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Egypt essentially has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). The climate is generally extremely dry all over the country except on the northern Mediterranean coast
Mediterranean coast
which receives rainfall in winter. In addition to rarity of rain, extreme heat during summer months is also a general climate feature of Egypt although daytime temperatures are more moderated along the northern coast.

Contents

1 Prevailing wind 2 Sand storms 3 Precipitation 4 Mountainous areas 5 General information 6 See also 7 References

Prevailing wind[edit] The prevailing northwesterly wind from the Mediterranean Sea continuously blows over the northern coast without the interposition of an eventual mountain range and thus, greatly moderates temperatures throughout the year. Because of the effect, average low temperatures vary from 9.5 °C (49.1 °F) in wintertime to 23 °C (73.4 °F) in summertime and average high temperatures vary from 17 °C (62.6 °F) in wintertime to 32 °C (89.6 °F) in summertime. Though temperatures are moderated along the coasts, the situation changes in the interior, which are away from the moderating northerly winds. Thus, in the central and the southern parts, daytime temperatures are hotter, especially in summers where average high temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) like in Aswan, Luxor, Asyut
Asyut
or Sohag
Sohag
which are located in the deserts of Egypt. Sand storms[edit] Every year, sometime from March to May, an extremely hot, dry and dusty wind blows from the south or the southwest. This wind is called khamasīn. When the flow of dry air continuously blows over vast desert regions, it picks up fine sand and dust particles and finally results in a dusty wind which is generally felt in the periphery of the desert. When this wind blows over Egypt, it causes high temperatures to soar temporarily at dangerous levels, usually over 45 °C (113 °F), the relative humidity levels to drop under 5%. The khamasīn causes sudden, early heat waves and the absolute highest temperature records in Egypt. Precipitation[edit] Egypt receives between 20 mm (0.79 in) and 200 mm (7.87 in) of annual average precipitation along the narrow Mediterranean coast, but south to Cairo, the average drops to nearly 0 millimetres (0.00 inches) in the central and the southern part of the country. The cloudiest, rainiest places are in and around Alexandria and Rafah. The sunshine duration is high all over Egypt, ranging from a low of 3,300 hours along the northernmost part in places such as Alexandria
Alexandria
to reach a high of over 4,000 hours farther in the interior, in most of the country. Mountainous areas[edit] Some mountainous locations in Sinai, such as Saint Catherine, have cooler night temperatures, due to their high elevations. It usually snows on the Sinai
Sinai
mountains, but it almost never snows in the cities of Giza, Cairo, and Alexandria. For example, in December 2013, Cairo received a single overnight snowfall for the first time since 1901. General information[edit]

Climate data for Cairo

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31 (88) 34.2 (93.6) 37.9 (100.2) 43.2 (109.8) 47.8 (118) 46.4 (115.5) 42.6 (108.7) 43.4 (110.1) 43.7 (110.7) 41 (106) 37.4 (99.3) 30.2 (86.4) 47.8 (118)

Average high °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 20.4 (68.7) 23.5 (74.3) 28.3 (82.9) 32 (90) 33.9 (93) 34.7 (94.5) 34.2 (93.6) 32.6 (90.7) 29.2 (84.6) 24.8 (76.6) 20.3 (68.5) 27.7 (81.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 14.9 (58.8) 16.9 (62.4) 21.2 (70.2) 24.5 (76.1) 27.3 (81.1) 27.6 (81.7) 27.4 (81.3) 26 (79) 23.3 (73.9) 18.9 (66) 15 (59) 21.38 (70.5)

Average low °C (°F) 9 (48) 9.7 (49.5) 11.6 (52.9) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 20.1 (68.2) 22 (72) 22.1 (71.8) 20.5 (68.9) 17.4 (63.3) 14.1 (57.4) 10.4 (50.7) 15.8 (60.4)

Record low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 3.6 (38.5) 5 (41) 7.6 (45.7) 12.3 (54.1) 16 (61) 18.2 (64.8) 19 (66) 14.5 (58.1) 12.3 (54.1) 5.2 (41.4) 3 (37) 1.2 (34.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 5 (0.2) 3.8 (0.15) 3.8 (0.15) 1.1 (0.043) 0.5 (0.02) 0.1 (0.004) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (0.028) 3.8 (0.15) 5.9 (0.232) 24.7 (0.972)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 mm) 3.5 2.7 1.9 0.9 0.5 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1.3 2.8 14.2

Average relative humidity (%) 59 54 53 47 46 49 58 61 60 60 61 61 56

Mean monthly sunshine hours 213 234 269 291 324 357 363 351 311 292 248 198 3,451

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN) (1971–2000),[1] NOAA
NOAA
for mean, record high and low and humidity[2]

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute for sunshine (1931–1960)[3]

Alexandria

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    53     18 9

    29     19 9

    14     21 11

    3.6     24 13

    1.3     27 17

    0     29 20

    0     30 23

    0.1     30 23

    0.8     30 21

    9.4     28 18

    32     24 14

    53     20 11

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: World Meteorological Organization[4]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.1     65 48

    1.1     67 49

    0.6     70 51

    0.1     75 56

    0.1     80 62

    0     83 69

    0     85 73

    0     87 74

    0     85 70

    0.4     82 64

    1.2     75 58

    2.1     68 51

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Luxor

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0     23 5

    0     25 7

    0     27 10

    0     35 16

    0     39 20

    0     41 23

    0     41 24

    0     40 23

    0     39 21

    1     35 17

    0     29 12

    0     24 7

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Climate Charts[5]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0     73 42

    0     78 45

    0     81 51

    0     95 61

    0     103 68

    0     107 73

    0     106 74

    0     105 74

    0     102 70

    0     96 63

    0     84 53

    0     76 45

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Saint Catherine

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3     14 2

    2     15 2

    4     19 6

    4     24 10

    0     28 14

    0     31 16

    0     32 18

    0     32 18

    0     31 16

    1     26 12

    3     20 7

    4     16 4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Climate Charts[6]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.1     57 35

    0.1     58 36

    0.2     65 42

    0.2     75 50

    0     82 57

    0     88 61

    0     90 64

    0     90 64

    0     87 61

    0     78 54

    0.1     68 45

    0.2     60 39

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Topography map

Snow in Saint Catherine, Sinai
Sinai
Peninsula (1 March 2009)

Notable climatic features [7]

Rafah and Alexandria
Alexandria
are the wettest places Asyut
Asyut
is the driest city Aswan
Aswan
and Luxor
Luxor
are the cities with the hottest summer days Saint Catherine has the coldest nights and coldest winters

Cities or resorts with coolest summer days

Mersa Matruh Port Said

Places with least temperature fluctuation

Port Said Kosseir Ras El Bar Baltim Damietta Alexandria

Wettest places

Rafah Alexandria Abu Qir Rosetta Baltim Kafr El Dawwar Mersa Matruh

Cities or resorts with warmest winter nights

Marsa Alam El Qoseir Sharm El Sheikh

Cities with most temperature fluctuation between days and nights

Luxor Minya Sohag Qena Asyut

See also[edit]

Geography of Egypt

References[edit]

^ "Weather Information for Cairo". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ "Cairo (A) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Egypten - Cairo" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ "World Weather Information Service - Alexandria". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Luxor, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "St. Katrine, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Egypt Climate Index". Climate Charts. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 

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Climate of Africa

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