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Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig;[1] c. 466 – 27 November 511)[2] was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.[3] He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian
Merovingian
dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian
Merovingian
king of the Salian Franks, and Basina, a Thuringian princess. In 481, at the age of fifteen,[4] Clovis succeeded his father. In what is now northern France, then northern Gaul, he took control of a rump state of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
controlled by Syagrius
Syagrius
at the Battle of Soissons (486), and by the time of his death in 511 he had also conquered smaller Frankish kingdoms towards the northeast, the Alemanni to the east, and Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania
Aquitania
to the south. Clovis is important in the historiography of France
France
as "the first king of what would become France".[5] His name is Germanic, composed of the elements hlod ("fame") and wig ("combat"), and is the origin of the later French given name Louis, borne by 18 kings of France. Dutch, the most closely related modern language to Frankish, reborrowed the name as Lodewijk from German in the 12th century.[6] In modern German the name became Ludwig. Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Catholicism
Catholicism
in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day
Christmas Day
in 508.[7] The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism
Catholicism
(as opposed to the Arianism
Arianism
of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples, to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium
Belgium
and Germany, and three centuries later to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great
Otto I the Great
to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

1 Frankish consolidation 2 Baptism 3 Roman Law 4 Later years and death 5 Legacy 6 Ancestry 7 References 8 External links

Frankish consolidation[edit] Numerous small Frankish kingdoms existed during the 5th century. The Salian Franks
Franks
were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, and then in 375 in Toxandria, roughly the current province of North Brabant
North Brabant
in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium. This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. Later, Chlodio
Chlodio
seems to have attacked westwards from this area to take control of the Roman populations in Tournai, then southwards to Artois, and Cambrai, eventually controlling an area stretching to the Somme river. Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, and was known as king of the Franks
Franks
that fought as army within northern Gaul. In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths
Visigoths
in Orléans. Childeric died in 481 and was buried in Tournai; Clovis succeeded him as king, aged just 15. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda
Belgica Secunda
and were subordinate to the magister militum.[8]

Conquests of Clovis between 481 and 511

The Franks
Franks
of Clovis came to dominate their neighbours, initially aided by the association with Aegidius. Clovis turned against the Roman commanders, however, defeating the Gallo-Roman ruler, and Syagrius
Syagrius
the son of Aegidius, in the Battle of Soissons
Soissons
(486), considered the end of Western Roman rule outside of Italy.[9] According to Gregory of Tours, following the Battle of Vouillé, the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Anastasius I granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis's name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship. Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
recorded the systematic campaigns following Vouillé to eliminate the other Frankish "reguli", or sub-kings, including the Ripuarian king Sigobert the Lame and his son Chlodoric the Parricide; Chararic; and Clovis's kinsmen, Ragnachar of Cambrai, his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rignomer. Clovis became the first king of all Franks
Franks
in 508,[citation needed]. Another victory followed in 491 over a small group of Thuringians to the east.[citation needed] He secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. With the help of the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
he narrowly defeated the Alamanni
Alamanni
in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496. He made Paris
Paris
his capital[10] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine.[11]

Clovis I
Clovis I
leading the Franks
Franks
to victory in the Battle of Tolbiac, in Ary Scheffer's 19th-century painting

