[citation needed] in inferred coal resources which are now almost double the economically demonstrated resource.[14][not in citation given]

In 2010-11, Australia was the fifth largest producer of coal, and by proportion exported, and was the second largest exporter of coal in the world,[15][not in citation given] with most of the exports going to Japan.[citation needed] Total production of bituminous coal in Australia was 405 million tonnes (Mt.), down from 471 Mt. in 2009-10.[citation needed] The drop was largely as a result of the Queensland floods of January 2011 where production declined from an expected 200 Mt. to 163 Mt.[16]

In 2013/14, 430.9 million tonnes of coal was mined, of which 375.1 million tonnes was exported.[17] Coal provides fuel for about 69% of electricity production in Australia.[15][not in citation given] The Latrobe Valley in Victoria produced 98.5% of Australia’s total brown coal production of 57.8 Mt, down from 66.7 Mt in 2001-2, none of which was exported.[citation needed]

In 2013, Australia was the world's fifth-largest coal producer, after China, the United States, India, and Indonesia.[citation needed] However, in terms of proportion of production exported, Australia was the world's second largest coal exporter, with exports accounting for roughly 73% of coal production. Indonesia exports about 87% of its coal production.[15][not in citation given]

In 2015, Australia was the biggest net exporter of coal, with 33% of global exports (392 Mt out of 1,193 Mt total). It was still the fourth-highest anthracite producer with 6.6% of global production (509 Mt out of 7,709 Mt total). 77% of production was exported (392 Mt out of 509 Mt total).[2][3]

Major mines

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

The following table lists the major Australian Coal mines.[18][not in citation given]