In 500 Clovis fought a battle with the Burgundian kingdom at Dijon
Dijon
but was unable to subdue them. He gained the support of the Armoricans (Alans, Gallo Romans, Britons) in the following years, for they assisted him in defeating the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse
Toulouse
in the Battle of Vouillé
Battle of Vouillé
in 507, eliminating Visigothic power in Gaul. The battle added most of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
to Clovis's kingdom[10] and resulted in the death of the Visigothic king Alaric II. Baptism[edit] Clovis was born a pagan but later became interested in converting to Arian Christianity, whose followers believed that Jesus was a distinct and separate being from God the Father, both subordinate to and created by Him. This contrasted Nicene Christianity, whose followers believe that God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit are three persons of one being (consubstantiality). While the theology of the Arians was declared a heresy at the First Council of Nicea
First Council of Nicea
in 325, the missionary work of Bishop Ulfilas
Ulfilas
converted the pagan Goths to Arian Christianity in the 4th century. By the time of the ascension of Clovis, Gothic Arians dominated Christian Gaul, and Catholics were in the minority. Clovis's wife Clotilde, a Burgundian princess, was a Catholic despite the Arianism
Arianism
that surrounded her at court.[12] Her persistence eventually persuaded Clovis to convert to Catholicism, which he initially resisted. Clotilde
Clotilde
had wanted her son to be baptized, but Clovis refused, so she had the child baptized without Clovis's knowledge. Shortly after his baptism, their son died, which further strengthened Clovis's resistance to conversion. Clotilde
Clotilde
also had their second son baptized without her husband's permission, and this son became ill and nearly died after his baptism.[13] Clovis eventually converted to Catholicism
Catholicism
following the Battle of Tolbiac
Battle of Tolbiac
on Christmas Day
Christmas Day
508[14][15] in a small church in the vicinity of the subsequent Abbey of Saint-Remi
Abbey of Saint-Remi
in Reims; a statue of his baptism by Saint
Saint
Remigius can still be seen there. The details of this event have been passed down by Gregory of Tours, who recorded them many years later in the 6th century. The king's Catholic baptism was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of Gaul. Catholicism offered certain advantages to Clovis as he fought to distinguish his rule among many competing power centers in Western Europe. His conversion to the Roman Catholic form of Christianity served to set him apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths
Visigoths
and the Vandals, who had converted from Germanic paganism to Arian Christianity. His embrace of the Roman Catholic faith may have also gained him the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul
Gaul
in 507 and resulted in a great many of his people converting to Catholicism
Catholicism
as well.[16] On the other hand, Bernard Bachrach has argued that his conversion from Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. In the interpretatio romana, Saint
Saint
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[17] William Daly, more directly assessing Clovis's allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[18] ignored the Gregory of Tours version and based his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint
Saint
Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops and Theodoric. Clovis and his wife were buried in the Abbey of St Genevieve
Abbey of St Genevieve
(St. Pierre) in Paris; the original name of the church was the Church of the Holy Apostles.[19]

Frankish territories at the time of Clovis's death

Roman Law[edit] Main article: Lex Salica Under Clovis, the first codification of the Salian Frank law took place. The Roman Law was written with the assistance of Gallo-Romans to reflect the Salic legal tradition and Christianity, while containing much from Roman tradition. The Roman Law lists various crimes as well as the fines associated with them.[20] Later years and death[edit]

Tomb of Clovis I
Clovis I
at the Basilica of St Denis
Basilica of St Denis
in Saint
Saint
Denis

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orléans
Orléans
to reform the Church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orléans. Thirty-three bishops assisted and passed 31 decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, the right of sanctuary, and ecclesiastical discipline. These decrees, equally applicable to Franks and Romans, first established equality between conquerors and conquered. Clovis I
Clovis I
is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511; however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513, so the date of his death is not known for certain.[21] After his death, Clovis was laid to rest in the Abbey of St Genevieve
Abbey of St Genevieve
in Paris. His remains were relocated to Saint
Saint
Denis Basilica in the mid- to late-18th century. When Clovis died, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partition created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orléans, Paris
Paris
and Soissons, and inaugurated a tradition that would lead to disunity lasting until the end of the Merovingian
Merovingian
dynasty in 751. The disunity continued under the Carolingians
Carolingians
until, after a brief unity under Charlemagne, the Franks
Franks
splintered into distinct spheres of cultural influence that coalesced around Eastern and Western centers of royal power. These later political, linguistic, and cultural entities became the Kingdom of France, the myriad German States, and the semi-autonomous kingdoms of Burgundy
Burgundy
and Lotharingia. Legacy[edit]

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The legacy of Clovis's conquests, a Frankish kingdom that included most of Roman Gaul
Gaul
and parts of western Germany, survived long after his death.[22] To the French people, he is the founder of France. Detracting, perhaps, from this legacy, is his aforementioned division of the state. This was done not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons after his death. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns.[23] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and Church such that, when the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first. By his conversion to Christianity he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

Images of the King

Battle of Tolbiac. Fresco at the Panthéon
Panthéon
(Paris) by Joseph Blanc, circa 1881.

Saint
Saint
Remigius baptizes Clovis, in a painting of ca 1500

Statue depicting the baptism of Clovis by Saint
Saint
Remigius.

Clovis statue at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis

The Sons of Clovis, by Georges Moreau de Tours
Georges Moreau de Tours
(1877)

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Clovis I

16. Pharamond
Pharamond
(traditional)

8. Clodio
Clodio
(traditional)

17. Argotta (traditional)

4. Merovech
Merovech
(traditional)

9. Basine (traditional)

2. Childeric I

1. Clovis I

6. Basin, King of the Thuringii

3. Basina of Thuringia

7. Basina, a Saxon princess

References[edit] Footnotes

^ Alain de Benoist, Dictionnaire des prénoms, d'hier et aujourd'hui, d'ici et d'ailleurs, p. 294, éd. Jean Picollec, 2009. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Clovis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 563–564.  ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137.  ^ The date 481 is arrived at by counting back from the Battle of Tolbiac, which Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
places in the fifteenth year of Clovis's reign. ^ General Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
is cited (in the biography by David Schœnbrun, 1965), as having said "For me, the history of France begins with Clovis, elected as king of France
France
by the tribe of the Franks, who gave their name to France. Before Clovis, we have Gallo-Roman and Gaulish prehistory. The decisive element, for me, is that Clovis was the first king to have been baptized a Christian. My country is a Christian country and I reckon the history of France beginning with the accession of a Christian king who bore the name of the Franks." (Pour moi, l'histoire de France
France
commence avec Clovis, choisi comme roi de France
France
par la tribu des Francs, qui donnèrent leur nom à la France. Avant Clovis, nous avons la Préhistoire gallo-romaine et gauloise. L'élément décisif pour moi, c'est que Clovis fut le premier roi à être baptisé chrétien. Mon pays est un pays chrétien et je commence à compter l'histoire de France
France
à partir de l'accession d'un roi chrétien qui porte le nom des Francs.) ^ Meertens Instituut, Nederlandse Voornamenbank, Lodewijk. The second element corresponds to Middle High German wîc, with final-obstruent devoicing, as in Ludewic. The Middle Dutch form is wijch (modern Dutch wijg; see WNT, "wijg"), as in original Dutch Hadewig, Hadewijch. ^ Danuta, Shanzer (March 1998). "Dating the baptism of Clovis: the bishop of Vienne vs the bishop of Tours". Early Medieval Europe. 7 (1): 29–57. doi:10.1111/1468-0254.00017. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ Rosenwein, Barbara (2004). A Short History of the Middle Ages. Canada: University of Toronto Press. p. 43.  ^ Frassetto, Michael, Encyclopedia of barbarian Europe, (ABC-CLIO, 2003), p. 126 ^ a b "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate.  ^ The abbey was later renamed Sainte-Geneviève Abbey, in honor of the patron saint of Paris, and was demolished in 1802. All that remains is the "Tour Clovis", a Romanesque tower which now lies within the grounds of the Lycée Henri-IV, just east of The Panthéon, and the parish Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, which was built on the abbey territory. ^ Ian Wood, The Merovingian
Merovingian
Kingdoms, (Longman, 1994), 45. ^ Geary, Patrick (2003). Readings in Medieval History: Gregory of Tours History of the Franks. Canada: Broadview Press Ltd. pp. 145–146.  ^ Danuta, Shanzer (March 1998). "Dating the Baptism of Clovis: The bishop of Vienna vs the bishop of Tours". Early Medieval Europe. 7 (1): 29–57. doi:10.1111/1468-0254.00017. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ Gender and Conversion in the Merovingian
Merovingian
Era, Cordula Nolte, Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages, ed. James Muldoon, (University of Florida Press, 1997), 88 ^ Robinson, J.H. (1905). Readings in European History. Boston. pp. 51–55.  ^ James, Edward (1985) Gregory of Tours: Life of the Fathers. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press; p. 155 n. 12 ^ Daly, William M., "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994:619–664) ^ Geary, Patrick (2003). Readings in Medieval History: Gregory of Tours History of the Franks. Canada: Broadview Press Ltd. p. 153.  ^ Geary, Patrick (2003). Readings in Medieval History:Rome Law. Canada: Broadview Press Ltd. pp. 129–136.  ^ Collins, Roger, Early Medieval Europe ^ Rickard, J (1 January 2013), Clovis I, king of the Franks, r.481-511 ^ "The Rise of the Carolingians
Carolingians
or the Decline of the Merovingians?" (pdf)