Mine State Location Ultimate owner Coordinates Type of coal Million tons[clarification needed] mined pa Million tons[clarification needed] exported pa Major buyers Major method
Anglesea VIC Anglesea Alcoa of Australia 38°23′42″S 144°09′58″E / 38.395°S 144.166°E / -38.395; 144.166 (Anglesea) Lignite ? nil Anglesea Power Station Open Cut
Beltana NSW Singleton Xstrata 32°39′22″S 151°07′16″E / 32.656°S 151.121°E / -32.656; 151.121 (Beltana) Thermal 7.6 ? ? Underground
Bengalla NSW Muswellbrook Coal and Allied 32°19′24″S 150°51′29″E / 32.3234°S 150.8581°E / -32.3234; 150.8581 (Bengalla) Thermal ? ? ? Open Cut
Callide QLD Callide (Biloela) Anglo American [1] 24°19′38″S 150°37′04″E / 24.327292°S 150.617906°E / -24.327292; 150.617906 (Callide) Thermal 8.5 ? ? Open Cut
Capcoal QLD Middlemount Anglo American 22°57′50″S 148°33′00″E / 22.964°S 148.55006°E / -22.964; 148.55006 (Capcoal) Hard Coking Coal & PCI 7 ? ? Open Cut & Underground
Dawson QLD Dawson (Moura) Anglo Coal 24°17′46″S 151°06′47″E / 24.296°S 151.113°E / -24.296; 151.113 (Dawson) Soft Coking & Thermal 7 ? ? Open Cut
Drayton NSW Hunter Valley Anglo Coal 32°20′46″S 150°54′40″E / 32.346°S 150.911°E / -32.346; 150.911 (Drayton) Soft Coking & Thermal 7 ? ? Open Cut
Broadmeadows QLD Moranbah BMA 21°44′35″S 147°58′15″E / 21.743°S 147.97077°E / -21.743; 147.97077 (Broadmeadows) Hard Coking Coal 4 ? ? Underground
Blackwater QLD Blackwater BMA 23°42′36″S 147°33′00″E / 23.710°S 147.55006°E / -23.710; 147.55006 (Blackwater) Thermal/Coking 13 ? ? Open Cut
Blair Athol QLD Clermont Rio Tinto 22°41′28″S 147°31′59″E / 22.691°S 147.5331°E / -22.691; 147.5331 (Blair Athol) Thermal 12 ? ? Open Cut
Burton QLD Nebo Peabody Energy Australia 21°34′12″S 148°10′59″E / 21.570°S 148.183°E / -21.570; 148.183 (Burton) Thermal/Coking 4 ? ? Open Cut
Callide QLD Biloela Anglo American 24°19′01″S 150°37′23″E / 24.317°S 150.623°E / -24.317; 150.623 (Callide) ? 4 ? ? Open Cut
Collinsville QLD Collinsville Xstrata 20°29′31″S 147°47′02″E / 20.492°S 147.784°E / -20.492; 147.784 (Collinsville) Thermal/Coking 5 ? ? Open Cut
Coppabella QLD Coppabella Peabody Energy Australia 21°50′56″S 148°25′59″E / 21.849°S 148.433°E / -21.849; 148.433 (Coppabella) ? 7 ? ? Open Cut
Curragh QLD Blackwater Wesfarmers 23°28′30″S 148°51′43″E / 23.475°S 148.862°E / -23.475; 148.862 (Curragh) Thermal/Coking 7 ? ? Open Cut
Goonyella/Riverside QLD Moranbah BMA 21°43′48″S 147°58′44″E / 21.730°S 147.979°E / -21.730; 147.979 (Goonyella/Riverside) Hard Coking Coal 11 ? ? Open Cut/Underground
Griffin Coal WA Collie LANCO Infratech 33°21′32″S 116°09′11″E / 33.359°S 116.153°E / -33.359; 116.153 (Griffin) Bitumous 5 nil Bluewaters Power, Synergy Power Open Cut
Hail Creek QLD Nebo Rio Tinto Coal Australia (RTCA) 21°29′06″S 148°22′05″E / 21.485°S 148.368°E / -21.485; 148.368 (Hail Creek) Hard Coking Coal 4.5 all ? Open Cut
Jellinbah QLD Bluff, Queensland Jellinbah Group 23°30′15″S 148°52′59″E / 23.504168°S 148.88307°E / -23.504168; 148.88307 (Jellinbah) PCI and Soft Coking 4.6 4.6 Various steelmakers - Japan, China, India and Brazil Open Cut
Lake Vermont QLD Dysart, Queensland Jellinbah Group 22°26′58″S 148°25′21″E / 22.449491°S 148.422491°E / -22.449491; 148.422491 (Lake Vermont) Hard Coking Coal and PCI 8.0 8.0 Various steelmakers - Japan, China, India and Brazil Open Cut
Loy Yang VIC Traralgon Loy Yang Power 38°15′07″S 146°34′26″E / 38.252°S 146.574°E / -38.252; 146.574 (Loy Lang) Lignite ? nil Loy Yang Power Station Open Cut
Moorvale QLD Moranbah Peabody Energy Australia 21°59′24″S 148°21′14″E / 21.990°S 148.354°E / -21.990; 148.354 (Moorvale) Thermal/PCI ? ? ? Open Cut
Mount Arthur Coal (MAC) NSW Muswellbrook BHP Billiton 32°20′01″S 151°52′36″E / 32.3335°S 151.87667°E / -32.3335; 151.87667 (Mount Arthur) Thermal 15 12 ? Open Cut
Mount Thorley Warkworth (MTW) NSW Singleton Coal & Allied 32°37′30″S 151°05′24″E / 32.625°S 151.090°E / -32.625; 151.090 (Mount Thorley) Thermal/Coking ? ? ? Open Cut
Moranbah North QLD Moranbah Anglo American 21°52′26″S 147°57′50″E / 21.874°S 147.964°E / -21.874; 147.964 (Moranbah North) Hard Coking Coal 4.5 ? ? Underground
Morwell VIC Morwell Engie Energy International 38°16′22″S 146°23′30″E / 38.272705°S 146.391662°E / -38.272705; 146.391662 (Morwell) Lignite 20 nil Hazelwood Power Station,
Energy Brix
Open Cut
Norwich Park QLD Dysart BMA 22°46′48″S 148°28′48″E / 22.78°S 148.480°E / -22.78; 148.480 (Norwich Park) Soft Coking Coal 6 all ? Open Cut
Newlands QLD Glenden Xstrata 21°12′43″S 147°53′24″E / 21.212°S 147.890°E / -21.212; 147.890 (Newlands) Thermal/Coking 12 ? ? Open Cut & Underground
Peak Downs QLD Moranbah BMA 22°14′13″S 148°00′43″E / 22.237°S 148.012°E / -22.237; 148.012 (Peak Downs) Hard Coking Coal 13 all ? Open Cut
Saraji QLD Dysart BMA 22°21′43″S 148°17′24″E / 22.362°S 148.290°E / -22.362; 148.290 (Saraji) Hard Coking Coal 7.5 all ? Open Cut
Ulan NSW Ulan via Mudgee Xstrata 32°14′38″S 149°44′56″E / 32.244°S 149.749°E / -32.244; 149.749 (Ulan) Thermal 5 ? ? Open Cut & Underground
Wesfarmers Premier Coal WA Collie Wesfarmers 33°24′40″S 116°14′20″E / 33.411°S 116.239°E / -33.411; 116.239 (Wesfarmers) Bitumous 3.5 nil Synergy Power Open Cut
Yallourn VIC Yallourn EnergyAustralia 38°10′42″S 146°20′21″E / 38.1784°S 146.3391°E / -38.1784; 146.3391 (Yallourn) Lignite ? nil Yallourn Power Station Open Cut
Bulga Coal NSW Singleton Oakbridge Group (Managed by Xstrata Coal) 32°39′S 151°04′E / 32.65°S 151.07°E / -32.65; 151.07 (Bulga) Thermal/Coking 10.8 All Japan, Nippon Steel, Nippon Oil Open Cut