Sources

Daly, William M. (1994) "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum, 69:3 (1994), 619–664 James, Edward (1982) The Origins of France: Clovis to the Capetians, 500–1000. London: Macmillan, 1982 Kaiser, Reinhold (2004) "Das römische Erbe und das Merowingerreich", in: Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte; 26. Munich (in German) Oman, Charles (1914) The Dark Ages 476–918. London: Rivingtons Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1962) The Long-haired Kings. London

Clovis I Merovingian
Merovingian
Dynasty Born: 466 Died: November 27 511

Regnal titles

Preceded by Childeric I King of the Salian Franks 481 – c. 509 Conquered Francia

Conquest of Francia King of the Franks c. 509 – 511 Succeeded by Clotaire I in Soissons

Succeeded by Childebert I in Paris

Succeeded by Chlodomer in Orléans

Succeeded by Theuderic I in Reims

Political offices

Preceded by Flavius Ennodius Messala, Areobindus Dagalaiphus Areobindus Consul of the Roman Empire 507 with Anastasius I, Venantius Junior Succeeded by Basilius Venantius, Celer

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clovis I.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Clovis I

v t e

Merovingian
Merovingian
dynasty (400–755 AD)

Childeric I
Childeric I
(457–481) Clovis I
Clovis I
(481–511) Childebert I
Childebert I
(511–558) Chlodomer
Chlodomer
(511–524) Theuderic I (511–533) Theudebert I
Theudebert I
(533–548) Theudebald
Theudebald
(548–555) Chlothar I
Chlothar I
the Old (511–561) Charibert I
Charibert I
(561–567) Guntram
Guntram
(561–592) Sigebert I
Sigebert I
(561–575) Childebert II
Childebert II
(575–595) Theudebert II
Theudebert II
(595–612) Theuderic II (612–613) Sigebert II
Sigebert II
(613) Chilperic I
Chilperic I
(561–584) Chlothar II
Chlothar II
the Great (584–623) Dagobert I
Dagobert I
(623–634) Charibert II
Charibert II
(629–632) Chilperic (632) Sigebert III
Sigebert III
(634–656) Childebert the Adopted
Childebert the Adopted
(656–661) Clovis II
Clovis II
(639–657) Chlothar III
Chlothar III
(657–673) Childeric II
Childeric II
(662–675) Theuderic III
Theuderic III
(675–691) Dagobert II
Dagobert II
(675–679) Clovis IV
Clovis IV
(691–695) Childebert III
Childebert III
the Just (695–711) Dagobert III
Dagobert III
(711–715) Chilperic II
Chilperic II
(715–721) Chlothar IV
Chlothar IV
(717–720) Theuderic IV
Theuderic IV
(721–737) Childeric III
Childeric III
(743–751)

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians
Merovingians
(486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 262645254 LCCN: n80056895 ISNI: 0000 0003 8168 4151 GND: 118675958 SUDOC: 027633454 BNF: cb119633041 (data) BPN: 6305

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