Major export markets for Australian coal

Major Export Markets For Australian Coal (2014)[19]
Country/Area Million Tons Coking Million Tons Steaming Million Tons Total Rank % of exports
Japan 42.0 77.7 119.7 1 30.9
China 46.3 47.1 93.4 2 24.1
Korea (ROK) 20.4 34.4 54.8 3 14.1
India 40.1 6.7 46.8 4 12.1
Other 28.2 14.5 42.7 5 11.0
Taiwan 9.4 20.5 29.9 6 7.7

Major coal export ports

The Port of Newcastle, New South Wales, is the world's largest and most efficient coal handling operation through its two terminals: Carrington and Kooragang. Australia has nine major coal-export ports,[20] including:

Major Australian Coal Export Ports
Port State Million Tons
Million Tons
Newcastle[21] NSW 92.8 91.4
Hay Point[22] QLD 82.4 80.4
Gladstone[23] QLD 56.2 54.1
Abbot Point[22] QLD 14.4 12.5
Port Kembla[24] NSW 13.7 13.3
Brisbane[23] QLD 6.3 5.5
Total 265.8 257.2

Major coal mining companies

Major Australian coal mining companies)[25]
Company Total coal mined
(million tons (Mtpa))
Main mines
Anglo American Metallurgical Coal Ltd 32.00 a. Anglo Coal Callide Mine, Queensland b. Anglo Coal Capcoal Mine Via Middlemount Middlemount QLD c. Anglo Coal Dartbrook Mine PO Box 517 Muswellbrook NSW 2333 d. Anglo Coal Drayton Mine PMB 9 Muswellbrook NSW e. Anglo Coal Foxleigh Mine PO Box 21 Middlemount QLD f. Anglo Coal Grasstree Mine Via Middlemount Private Mail Bag Middlemount QLD g. Anglo Coal Moranbah North Mine PO Box 172 Moranbah QLD h Dawson mine, one of Queensland’s leading export coal operations, is owned by the Moura Joint Venture, comprising Anglo Coal Australia Pty Ltd (51%) and Mitsui Coal Holdings Pty Ltd (49%)
Bloomfield Collieries Pty Ltd 0.88 Bloomfield at East Maitland and Rix’s Creek at Singleton
BHP Billiton - Hunter Valley Energy Coal 15.0 Mount Arthur Coal, Muswellbrook, Hunter Valley NSW[26]
BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Coal Operations Pty Ltd 58.0 a. Blackwater b.Broadmeadow Mine c. Goonyella Riverside d. Gregory Crinum e. Peak Downs Mine f. Saraji Mine g. South Walker Creek Mine h. Poitrel Mine is situated south-east of the town of Moranbah i. Hay Point Coal Terminal, located 38 km south of Mackay
Centennial Coal Company Ltd 20.0 Newstan, Awaba (Closed), Myuna, Mandalong, Mannering, Angus Place, Springvale, Charbon, Berrima, Clarence, Cooranbong (Closed), Munmorah (Closed)
Coalpac Pty Ltd 1.20 Cullen Valley Mine located in the Western Coalfield of New South Wales, Australia
Cornwall Coal Company 0.725 NE Tasmania
Enhance Place Pty Ltd 0.20 Colliery near Lithgow, NSW
Ensham Resources Pty Ltd 9.0 Pits A,B,C & D either side of the Nogoa River - referred to as the ‘Ensham Project’ - and the ‘Yongala’ pit, which is located approximately 5 km to the north of the main Ensham operation
Felix Resources Limited 3.90 a. Singleton in the Hunter Valley b. Central Queensland’s Bowen Basin c. Emerald in Queensland’s Bowen Basin d. The Moolarben coal project is a world class coal asset located 40 km east of Mudgee in the Upper Hunter Valley e.Harrybrandt exploration project, near Nebo in Queensland’s Bowen Basin
Foxleigh Joint Venture Central Queensland
Yancoal Australia 14.00 Donaldson, Gloucester Basin, Monash, Middlemount, Yarrabee, Ashton, Moolarben, Austar
Idemitsu Australia Resources Pty Ltd 8.00 western Bowen Basin
BHPBilliton Illawarra Coal 8.00 Appin, Westcliff & Dendrobium Collieries in the Illawarra and Wollondilly regions south of Sydney, New South Wales
Jellinbah Group Pty Ltd 8.60 Jellinbah and Lake Vermont Mines in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland
Lithgow Coal Company Pty Ltd 1.00 Cullen Valley Mine located in the Western Coalfield of New South Wales
Macarthur Coal Limited 5.50 Queensland's Bowen Basin
Muswellbrook Coal Company Ltd a. Drayton Mine – is an open-cut coal mine operated by Anglo Coal (Drayton Management) Pty Ltd. It is located approximately 13 kilometres south east of Muswellbrook
New Hope Corporation Ltd 3.92 Acland on the Darling Downs and at Rosewood near Ipswich
Peabody Pacific Pty Ltd 22.00 a.Burton mine is located in the Bowen Basin b. North Goonyella underground and Eaglefield open-cut mines are located at the northern end of the Bowen Basin c. Millennium mine is located near the town of Moranbah in the Bowen Basin d. Wilkie Creek mine is located in the Surat Basin of south-east Queensland e. Wilpinjong mine is located 10 kilometres south-east of Ulan mine and 40 kilometres north-east of Mudgee f.Wambo is one of Peabody's largest operating mines and is located in the Hunter Valley g. Chain Valley is located in the Newcastle coalfield on the southern shore of Lake Macquarie h. Metropolitan is located in the Southern coalfields, about 50 kilometres south of Sydney.
QCoal n/a owns or co-own five mines within the Bowen Basin
Rio Tinto Coal Australia Pty Ltd 5.80 Blair Athol, Hail Creek and Kestrel Mines and is currently constructing the Clermont Mine Project, all in Queensland and in New South Wales, Rio Tinto Coal Australia manages Coal & Allied's operations at Mount Thorley Warkworth, Hunter Valley Operations and Bengalla
Vale 8.00 (a) Integra Coal, Hunter Valley, open cast and underground mines, 61.2% owned by Vale. (b) Carborough Downs Mine, Central Queensland, underground longwall mine owned 80% by Vale. (c) Isaac Plains Joint Venture, Central Queensland, open cast mine owned 50% by Vale.
Wesfarmers Coal Ltd 2.16 a. Curragh mine in Queensland’s Bowen Basin b. Premier Coal mine at Collie in Western Australia’s south west c. Bengalla mine in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales
Whitehaven Coal Mining Pty Ltd 1.00 Gunnedah Region of New South Wales
Xstrata Coal Pty Ltd 29.30 a. Westside, New South Wales, Australia b. West Wallsend, New South Wales Australia c. Bulga, New South Wales d. Beltana, New South Wales e. Narama, New South Wales f.Mangoola, Hunter Valley, New South Wales g.Mount Owen - The Mount Owen Complex consists of the Mount Owen, Ravensworth East and Glendell open cut coal mines h.Ravensworth, New South Wales i.Ulan Coal m. Baal Bone, New South Wales j. Cumnock, New South Wales k. Narama, New South Wales

Environmental impacts

The Australian community is understandably concerned about any mining activity that could place private or public property or valuable landscapes at risk.[citation needed] The coal industry claims however that extensive rehabilitation of areas mined helps to ensure that land capability, after coal mining, meets agreed and appropriate standards.[27]

Coal is the principal fossil fuel used in power generation not only in Australia but in many other countries. Links between coal mining, coal burning, and climate change are being discussed widely in Australia.[28][29]

On 27 November 2006 the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales judge Justice Nicola Pain made the decision to set aside the Director-General's acceptance of the Environmental Assessment for the Anvil Hill coal mine[citation needed], on the grounds that it did not include a comprehensive greenhouse gas assessment, even though the proposed mining of coal was for export. However, on 7 June 2007 the planning minister for NSW Frank Sartor reversed this decision and approved the mine, attaching a list of 80 conditions to the mines operation including conservation offsets.[30]

Environmental regulation of coal mining

Commonwealth law

The main Commonwealth environmental laws potentially applicable to coal mining are the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 EPBC Act and the Clean Energy Act 2011. The EPBC Act will only be triggered if a proposed action is likely to have a significant impact on a matter of national environmental significance, for example federally listed threatened species.

State laws

New South Wales

Relevant laws are mining law, land use planning law, biodiversity law and water law.

Pollution law

Coal mining requires a pollution control ('environment protection') licence under the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 (NSW) if it exceeds the following thresholds set out in Schedule 1 of the Act: if it is mining, processing or handling of coal (including tailings and chitter) at underground mines or open cut mines and (a) it has a capacity to produce more than 500 tonnes of coal per day, or (b) it has disturbed, is disturbing or will disturb a total surface area of more than 4 hectares of land by: (i) clearing or excavating, or (ii) constructing dams, ponds, drains, roads, railways or conveyors, or (iii) storing or depositing overburden or coal (including tailings and chitter).[31]


Clean coal technologies

The Federal Government has, as part of its pledge to mitigate global warming,[32] committed A$100 million to commission a climate change-fighting "clean coal" and carbon sequestration research institute to make Australia a leader in this emerging technology. Carbon sequestration technology is not expected to be commercially viable for at least 5 to 10 years,[33] but the Federal Labor government argues that it is a vital technology given Australia's reliance on coal-fired electricity.[34] The merits of "clean coal" have been highly disputed by some technical experts[35] and environment awareness groups.[36]

See also


  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2011 October 2011
  2. ^ a b IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2016 (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2016. p. 15. 
  3. ^ a b "Key Coal Trends. Excerpt from: Coal information" (PDF). Information Energy Agency (IEA). 2016-01-01. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  4. ^ Coal and Coal Seam Gas. The Greens NSW. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  5. ^ Greens Queensland. (13 April 2010). Upper Hunter Valley coal mining shows dangers for Queensland Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Media Release. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  6. ^ Preston, B.L. and Jones, R.N Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. CSIRO. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  7. ^ "Is 'clean coal' power the answer to Australia's emissions targets?". 25 January 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  8. ^ "Australia Mineral Statistics 2009- June Quarter" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  9. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Pages: 15
  10. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Pages:15
  11. ^ a b Reuters (5 September 2012). "New Frontier in Australian Mining Under Threat". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Matt Chambers (28 April 2014). "More mines to shut as coal woes deepen". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Energy in Australia - 2011 Archived 16 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. ABARES. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  14. ^ Australian Energy Resource Assessment Archived 26 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Chapter 5: Coal. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  15. ^ a b c WCA (September 2014). "Coal Statistics". Today in Energy. World Coal Association. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "High cost of floods confirmed". Queensland Resources Council. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  17. ^ "September 2015 - Resources and Energy Quarterly" (PDF). Australia Office of the Chief Economist. September 2015. pp. 44, 56. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  18. ^ Australian Coal Association. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  19. ^ "Coal in India 2015" (PDF). Australia Office of the Chief Economist. June 2015. p. 80. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  20. ^ Minerals Council of Australia, Australia's Coal Industry - Ports and Transport
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2010. 
  22. ^ a b http://www.transport.qld.gov.au/resources/file/eb3e0c4a36b1d25/Pdf_port_of_abbot_point_cape_flattery.pdf[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ a b http://www.transport.qld.gov.au/resources/file/eb3dff4a36695d1/Pdf_coal_metals.pdf
  24. ^ Trade & Cargo. Port Kembla Port Corporation. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  25. ^ Members. Australian Coal Association. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  26. ^ (24 July 2009). BHP Billiton Approves Expansion Of Mt Arthur Coal Mine. BHP Billiton. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  27. ^ Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Coal Mining Archived 7 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ (1 December 2006). Australian coal mine blocked over climate impact. New Scientist. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  29. ^ Scott Bevan (2 November 2006). "Climate concerns fuel coal mine opposition campaign". 7:30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  30. ^ "NSW Govt approves Anvil Hill coal mine". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  31. ^ Protection Of The Environment Operations Act 1997 - Schedule 1. New South Wales Consolidated Acts. AustLII. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  33. ^ "Fact check: Can clean coal technology halve emissions within 5 years?". ABC News. Australia. 14 November 2014. 
  34. ^ "Kevin Rudd's $100m clean coal plan". The Australian. 19 September 2008. 
  35. ^ Meigs, James B. (14 July 2011). "The Myth of Clean Coal: Analysis". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  36. ^ "Top 5 "Clean Coal" Myths". Coal is dirty. 

External links